Presentation on theme: "Criminal Justice Today"— Presentation transcript:
1 Criminal Justice Today Welcome to CCJ 3024Criminal Justice SystemsInstructor: Dr. WatkinsGraduate Assistant: Megan MagersCourse Website: pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~rwatkins
2 crime, deviance, and the criminal justice system? Culture and CrimeWhat does our culture contribute to our views and factors associated withcrime, deviance, and the criminal justice system?
3 Culture = perspectives on Crime, Deviance, and the CJ System What is culture?What is the difference between crime and deviance?What is the cause of crime? deviance?How should the CJ system treat criminals?What is Herbert Packer’s Crime Control ModelUnderstand the relationship between theory and practice as a basis for the foundation of our criminal justice system.
4 What is Culture?Defined as the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, language, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought.Culture significantly effects behavioral patterns.
5 Outline Societal Typologies and impact on CJ System History of Crime Criminal Justice System TimelineScope of the SystemFormal vs. Informal Criminal Justice PracticesDue Process vs. Crime ControlWedding CakeCourtroom WorkgroupsPerspectives on JusticeTrends today in CJ
6 Societal Typologies (Durkheim) Mechanistic SolidaritySmall homogeneous societiesBound by traditionBehavior regulated by informal social controlsConsensus perspectiveOrganic SolidarityLarge heterogeneous societiesBound by need to prosperBehavior regulated by formal social controlsConflict perspective5
7 Types of Social Control Formal Social Control regulation of behavior through laws and rulesInformal Social Control regulation of behavior through norms, mores, cultural beliefsGun Control
8 Crime Throughout History Crime is not a recent development, it has existed throughout American history.Crime has evolved along with American society.Family FeudingKu Klux KlanSlave patrolsSlaveryGun Fights RobberyThe Old WestGangs(Gangs of New York, 2002)East Coast Gangs1800sWhite collar crime corruptionCivil WarDepression Era Outlaws
9 The Development of the Criminal Justice System In 1764, Cesare Beccaria urged the importance of using punishment for crime controlIn 1829, the first police agency was created, the London Metropolitan PoliceThe first penitentiary/prison was created in the nineteenth centuryIn 1919, the Chicago Crime Commission was created to monitor the criminal justice system activities.In 1931, Herbert Hoover appointed the National Commission of Law Observation and Enforcement (Wickersham Commission)After a thorough report from the President’s Crime Commission, Congress passed the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of – OJJDP, NIJ, BJA
10 Scope of the CJ SystemCosts federal, state, and local governments roughly $200 billion a year for civil and criminal justice, which represents an increase of more than 300% since 1982.Employs more than 2.4 million peopleIt costs $70,000 to build a prison cell, and about $22,000/year per inmate.While the crime rate has decreased substantially in the last decade, more than 14 million people are still being arrested each year, 2 million of which are serious felony offenses.Today, more than 7 million people are under some form of correctional supervision: 2 million men and women in jail or prison, and 5 million men and women in community supervision.
11 Criminal Justice System Operation Is it Formal (BLACK)Is it Informal (WHITE)Is it some combination thereof (GRAY)
12 The Formal Criminal Justice Process - BLACK PoliceCourtsCorrectionsInitial ContactChargingCorrectional TreatmentInvestigationPreliminary Hearing/Grand JuryReleaseArrestArraignmentPostreleaseCustodyBail/DetentionPlea BargainingTrial/AdjudicationSentencing/DispositionAppeal/Postconviction
13 Due Process Vs. Crime Control Crime Control Model of JusticeASSEMBLY LINEDue Process Model of JusticeOBSTACLE COURSE1. Stopping the criminal behavior is the primary goal.2. The quantity of arrests is more important than the quality of arrests (following the letter of the law).3. Approximates a conveyor belt in that cases are taken rapidly through the entire process. Speed and efficiency are important.4. A mood of guilt pervades the courtroom.5. De-emphasizes the use of the adversarial model in the courtroom.1. Protecting the rights of the accused is the primary goal.2. The quality of arrests is more important than the quantity of arrests.3. Resembles an obstacle course in that each of the rights of accused (due process rights - see the 4, 5th, 6th, and 8th Amendments) must be honored. Fairness is most important.4. The accused is presumed innocent until proven guilty.5. Demands the use of the adversarial method.where do you stand?
14 Think about the context of Society!! During the 1950’s and 1960’s a “Due Process Revolution” took place in the United States Supreme Court.Think about the context of Society!!
15 Supreme Court began to restore to the police some of the freedoms During the 1970’s and 1980’s, theSupreme Court began to restore tothe police some of the freedomsthey had had in the first half ofthe CenturyThink about the context of Society!!
16 The Future of Law Enforcement Crime Control If the future of law enforcement increasingly reflects the principles and policies of the crime control model, then we might expect???More liberty to use intrusive methods to fight crime?
17 The Future of Law Enforcement Due Process On the other hand, if we see a shift to the principles and policies of the due process model, we should expect???More restrictions on police powers?
18 The Future of the Administration of Justice - Courts Crime Control AdvocatesExpanded use of pretrial detentionAppeals strongly discouragedDissolve juvenile systemMove toward alternative dispute resolutionBasis for current systemPlea bargaining alive and wellDue Process AdvocatesPretrial used sparinglyNo limitation on appealsDissolve juvenile system – ensure procedural safeguards as in adult systemMove toward alternative dispute resolutionFuture of system with new administrationPlea bargaining alive and well
19 The Future of Corrections In the area of corrections, crime control is, and will probably remain, the paramount goal, regardless of which model of justice administration dominates in the future.WHY????
20 The Future of Corrections Perhaps the most divisive issue that will confront correctional policy makers in the future is whether increasingly scarce resources should be devoted more to punishment or to rehabilitation.
21 The Future of Corrections Health costs will continue to escalate. Most people knowledgeable about corrections in the U.S. paint a rather bleak picture of the future:The number of citizens under correctional custody will continue to increase.Health costs will continue to escalate.Increasing numbers of offenders will consume increasingly larger budgets.
22 Informal CJ System - White Adversarial vs. Co-optationCJ Wedding CakeCourtroom Workgroup
23 The Wedding Cake Model 1 2 3 4 Celebrity Cases High Profile Felony CasesOrdinary Felony CasesMisdemeanors
24 Courtroom Workgroup Shared Decision making Shared Norms Socialization Reward and SanctionsGoal Modification
25 Perspectives on Justice Crime ControlDue ProcessCriminals lack inhibition against misconductRestraining offenders and preventing their criminal behavior is viewed as a practical goalAdvocates effectiveness and efficiencyAbolish legal roadblocksCriminals rights must be protected at all costStrictly monitor discretion of system officialsAdvocates fair and equitable treatment
26 Perspectives on Justice RehabilitationRestorativeViews system as a means for caring for and treating people who cannot care for themselves.Criminals are victims of social problems.Advocates job training, family counseling, educational services, drug treatment programs, etc.Main goal: Healing victims, offenders, and communities.Enable offender to appreciate the harm caused, to make amends, and reintegrate into society.Advocates financial and community service restitution programs
27 Perspectives on Justice NoninterventionJusticeSystem should limit involvement with defendants.Labeling can create stigmas and self-fulfilling prophecy.Argue that we are “widening the net”Advocate decriminalization of victimless crimes and deinstitutionalizationTwo people committing the same crime, should be treated equally.Criminals should be evaluated on current behavior, not previous record.Advocate reducing discretion and mandatory sentencing.
28 Structure of the Criminal Justice System PoliceCourtsCorrectionsLocal LawEnforcementState CourtsProbationState LawEnforcementFederal CourtsIncarcerationFederal LawEnforcementProsecutors andDefendersCommunity BasedCorrectionsParole
29 Discretion permits justice officials at all levels to makedecisions that will keep thesystem operating.
30 Trends and Issues in Criminal Justice Today Women in prison is growing faster than any other group!From 1980 to 1997 women in state and federal prisons rose 478%
31 Trends and Issues in Criminal Justice Today - Children and Violence Juvenile murder rate up177%Juvenile arrest rate up79%Adult murder rate decreased 7%
32 Trends and Issues in Criminal Justice Today Terrorism
33 Trends and Issues in Criminal Justice Today There are only 3classes in America:Upper classMiddle classCriminal classMedia Distortionof Crime
34 Trends and Issues in Criminal Justice Today The typical criminalprofile is:YoungAfrican-AmericanMaleMedia Distortionof Crime