48LEQHow do we propagate a softwood & semihardwood cutting?
49Asexual reproductionTo produce clones of plants that do not produce seeds & are difficult to grow from seeds
50CuttingsLeaves or pieces of stems or roots used for propagating a plantVarious kindsRequire same conditions to grow as seedlings with added light
51CuttingsRoot formation simulated because of interruption of carbohydrates, hormones & other materials from leaves & growing tipsRooting hormones used to aid in root formation
52Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Taken after current season’s growth has partially maturedWood should be bendyActive terminal growth
53Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Find parent 2-6 inches of new growthMake sure plant full of waterCut in morning (most moisture)Immediately place in bucket of water
54Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Made when leaves on themLeaves help keep cutting right side upCut at 45* angle on bottom, straight at top
55Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Made when leaves on themLeaves help keep cutting right side upCut at 45* angle on bottom, straight at topTake back to table
56Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Flat, pot or container 4 inches deep with holes in bottomSterile medium½ perlite & ½ sphagnum mossMedium variesSoak medium night before
57Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Make 3-4 inch cutting from stem or shootVery sharp knife/pruning shearsInclude 2-3 buds on each cuttingTreat with proper concentration of rooting hormone (fungicide included)
58Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Cutting immediately placed in rooting medium to ½ its length, no more then 2 inches deepLABEL CUTTING!!
59Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Keep humidity very high (Transpiration)Plastic bag to controlNo direct sunlightTug gently after time to see if rooting begun, leave for 7-10 more days if not
60Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Hardening off- prepare for transplantingOpen plastic a little each dayWhen completely open, water as normal, fertilizer at 1/4th strengthReady to be transplanted after 14 days
61Herbaceous CuttingsMade from succulent greenhouse plants – geranium, chrysanthemum, coleus, carnation, swedish ivy, wandering jew, begoniaCuttings 3-6 inches long w/leaves on upper to terminal endSame conditions as previous w/bottom heat added
62Choose a plant to propagate: Wandering Jew Jade Plant Begonia Lets Practice!!Choose a plant to propagate:Wandering JewJade PlantBegoniaDemonstrate proper techniques, be sure to label!!
63How do we propagate a softwood & semihardwood cutting? Exit QuestionHow do we propagate a softwood & semihardwood cutting?
81Selecting Hardwood Cuttings From current years growthCut from ends of branches or long shoots from baseCollected once dormantTaken all winter
82Collecting Hardwood Cuttings Use sharp knife or hand prunerLabel6-8 inch cuttings for immediate use or stored in cool moist placeCover with sawdust, sand or peat moss to maintain moistureNot too wet or dry
83Taking Hardwood Cuttings Bottom cut just above a node & top about 1 inch above a node or budBottom cut 45* angle & top 90*
84Storing Hardwood Cuttings Treated with rooting hormone for better growthTied in bundles for storageStored for 6-8 weeks before plantingAllows callus to form- root quicker
85Storing Hardwood Cuttings May be buried in sand containersLow enough temp to prevent growth at topFirst 4 weeks *Lowered to 40* after
86Lining out Hardwood Cuttings Planted outside soon as soil ready in spring (lining out)Prepare soilPlace cutting in soil and firmly surround with soil, careful not to put too much pressure on
87Lining out Hardwood Cuttings Mulch to retain moistureWatch growth to make sure roots have formedNo extensive care
90Warm-upWhat is different between hardwood and softwood propagation?
91Lesson Essential Question How can we effectively propagate using separation and division?
92SeparationMethod of propagation in which naturally reproductive organs of a plant detach from the parent plant to become new plantsUsually removed during dormant stage
93SeparationBulbs & cormsResponisble for food storage & propagation of plantNatural process
94BulbsPlant structure containing many parts but primarily composed of leaf scalesOutside of foliage leaves are bulblets – produce tiny bulbs that grow into bigger bulbs, separated & planted
95BulbsSplits or slabs –first separated1 year- round bulb2 year- second flower bud- double nose- 2 flower stalksRound & double nose sold commercially
96Types of BulbsNo special care or handling- tulip bulb- laminate or tunicate, dry membranous outer scalesLily- loosely scaled, cannot withstand handling- nontunicate or scaly, no tough outer cover
97Bulbs- Propagation Procedure Dug & separated after foliage dies back & plant dormant , stored & planted at correct timeWashed & cleaned before storageEX: narcissus, hyacinth, grape hyacinth, tulip
98Bulbs- Lily Propagation Much slower rateMother bulbs split at base to force production of bulbletsFlowering bulbs pulled from ground in late August-mid September, kept moist by sprinkling with water
99Bulbs- Lily Propagation Mid-October, placed 4 inches deep & planted 1 inch apartMoved again in September, planted 6 inches deep & apartThen sold as flowering bulbsShould be 7 inches in circumference
100CormsVery solid, compact stem with nodes & internodesVery short specialized stem for food storageCovering that protects from injury & drying
101Corms- PropagationDevelopment of cormels is means of reproducingForm naturallyWhen dies back, dug up & small cormels separated & grown to larger size
102Propagation by division Method of propagation in which parts of the plant are cut into new sections, each will develop a new plantUse knife or pruners
103RhizomesUnderground stems that grow horizontally and produce roots on the bottom & stems on top
104Rhizomes- Propagation Removed by digging underneath with a garden fork or shovelSoil washed offCut rhizome into sections- make sure each has one eye (bud)
105TubersSwollen end of an underground side shoot or stemDistinguished by eyes- produces separate plant as sprouts, developing a shoot with roots at baseContains stored food for plant until leaves form
106TubersEX: Irish PotatoTo propagate:Cut tubers into pieces, each must contain one eyePlanted same as seeds
107Tuberous RootsThickened roots that contain large amounts of stored foodHave buds at stem end
108Tuberous Roots- Propagation Dividing crown, or cluster of roots, when plant is dormantDug in fall after frost killed top, stored in dry sawdust, peat at * to prevent shriveling or complete drying out
109Tuberous Roots- Propagation In spring, clumps or crowms are cut apart so each has a budNew pieces plantedEX: Sweet potatoAdventitious buds- sporadic & unexpected places, pulled off & planted
110ActivityPlant bulbs correctlyCorrectly separate a plant
112Warm-upWhy is it important to know about bulbs?
113Lesson Essential Question How do we propagate using grafting?
114GraftingTwo different plants are united to become oneScion- newly installed shoot or top of plantRootstock- seedling or plant used as bottom half of the graft
115GraftingGrowing together of tissuesUsed to rapidly increase # of a plant & give stronger, disease- resistant rootsTwo plants must be compatible
116GraftingUsed to:Topwork a large treeInsert a different variety on part of the limbs of a tree for cross pollinationTo propagate plants that may be difficult to bud
117Grafting Requirements Compatibility- must be related to one another, stock & scion grow togetherKnow what families grow best together
118Grafting Requirements Scion wood- 1 year old & vigorous growthTiming- don’t when stock & scion are dormantMatching of tissues- cambium layer, scion & rootstock must have close contact & held tightly together
119Grafting Requirements Waterproofing- all cut surfaces must be covered with grafting wax, plastic or rubber ties
120Whip or Tongue GraftDuring winter monthsSmall materialFruit treesScion should contain 3 budsRoot piece 4-8 inches & small fibrous roots
121Whip or Tongue GraftGrafting cut made below bud on stock, slant at angle, smooth surfaceCut on rootstock should be same= even fitCambium must match growing area at edge of root piece
122Whip or Tongue GraftSecond cut made on first cut surface in reverse direction, 1/3 of distance from tip & nearly parrallel to first cutHalf as long as first cutPieces slipped together w/tongues interlocking
123Whip or Tongue GraftPieces tightly tied together with plastic propagation tape or rubber bud tiesStored in moist sand or peat moss to heal*After *
124Whip or Tongue GraftThen planted in nursery, graft union must be below ground
125Side Veneer GraftEffective way to graft evergreensColorado Spruce grafted w/ blue spruce to obtain shade of blue
126Side Veneer ProcedurePencil sizeMade in early springShallow cut made 1 ½ in long made into one side of seedling rootstockSecond cut made to remove piece of wood
127Side Veneer ProcedureTwo cuts made on scion to shape it so it fits cut made in rootstock.Scion inserted into rootstock. Cambium layers must match at least one sideScion tied tightly in placemulch
128Cleft GraftUsed in topworking trees (grafting to rootstock considerably larger than scion
129Cleft Graft ProcedureRootstock sawed off at right angleRootstock split with heavy knife & hammerSplit help open with wedgeScion cut in a long, smooth wedge shape
130Cleft Graft ProcedureScions placed in rootstock, must make close contact with rootstock for entire distance, must be cut at same slant as the split in the rootstockCambium of both must match
131StentingRosesGrafting selected scion of desired plant onto a piece of stem that produces good roots
132StentingGrafted stems then placed in rooting chamber for healing & roots to formTreated exactly as a semihardwood cutting
136Lesson Essential Question What is the process of budding propagation?
137BuddingForm of graftingSingle bud used instead of scionMany more plants reproduced from same amount of parent woodMore quicklyTime- during active growth
138Budding StepsPlant seeds for seedling rootstockSelect variety of budwood to be propagatedDetermine correct date to budCut budwood, label it, & protect it so does not dry out
139Budding StepsPerform budding processCheck to see if buds takenCut off rootstock above bud the following spring
140T-BuddingSmall 1-2 yr old seedlingsActively growing, disease resistant, & able to give desired growthScion & rootstock must be compatible
141Collecting BudwoodBud sticks, small shoots of current seasons growth, collected on same day to be insertedKept wrapped in waterproof paperVegetative buds necessary for propagationCut all leaves except 1 for handling
142RootstockDeveloped for 1 yr, good sizeMake t-shaped cut to determine if seedling is receptive, if bark separates from wood of stem & is moist and smooth
143Cutting & Inserting Bud Obtain materials1 person makes cut & inserts bud while other person ties securelyT-shaped cut made in the rootstock, corners of bark lifted for easy insertBud cut from bud stick middle portion with shield of back & sliver of wood
144Cutting & Inserting Bud Bud immediately inserted in the T cut until bud shield even w/ top fo T-cutTie area with bud tieEntire area covered, only bud itself exposedInspection in 3 weeks, transplanted in 1-2 yrs
153Lesson Essential Question How do we layer to propagate?
154LayeringAsexual propagation, roots are formed on a stem or root while still attached to the parent plantStem or root to be rooted is called a layerLayer is cut free from parent only after rooting
155Advantages & Disadvantages Simple but time consumingFew plants startedVery high success rateSome plants naturally do this….strawberries, red raspberries, & African Violets
156Simple LayeringBranch from parent bent to ground, partially covered w/ soil.Terminal end exposedEarly springWater liberallyCreate a visual organizer to represent the steps in layering page 123
157Air LayeringProcess that eliminated the burrying part of the parent plantPart of plant is slit or girdled (girdle- completely remove bark & cambium around plant)Surrounded by moist growing medium
158Air LayeringRoots form where plant has been woundedGenerally made in spring on wood of previous yearCreate a visual organizer to represent air layering page
159Other methods of layering Trench layering- mother plant bent to ground & burried in trench, roots form on covered portion of plant, shoots can be separated
160Other methods of layering Stool Layering- begins with planting of rooted layer in soil, parent plant cut back to soil level, stem covered with soil, as shoots grow, more soil is added. Shoots cut & planted in early spring
161Other methods of layering Compound Layering- springtime, very similar to simple layering, except stem covered by soil at 2 or more points along length. Stem girdled at point below ground where new roots will formSeveral plants produced from single stem