Presentation on theme: "End of an Age, Beginning of a New Cnuts Sons Harold Harefoot, Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Norman Connection The Rise of Godwin Harold Godwinson England."— Presentation transcript:
End of an Age, Beginning of a New Cnuts Sons Harold Harefoot, Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Norman Connection The Rise of Godwin Harold Godwinson England in 1065 An International Affair Harald Hardrada William of Normandy Tostig Flanders, Rome 1066 and All That England in 1067, 1077, 1087 Normans Felling Trees for the Fleet, 1066; the Bayeux Tapestry
King Cnut, His Wives, His Sons Cnut, r. 1016-35 Continuity of A-S Admin. Military Men (Housecarls) 1 st Wife, Aelfgifu of Northampton 2 nd Wife, Emma of Normandy Widow of Ethelred Unready Contested Succession (Rivalry) Harold Harefoot, r. 1035/7-40 Son of Aelfgifu; Regent for H- cnut Threat of Alfred, Son of Ethelred Harthacnut, r. 1040-2 Son of Emma of Normandy Exhumed, Beheaded Harefoot Died Suddenly at Wedding Encomium Emmae Reginae, 1041/2; BL, Additional MS 33241.
Edward the Confessor, r. 1042-66 Edwards Norman Connection Son of Emma; Brother of Alfred Raised in Normandy; Customs Peaceful; Religious; Generous The Rise of Godwin Earl of Wessex under Cnut Daughter (Edith) Marries Edward Vast Tracts of Land (with 2 sons) Power Rivalry with Edward Edward Names William Heir, 1051 Harold Godwinson Succeeds Father, 1053 Good Terms with Edward Patching up Differences The Sick Praying for Cures at the Tomb of Edward the Confessor
England in 1065 Economics Wealthy Trade; Monetary Socially Urban Markets Englishness (Unity) Governance Efficient Administration Military Forces Local Control/Justice International Position Strong Realm Desired Ally Silver coins from Appledore, Kent; c. 1051/2; The British Museum
A Kingdom Up for Grabs Edward Confessor, d. January 1066 Harold Godwinson, E. Wessex Named Heir at Deathbed Harald Hardrada, K. Norway Deal with Harthacnut, 1038 William the Bastard, D. Normandy Deal with Confessor, 1051 Tostig Godwinson, E. Northumbria Embittered Rival of his Brother Flanders, Rome Count, B-in-Law to Tostig; F-in-Law to William Papal Support for William, Banner
1066 and All That May: Tostig Hits South & East Coasts Summer in Scotland, Malcolm III July: William Waiting for a Wind 7-14k Men; 3k Cavalry Mid-Sept.: Harolds Fyrd Departs Southern Harvest Season Sept. 20: Battle of Fulford Gate; York Northern Earls Defeated Sept. 25: Battle of Stamford Bridge Tostig, Hardrada Dead Sept. 28: William in Sussex; Undefended NB: Distance from Stamford to Hastings
The Battle of Hastings October 14 (20) 6 Miles Northwest Senlac Ridge English Forces Infantry, Housecarls Exhausted, Ill-equipped Norman Forces Cavalry, Archers Fresh, Armored English Position; Tactical Error Harolds Fall; Brothers Fall
The Bayeux Tapestry Completed After Conquest Propaganda Piece Story of 1066 Events and Personalities Visual Document Arms, Apparel, Values The Death of King Harold II
England in 1067, 77, 87 1067 A Foreign King An Exhausted Country 1077 Rebellions Quelled Cities, Castles Built 1087 Administration Advanced Norman Occupation Becoming Norman England William and His Nobles, Armed for Battle BL, Cotton MS Claudius, D. II.