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PLANT PROPAGATION Seeds. SLM and KUD Unit Essential Question: How are plants propagated? Lesson Essential Question: What medium is used to propagate seedlings?

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Presentation on theme: "PLANT PROPAGATION Seeds. SLM and KUD Unit Essential Question: How are plants propagated? Lesson Essential Question: What medium is used to propagate seedlings?"— Presentation transcript:

1 PLANT PROPAGATION Seeds

2 SLM and KUD Unit Essential Question: How are plants propagated? Lesson Essential Question: What medium is used to propagate seedlings?

3 SEEDS Break into 3 groups Draw a picture to represent what the cards are trying to explain NO WORDS 20 minutes

4 Greenhouse Log Every time in greenhouse, record & hand in for grade

5 Propagation Propagating= reproducing Most popular method: seeds Sexual process, requires union of pollen and egg From same parent (self-pollination) or separate (cross-pollination

6 Propagation Hybrid- offspring of two cultivars of one plant, each has certain characteristics desired in new plant Do not plant seeds of hybrid

7 Seeds Quick and easy Proper environment & conditions Temperature, moisture, light & medium

8 Treatment for Germination Hard seed coat, soaked or scratched before able to germinate Some require cold rest period below 37*F for 8 wks plus Some must have alternate wet & dry

9 Treatment for Germination Some must have light Some must have dark Follow directions on pack

10 Basic Parts Seed Coat- covering of seed, protects embryonic plant Endosperm- food storage tissue that nourishes during germination Embryo- new plant that developed.

11 Basic Parts

12 Choosing Seeds Choose locally grown Choose tested for that growing season Purchase from reliable dealer Hybrid varieties Heavyweight or primed seeds

13 Choosing Seeds Primed or enhanced to: Activate growth hormones & enzymes Less chance for insects & disease

14 Medium Ideal: good pH, nutrients, porous, uniform in texture, sterile

15 Types of Medium Soil: loam composed of 45% mineral matter, 5% organic matter, 25 % air, 25% water

16 Types of Medium

17 Construction grade sand: more porous Does not hold nutrients

18 Types of Medium

19 Peat moss: partially decomposed vegetation preserved under water. High capacity to hold water. 1% nitrogen, low in phosphorus & potassium

20 Types of Medium

21 Horticultural Grade Perlite: gray- white material of volcanic origin. Expands when heated. Provide good drainage & aeration

22 Types of Medium

23 Vermiculite: light-weight, has pH of 7, high water holding capacity

24 Types of Medium

25 Jiffy mix: equal parts of shredded sphagnum moss, peat, terrlite vermiculite, & nutrients to sustain initial plant growth

26 Types of Medium

27 Medium Usually mix of 1 or more of the previous

28 Testing Medium Create a mix that you think would work good for a seedling. Plant seeds (5) and test it to see what works. Compare with others after 4 weeks.

29 Exit Question Answer the leq: What medium is used to propagate seedlings?

30 PLANT PROPAGATION Types of Seeding

31 Warm-up Why is the germinating medium important?

32 LEQ How do we plant a seed?

33 Indirect seeding Process in which seed is sown in a place separate from where the plants will eventually grow Transplanting happens 1 or 2 more times

34 Indirect seeding Flats: made of plastic, size determined by # of seeds to grow Medium placed in & leveled off ½ to ¾ inch below top of flat Plant seeds in rows

35 Indirect seeding Individual cells in cavity seedling trays Flats made up of many small pots 1-2 seeds per cell, later thinned Transplant with less damage

36 When to seed Seeds must be planted on certain dates so the seedlings are ready for transplanting at the proper time

37 Seed to market chart Using the popular bedding plants we will plant, create a chart to display date planted by to be ready for market sale. 30 minutes

38 Sowing Seeds To plant How to sow? ALWAYS BE SURE TO PLACE A LABEL WITH YOUR NAME & PLANT NAME!!!!

39 Watering Water lightly with watering cans Be careful not to wash out seeds Water from bottom when possible

40 Conditions for Germination Semi shaded area of greenhouse Receive bottom heat Cover with plastic No fertilizer until true leaves have developed

41 Transplanting When true leaves have formed, ready to be transplanted Page 73 & 74 transplanting procedure My procedure

42 Direct Seeding Seeds planted in permanent growing area What plants?

43 Direct Seeding Corn, melons, beans, beets, peas, lettuce, carrots & other veggies

44 Activity Using your chart that you created, what seeds should be planted first? Each student will plant this correctly as taught in this lesson Show me before completing

45 Review How do we plant a seed?

46 PLANT PROPAGATION Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings

47 Warm-up Explain the steps in transplanting.

48 LEQ How do we propagate a softwood & semihardwood cutting?

49 Asexual reproduction To produce clones of plants that do not produce seeds & are difficult to grow from seeds

50 Cuttings Leaves or pieces of stems or roots used for propagating a plant Various kinds Require same conditions to grow as seedlings with added light

51 Cuttings Root formation simulated because of interruption of carbohydrates, hormones & other materials from leaves & growing tips Rooting hormones used to aid in root formation

52 Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Taken after current seasons growth has partially matured Wood should be bendy Active terminal growth

53 Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Find parent 2-6 inches of new growth Make sure plant full of water Cut in morning (most moisture) Immediately place in bucket of water

54 Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Made when leaves on them Leaves help keep cutting right side up Cut at 45* angle on bottom, straight at top

55 Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Made when leaves on them Leaves help keep cutting right side up Cut at 45* angle on bottom, straight at top Take back to table

56 Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Flat, pot or container 4 inches deep with holes in bottom Sterile medium ½ perlite & ½ sphagnum moss Medium varies Soak medium night before

57 Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Make 3-4 inch cutting from stem or shoot Very sharp knife/pruning shears Include 2-3 buds on each cutting Treat with proper concentration of rooting hormone (fungicide included)

58 Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Cutting immediately placed in rooting medium to ½ its length, no more then 2 inches deep LABEL CUTTING!!

59 Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Keep humidity very high (Transpiration) Plastic bag to control No direct sunlight Tug gently after time to see if rooting begun, leave for 7-10 more days if not

60 Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Hardening off- prepare for transplanting Open plastic a little each day When completely open, water as normal, fertilizer at 1/4 th strength Ready to be transplanted after 14 days

61 Herbaceous Cuttings Made from succulent greenhouse plants – geranium, chrysanthemum, coleus, carnation, swedish ivy, wandering jew, begonia Cuttings 3-6 inches long w/leaves on upper to terminal end Same conditions as previous w/bottom heat added

62 Lets Practice!! Choose a plant to propagate: Wandering Jew Jade Plant Begonia Demonstrate proper techniques, be sure to label!!

63 Exit Question How do we propagate a softwood & semihardwood cutting?

64 PLANT PROPAGATION Micropropagation

65 Warm-up Do you think it is easier to make a cutting or to plant a seed? Why?

66 LEQ What is micropropagation and how can we do it successfully?

67 Micropropagation Tissue culture Asexual method using sterilized terminal shoots or lead buds placed on sterile agar gel or other nutrient growing medium Buds or stem tips placed in jar

68 Micropropagation Tiny sprouts start, pulled off with sterile tweezers, placed in new medium in another container to grow roots Harden off as roots develop Many thousand plants exactly like parent

69 Micropropagation Used for orchids Only used for professionals

70 Other types of Softwood Cuttings Leaf Cuttings African Violet cut base of leaf stem, place in rooting medium Pg 87 figure 7-16

71 Other types of Softwood Cuttings Leaf-Bud Cutting Cut from stem with bud, remove wooden shield of stem, cutting placed in rooting medium with bud in soil Pg 87 figure 7-17

72 Other types of Softwood Cuttings Mallet Cutting 2-4 inch piece of 2 year old wood with current season or 1 year old shoot on it Mallet placed horizontally & covered 1 inch with rooting medium

73 Other types of Softwood Cuttings Root Cuttings Any plant that will sprout from root Place root in container, water well, place clear glass/plastic over Page 88 figure 7-19

74 Activity Root spider plant in Greenhouse

75 PLANT PROPAGATION Hardwood Cuttings

76 Warm-up What is important to remember about tissue cultures?

77 Lesson Essential Question How do we propagate hardwood cuttings?

78 Hardwood Cuttings Easiest & least expensive of asexual propagation Prepared in winter Can be shipped long No expensive equipment or storage facility needed

79 Hardwood V. Softwood/semihardwood Time of year Hardness (maturity) Absence of leaves Storage

80 Hardwood Cuttings 6 steps Pg 92 procedure

81 Selecting Hardwood Cuttings From current years growth Cut from ends of branches or long shoots from base Collected once dormant Taken all winter

82 Collecting Hardwood Cuttings Use sharp knife or hand pruner Label 6-8 inch cuttings for immediate use or stored in cool moist place Cover with sawdust, sand or peat moss to maintain moisture Not too wet or dry

83 Taking Hardwood Cuttings Bottom cut just above a node & top about 1 inch above a node or bud Bottom cut 45* angle & top 90*

84 Storing Hardwood Cuttings Treated with rooting hormone for better growth Tied in bundles for storage Stored for 6-8 weeks before planting Allows callus to form- root quicker

85 Storing Hardwood Cuttings May be buried in sand containers Low enough temp to prevent growth at top First 4 weeks * Lowered to 40* after

86 Lining out Hardwood Cuttings Planted outside soon as soil ready in spring (lining out) Prepare soil Place cutting in soil and firmly surround with soil, careful not to put too much pressure on

87 Lining out Hardwood Cuttings Mulch to retain moisture Watch growth to make sure roots have formed No extensive care

88 Activity Propagate 3 hardwood stems Crape Myrtle Forsynthia Dogwood

89 PLANT PROPAGATION Separation & Division

90 Warm-up What is different between hardwood and softwood propagation?

91 Lesson Essential Question How can we effectively propagate using separation and division?

92 Separation Method of propagation in which naturally reproductive organs of a plant detach from the parent plant to become new plants Usually removed during dormant stage

93 Separation Bulbs & corms Responisble for food storage & propagation of plant Natural process

94 Bulbs Plant structure containing many parts but primarily composed of leaf scales Outside of foliage leaves are bulblets – produce tiny bulbs that grow into bigger bulbs, separated & planted

95 Bulbs Splits or slabs –first separated 1 year- round bulb 2 year- second flower bud- double nose- 2 flower stalks Round & double nose sold commercially

96 Types of Bulbs No special care or handling- tulip bulb- laminate or tunicate, dry membranous outer scales Lily- loosely scaled, cannot withstand handling- nontunicate or scaly, no tough outer cover

97 Bulbs- Propagation Procedure Dug & separated after foliage dies back & plant dormant, stored & planted at correct time Washed & cleaned before storage EX: narcissus, hyacinth, grape hyacinth, tulip

98 Bulbs- Lily Propagation Much slower rate Mother bulbs split at base to force production of bulblets Flowering bulbs pulled from ground in late August-mid September, kept moist by sprinkling with water

99 Bulbs- Lily Propagation Mid-October, placed 4 inches deep & planted 1 inch apart Moved again in September, planted 6 inches deep & apart Then sold as flowering bulbs Should be 7 inches in circumference

100 Corms Very solid, compact stem with nodes & internodes Very short specialized stem for food storage Covering that protects from injury & drying

101 Corms- Propagation Development of cormels is means of reproducing Form naturally When dies back, dug up & small cormels separated & grown to larger size

102 Propagation by division Method of propagation in which parts of the plant are cut into new sections, each will develop a new plant Use knife or pruners

103 Rhizomes Underground stems that grow horizontally and produce roots on the bottom & stems on top

104 Rhizomes- Propagation Removed by digging underneath with a garden fork or shovel Soil washed off Cut rhizome into sections- make sure each has one eye (bud)

105 Tubers Swollen end of an underground side shoot or stem Distinguished by eyes- produces separate plant as sprouts, developing a shoot with roots at base Contains stored food for plant until leaves form

106 Tubers EX: Irish Potato To propagate: Cut tubers into pieces, each must contain one eye Planted same as seeds

107 Tuberous Roots Thickened roots that contain large amounts of stored food Have buds at stem end

108 Tuberous Roots- Propagation Dividing crown, or cluster of roots, when plant is dormant Dug in fall after frost killed top, stored in dry sawdust, peat at * to prevent shriveling or complete drying out

109 Tuberous Roots- Propagation In spring, clumps or crowms are cut apart so each has a bud New pieces planted EX: Sweet potato Adventitious buds- sporadic & unexpected places, pulled off & planted

110 Activity Plant bulbs correctly Correctly separate a plant

111 PLANT PROPAGATION Grafting

112 Warm-up Why is it important to know about bulbs?

113 Lesson Essential Question How do we propagate using grafting?

114 Grafting Two different plants are united to become one Scion- newly installed shoot or top of plant Rootstock- seedling or plant used as bottom half of the graft

115 Grafting Growing together of tissues Used to rapidly increase # of a plant & give stronger, disease- resistant roots Two plants must be compatible

116 Grafting Used to: Topwork a large tree Insert a different variety on part of the limbs of a tree for cross pollination To propagate plants that may be difficult to bud

117 Grafting Requirements Compatibility- must be related to one another, stock & scion grow together Know what families grow best together

118 Grafting Requirements Scion wood- 1 year old & vigorous growth Timing- dont when stock & scion are dormant Matching of tissues- cambium layer, scion & rootstock must have close contact & held tightly together

119 Grafting Requirements Waterproofing- all cut surfaces must be covered with grafting wax, plastic or rubber ties

120 Whip or Tongue Graft During winter months Small material Fruit trees Scion should contain 3 buds Root piece 4-8 inches & small fibrous roots

121 Whip or Tongue Graft Grafting cut made below bud on stock, slant at angle, smooth surface Cut on rootstock should be same= even fit Cambium must match growing area at edge of root piece

122 Whip or Tongue Graft Second cut made on first cut surface in reverse direction, 1/3 of distance from tip & nearly parrallel to first cut Half as long as first cut Pieces slipped together w/tongues interlocking

123 Whip or Tongue Graft Pieces tightly tied together with plastic propagation tape or rubber bud ties Stored in moist sand or peat moss to heal * After *

124 Whip or Tongue Graft Then planted in nursery, graft union must be below ground

125 Side Veneer Graft Effective way to graft evergreens Colorado Spruce grafted w/ blue spruce to obtain shade of blue

126 Side Veneer Procedure Pencil size Made in early spring Shallow cut made 1 ½ in long made into one side of seedling rootstock Second cut made to remove piece of wood

127 Side Veneer Procedure Two cuts made on scion to shape it so it fits cut made in rootstock. Scion inserted into rootstock. Cambium layers must match at least one side Scion tied tightly in place mulch

128 Cleft Graft Used in topworking trees (grafting to rootstock considerably larger than scion

129 Cleft Graft Procedure Rootstock sawed off at right angle Rootstock split with heavy knife & hammer Split help open with wedge Scion cut in a long, smooth wedge shape

130 Cleft Graft Procedure Scions placed in rootstock, must make close contact with rootstock for entire distance, must be cut at same slant as the split in the rootstock Cambium of both must match

131 Stenting Roses Grafting selected scion of desired plant onto a piece of stem that produces good roots

132 Stenting Grafted stems then placed in rooting chamber for healing & roots to form Treated exactly as a semihardwood cutting

133 Activity Grafting Video

134 PLANT PROPAGATION Budding

135 Warm-up What are the 3 types of grafting?

136 Lesson Essential Question What is the process of budding propagation?

137 Budding Form of grafting Single bud used instead of scion Many more plants reproduced from same amount of parent wood More quickly Time- during active growth

138 Budding Steps Plant seeds for seedling rootstock Select variety of budwood to be propagated Determine correct date to bud Cut budwood, label it, & protect it so does not dry out

139 Budding Steps Perform budding process Check to see if buds taken Cut off rootstock above bud the following spring

140 T-Budding Small 1-2 yr old seedlings Actively growing, disease resistant, & able to give desired growth Scion & rootstock must be compatible

141 Collecting Budwood Bud sticks, small shoots of current seasons growth, collected on same day to be inserted Kept wrapped in waterproof paper Vegetative buds necessary for propagation Cut all leaves except 1 for handling

142 Rootstock Developed for 1 yr, good size Make t-shaped cut to determine if seedling is receptive, if bark separates from wood of stem & is moist and smooth

143 Cutting & Inserting Bud Obtain materials 1 person makes cut & inserts bud while other person ties securely T-shaped cut made in the rootstock, corners of bark lifted for easy insert Bud cut from bud stick middle portion with shield of back & sliver of wood

144 Cutting & Inserting Bud Bud immediately inserted in the T cut until bud shield even w/ top fo T-cut Tie area with bud tie Entire area covered, only bud itself exposed Inspection in 3 weeks, transplanted in 1-2 yrs

145 Cutting & Inserting Bud Page in book

146 Chip Budding Used for grapes Done when rootstock not in active growth

147 Chip Budding Procedure Pg * cut made in rootstock ¼ of way thru stem Second cut made 1 ½ in above first cut, extending down to meet first Chip produced removed

148 Chip Budding Procedure Bud to be inserted cut from bud stick exactly as chip removed bud is inserted in rootstock & tied with bud tie

149 Chip Budding Care Cut rootstock off just above bud days for spring budding Fall budding, cut rootstock just above bud the following spring, as growth starts

150 Activity Cgh

151 PLANT PROPAGATION Layering

152 Warm-up How do the 2 types of budding differ?

153 Lesson Essential Question How do we layer to propagate?

154 Layering Asexual propagation, roots are formed on a stem or root while still attached to the parent plant Stem or root to be rooted is called a layer Layer is cut free from parent only after rooting

155 Advantages & Disadvantages Simple but time consuming Few plants started Very high success rate Some plants naturally do this….strawberries, red raspberries, & African Violets

156 Simple Layering Branch from parent bent to ground, partially covered w/ soil. Terminal end exposed Early spring Water liberally Create a visual organizer to represent the steps in layering page 123

157 Air Layering Process that eliminated the burrying part of the parent plant Part of plant is slit or girdled (girdle- completely remove bark & cambium around plant) Surrounded by moist growing medium

158 Air Layering Roots form where plant has been wounded Generally made in spring on wood of previous year Create a visual organizer to represent air layering page

159 Other methods of layering Trench layering- mother plant bent to ground & burried in trench, roots form on covered portion of plant, shoots can be separated

160 Other methods of layering Stool Layering- begins with planting of rooted layer in soil, parent plant cut back to soil level, stem covered with soil, as shoots grow, more soil is added. Shoots cut & planted in early spring

161 Other methods of layering Compound Layering- springtime, very similar to simple layering, except stem covered by soil at 2 or more points along length. Stem girdled at point below ground where new roots will form Several plants produced from single stem

162 Activity Layering on plant

163 Review Review for test


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