Presentation on theme: "Welcome to CCJ 3024 Criminal Justice Systems Instructor: Dr. Watkins Graduate Assistant: Megan Magers Course Website: pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~rwatkins Welcome."— Presentation transcript:
Welcome to CCJ 3024 Criminal Justice Systems Instructor: Dr. Watkins Graduate Assistant: Megan Magers Course Website: pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~rwatkins Welcome to CCJ 3024 Criminal Justice Systems Instructor: Dr. Watkins Graduate Assistant: Megan Magers Course Website: pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~rwatkins
What does our culture contribute to our views and factors associated with crime, deviance, and the criminal justice system?
What is culture? What is the difference between crime and deviance? What is the cause of crime? deviance? How should the CJ system treat criminals? What is Herbert Packers Crime Control Model Understand the relationship between theory and practice as a basis for the foundation of our criminal justice system.
Defined as the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, language, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. Culture significantly effects behavioral patterns.
Societal Typologies and impact on CJ System History of Crime Criminal Justice System Timeline Scope of the System Formal vs. Informal Criminal Justice Practices Due Process vs. Crime Control Wedding Cake Courtroom Workgroups Perspectives on Justice Trends today in CJ 5
Mechanistic Solidarity Small homogeneous societies Bound by tradition Behavior regulated by informal social controls Consensus perspective Organic Solidarity Large heterogeneous societies Bound by need to prosper Behavior regulated by formal social controls Conflict perspective 5
Formal Social Control regulation of behavior through laws and rules Informal Social Control regulation of behavior through norms, mores, cultural beliefs Gun Control
Crime is not a recent development, it has existed throughout American history. Crime has evolved along with American society. Unit Slavery Slave patrols Ku Klux Klan Family Feuding The Old West Gun Fights Robbery Gangs 1800s East Coast Gangs (Gangs of New York, 2002) Civil War White collar crime corruption Depression Era Outlaws
Unit In 1764, Cesare Beccaria urged the importance of using punishment for crime control In 1829, the first police agency was created, the London Metropolitan Police The first penitentiary/prison was created in the nineteenth century In 1919, the Chicago Crime Commission was created to monitor the criminal justice system activities. In 1931, Herbert Hoover appointed the National Commission of Law Observation and Enforcement (Wickersham Commission) After a thorough report from the Presidents Crime Commission, Congress passed the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of – OJJDP, NIJ, BJA
Costs federal, state, and local governments roughly $200 billion a year for civil and criminal justice, which represents an increase of more than 300% since Employs more than 2.4 million people It costs $70,000 to build a prison cell, and about $22,000/year per inmate. While the crime rate has decreased substantially in the last decade, more than 14 million people are still being arrested each year, 2 million of which are serious felony offenses. Today, more than 7 million people are under some form of correctional supervision: 2 million men and women in jail or prison, and 5 million men and women in community supervision. 10
Is it Formal ( BLACK ) Is it Informal ( WHITE ) Is it some combination thereof ( GRAY ) Unit
Unit PoliceCourtsCorrections Initial ContactChargingCorrectional Treatment InvestigationPreliminary Hearing/ Grand Jury Release ArrestArraignmentPostrelease CustodyBail/Detention Plea Bargaining Trial/Adjudication Sentencing/Disposition Appeal/Postconviction
Crime Control Model of Justice ASSEMBLY LINE Due Process Model of Justice OBSTACLE COURSE 1. Stopping the criminal behavior is the primary goal. 2. The quantity of arrests is more important than the quality of arrests (following the letter of the law). 3. Approximates a conveyor belt in that cases are taken rapidly through the entire process. Speed and efficiency are important. 4. A mood of guilt pervades the courtroom. 5. De-emphasizes the use of the adversarial model in the courtroom. adversarial model 1. Protecting the rights of the accused is the primary goal. 2. The quality of arrests is more important than the quantity of arrests. 3. Resembles an obstacle course in that each of the rights of accused (due process rights - see the 4, 5th, 6th, and 8th Amendments) must be honored. Fairness is most important.4, 5th, 6th, and 8th Amendments 4. The accused is presumed innocent until proven guilty. 5. Demands the use of the adversarial method. where do you stand?
Unit Think about the context of Society!!
Unit During the 1970s and 1980s, the Supreme Court began to restore to the police some of the freedoms they had had in the first half of the Century Think about the context of Society!!
If the future of law enforcement increasingly reflects the principles and policies of the crime control model, then we might expect??? The Future of Law Enforcement Crime Control More liberty to use intrusive methods to fight crime?
On the other hand, if we see a shift to the principles and policies of the due process model, we should expect??? More restrictions on police powers? The Future of Law Enforcement Due Process
Crime Control Advocates Expanded use of pretrial detention Appeals strongly discouraged Dissolve juvenile system Move toward alternative dispute resolution Basis for current system Plea bargaining alive and well The Future of the Administration of Justice - Courts Due Process Advocates P retrial used sparingly No limitation on appeals Dissolve juvenile system – ensure procedural safeguards as in adult system Move toward alternative dispute resolution Future of system with new administration Plea bargaining alive and well
In the area of corrections, crime control is, and will probably remain, the paramount goal, regardless of which model of justice administration dominates in the future. The Future of Corrections WHY????
The Future of Corrections Perhaps the most divisive issue that will confront correctional policy makers in the future is whether increasingly scarce resources should be devoted more to punishment or to rehabilitation.
The Future of Corrections Most people knowledgeable about corrections in the U.S. paint a rather bleak picture of the future: The number of citizens under correctional custody will continue to increase. Health costs will continue to escalate. Increasing numbers of offenders will consume increasingly larger budgets.
Unit Adversarial vs. Co-optation CJ Wedding Cake Courtroom Workgroup
Unit Celebrity Cases High Profile Felony Cases Ordinary Felony Cases Misdemeanors 1234 The Wedding Cake Model The Wedding Cake Model
Unit Shared Decision making Shared Norms Socialization Reward and Sanctions Goal Modification
CRIME CONTROL Criminals lack inhibition against misconduct Restraining offenders and preventing their criminal behavior is viewed as a practical goal Advocates effectiveness and efficiency Abolish legal roadblocks DUE PROCESS Criminals rights must be protected at all cost Strictly monitor discretion of system officials Advocates fair and equitable treatment Unit
REHABILITATION Views system as a means for caring for and treating people who cannot care for themselves. Criminals are victims of social problems. Advocates job training, family counseling, educational services, drug treatment programs, etc. RESTORATIVE Main goal: Healing victims, offenders, and communities. Enable offender to appreciate the harm caused, to make amends, and reintegrate into society. Advocates financial and community service restitution programs Unit
NONINTERVENTION System should limit involvement with defendants. Labeling can create stigmas and self- fulfilling prophecy. Argue that we are widening the net Advocate decriminalization of victimless crimes and deinstitutionalization JUSTICE Two people committing the same crime, should be treated equally. Criminals should be evaluated on current behavior, not previous record. Advocate reducing discretion and mandatory sentencing. Unit
Unit Police Local Law Enforcement State Law Enforcement Federal Law Enforcement Courts State Courts Federal Courts Prosecutors and Defenders Corrections Probation Incarceration Community Based Corrections Parole
Unit Discretion permits justice officials at all levels to make decisions that will keep the system operating. Discretion permits justice officials at all levels to make decisions that will keep the system operating.
Unit Women in prison is growing faster than any other group! From 1980 to 1997 women in state and federal prisons rose 478% Women in prison is growing faster than any other group! From 1980 to 1997 women in state and federal prisons rose 478%
Unit Juvenile murder rate up 177% Juvenile arrest rate up 79% Adult murder rate decreased 7%
Unit Trends and Issues in Criminal Justice Today Media Distortion of Crime Media Distortion of Crime There are only 3 classes in America: Upper class Upper class Middle class Middle class Criminal class Criminal class
Unit Trends and Issues in Criminal Justice Today Media Distortion of Crime Media Distortion of Crime The typical criminal profile is: Young Young African-American African-American Male Male