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The British Isles/The Rise of the Franks. Battle for Britain “Barbarians” also invaded Britain By 5 th Century, Rome no longer able to defend Britain.

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Presentation on theme: "The British Isles/The Rise of the Franks. Battle for Britain “Barbarians” also invaded Britain By 5 th Century, Rome no longer able to defend Britain."— Presentation transcript:

1 The British Isles/The Rise of the Franks

2 Battle for Britain “Barbarians” also invaded Britain By 5 th Century, Rome no longer able to defend Britain 577 – Battle of Deorham (Durham), Angles, Saxons and Jutes conquered England, divided up the country 597 – first Archbishop of Canterbury 601 – Ethelred, first Anglo- Saxon king baptized a Christian 8 th -9 th centuries – constant raids by Danes, Britons migrated to Europe

3 St. Patrick 5 th Century Roman Briton At age 16, captured by Irish raiders, held prisoner for 6 years Escapes, returns to Britain Decides to return to Ireland as a missionary Used shamrock to teach Christianity (Trinity) Banished snakes (legend)

4 Rise of Anglo-Saxons

5 Alfred The Great King Ethelred (Wessex) and brother met Danes at Merton, Ethelred killed, Alfred takes throne (871) Alfred “The Great” for unifying England, development of education, churches, monasteries, died in 901

6 Danish Conquest of England 991 – Norwegian Vikings land and plunder coast Ethelred “The Unready” (Anglo-Saxon) married Emma, daughter of Norman duke for military alliance, ordered massacre of all Danes on island (1002) Sweyn invaded, Ethelred fled to Normandy Sweyn dies, Ethelred tried to regain throne against Cnut (Sweyn’s son) but died in London Danish conquest complete

7 English Culture Venerable Bede wrote Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, father of English history, translated Greek and Latin works into English Beowulf – 7 th or 8 th century poem Beowulf is a prince from Geat Sweden, comes to free Danish King Hrothgar from dragon Grendel and mother dragon, helped by friend Wiglaf

8 Frenchifying of England Cnut married Emma Harthacnut, Cnut’s son, made step-brother Edward his heir, Edward was son of Ethelred and Emma Edward “The Confessor” had grown up in Normandy, brought with him French language and culture Started building of Westminster Abbey Appointed all French nobles King jealous of Godwin, Earl of Wessex, deposed him

9 Harold Godwin fled to Flanders Son Harold raised Irish army and attacked Edward Took England easily and Edward gave Godwin all his property back, Harold made Earl of Wessex 1066 – Edward died, Godwin died William of Normandy claimed throne (descended from Ethelred), Edward had earlier promised him throne in return for protection in Normandy William had helped Harold during Edward’s reign But Edward named Harold successor on deathbed Pope Alexander II excommunicated Harold and declared William rightful king of England (first time ever Papacy decided on thrones), blessed William’s invasion

10 Claimants of the English Throne

11 1066, Battle of Hastings While William I invaded from Normandy, Tostig and King Harald Hardrade of Norway came from the north Harold defeated Tostig and Hardrade at Stamford Bridge (Chelsea FC) Harold lost to William at Senlac (near Hastings), Harold got an arrow in the eye, got dismembered William crowned king of England on Christmas Day 1066

12 Death of Harold in Bayeux Tapestry

13 William as ruler Centralized power, seized much land for the crown, established curfews, took hidden money from monasteries Domesday Book – record of who owned what down to the smallest piece of land Replaced English clergy with Normans No papal bull without his approval, he would approve any decisions made by bishops Wife was Matilda He died very fat in 1087 (horse accident) French/English language Serfdom and feudalism became the system

14 Frankish conquests

15 Carolingian Dynasty Followed Merovingian Dynasty (Clovis) – Charles Martel “The Hammer”, illegitimate son of Pepin of Heristal, seized throne from Pepin’s son 732 – Battle of Tours – Martel defeats Umayyad Arabs Merovingians and Carolingians fight for control of Franks 751 – last Merovingian defeated by Pepin the Short, Martel’s son

16 Umayyad Empire

17 Charlemagne Son of Pepin the Short Protected Rome from Lombards 778 Battle of Roncevaux Pass – tried to take advantage of Muslim civil war, attacked by Basques “Song of Roland” – King of Franks after brother Carloman died, conquered Lombards, Bavaria, parts of Spain, Saxons, made himself king of Lombards, harsh military leader Illiterate but good administrator 800 – crowned first Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III

18 Breakup of Carolingians – Louis I “The Pious” forced to abdicate by first three sons 843 Treaty of Verdun - three sons divide up empire: Charles the Bald, Lothair, Louis the German West Francia became modern France: included Brittany, Burgundy, Aquitaine 987 – Carolingian rule over, Capetian line begins with Hugh Capet (elected over last Carolingian Charles)


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