Presentation on theme: "PLANT PROPAGATION Seeds. SLM and KUD Unit Essential Question: How are plants propagated? Lesson Essential Question: What medium is used to propagate seedlings?"— Presentation transcript:
PLANT PROPAGATION Seeds
SLM and KUD Unit Essential Question: How are plants propagated? Lesson Essential Question: What medium is used to propagate seedlings?
SEEDS Break into 3 groups Draw a picture to represent what the cards are trying to explain NO WORDS 20 minutes
Greenhouse Log Every time in greenhouse, record & hand in for grade
Propagation Propagating= reproducing Most popular method: seeds Sexual process, requires union of pollen and egg From same parent (self-pollination) or separate (cross-pollination
Propagation Hybrid- offspring of two cultivars of one plant, each has certain characteristics desired in new plant Do not plant seeds of hybrid
Seeds Quick and easy Proper environment & conditions Temperature, moisture, light & medium
Treatment for Germination Hard seed coat, soaked or scratched before able to germinate Some require cold rest period below 37*F for 8 wks plus Some must have alternate wet & dry
Treatment for Germination Some must have light Some must have dark Follow directions on pack
Basic Parts Seed Coat- covering of seed, protects embryonic plant Endosperm- food storage tissue that nourishes during germination Embryo- new plant that developed.
Choosing Seeds Choose locally grown Choose tested for that growing season Purchase from reliable dealer Hybrid varieties Heavyweight or primed seeds
Choosing Seeds Primed or enhanced to: Activate growth hormones & enzymes Less chance for insects & disease
Medium Ideal: good pH, nutrients, porous, uniform in texture, sterile
Types of Medium Soil: loam composed of 45% mineral matter, 5% organic matter, 25 % air, 25% water
Types of Medium
Construction grade sand: more porous Does not hold nutrients
Types of Medium
Peat moss: partially decomposed vegetation preserved under water. High capacity to hold water. 1% nitrogen, low in phosphorus & potassium
Types of Medium
Horticultural Grade Perlite: gray- white material of volcanic origin. Expands when heated. Provide good drainage & aeration
Types of Medium
Vermiculite: light-weight, has pH of 7, high water holding capacity
Types of Medium
Jiffy mix: equal parts of shredded sphagnum moss, peat, terrlite vermiculite, & nutrients to sustain initial plant growth
Types of Medium
Medium Usually mix of 1 or more of the previous
Testing Medium Create a mix that you think would work good for a seedling. Plant seeds (5) and test it to see what works. Compare with others after 4 weeks.
Exit Question Answer the leq: What medium is used to propagate seedlings?
PLANT PROPAGATION Types of Seeding
Warm-up Why is the germinating medium important?
LEQ How do we plant a seed?
Indirect seeding Process in which seed is sown in a place separate from where the plants will eventually grow Transplanting happens 1 or 2 more times
Indirect seeding Flats: made of plastic, size determined by # of seeds to grow Medium placed in & leveled off ½ to ¾ inch below top of flat Plant seeds in rows
Indirect seeding Individual cells in cavity seedling trays Flats made up of many small pots 1-2 seeds per cell, later thinned Transplant with less damage
When to seed Seeds must be planted on certain dates so the seedlings are ready for transplanting at the proper time
Seed to market chart Using the popular bedding plants we will plant, create a chart to display date planted by to be ready for market sale. 30 minutes
Sowing Seeds To plant How to sow? ALWAYS BE SURE TO PLACE A LABEL WITH YOUR NAME & PLANT NAME!!!!
Watering Water lightly with watering cans Be careful not to wash out seeds Water from bottom when possible
Conditions for Germination Semi shaded area of greenhouse Receive bottom heat Cover with plastic No fertilizer until true leaves have developed
Transplanting When true leaves have formed, ready to be transplanted Page 73 & 74 transplanting procedure My procedure
Direct Seeding Seeds planted in permanent growing area What plants?
Direct Seeding Corn, melons, beans, beets, peas, lettuce, carrots & other veggies
Activity Using your chart that you created, what seeds should be planted first? Each student will plant this correctly as taught in this lesson Show me before completing
LEQ How do we propagate a softwood & semihardwood cutting?
Asexual reproduction To produce clones of plants that do not produce seeds & are difficult to grow from seeds
Cuttings Leaves or pieces of stems or roots used for propagating a plant Various kinds Require same conditions to grow as seedlings with added light
Cuttings Root formation simulated because of interruption of carbohydrates, hormones & other materials from leaves & growing tips Rooting hormones used to aid in root formation
Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Taken after current seasons growth has partially matured Wood should be bendy Active terminal growth
Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Find parent 2-6 inches of new growth Make sure plant full of water Cut in morning (most moisture) Immediately place in bucket of water
Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Made when leaves on them Leaves help keep cutting right side up Cut at 45* angle on bottom, straight at top
Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Made when leaves on them Leaves help keep cutting right side up Cut at 45* angle on bottom, straight at top Take back to table
Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Flat, pot or container 4 inches deep with holes in bottom Sterile medium ½ perlite & ½ sphagnum moss Medium varies Soak medium night before
Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Make 3-4 inch cutting from stem or shoot Very sharp knife/pruning shears Include 2-3 buds on each cutting Treat with proper concentration of rooting hormone (fungicide included)
Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Cutting immediately placed in rooting medium to ½ its length, no more then 2 inches deep LABEL CUTTING!!
Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Keep humidity very high (Transpiration) Plastic bag to control No direct sunlight Tug gently after time to see if rooting begun, leave for 7-10 more days if not
Softwood & Semihardwood Cuttings Hardening off- prepare for transplanting Open plastic a little each day When completely open, water as normal, fertilizer at 1/4 th strength Ready to be transplanted after 14 days
Herbaceous Cuttings Made from succulent greenhouse plants – geranium, chrysanthemum, coleus, carnation, swedish ivy, wandering jew, begonia Cuttings 3-6 inches long w/leaves on upper to terminal end Same conditions as previous w/bottom heat added
Lets Practice!! Choose a plant to propagate: Wandering Jew Jade Plant Begonia Demonstrate proper techniques, be sure to label!!
Exit Question How do we propagate a softwood & semihardwood cutting?
PLANT PROPAGATION Micropropagation
Warm-up Do you think it is easier to make a cutting or to plant a seed? Why?
LEQ What is micropropagation and how can we do it successfully?
Micropropagation Tissue culture Asexual method using sterilized terminal shoots or lead buds placed on sterile agar gel or other nutrient growing medium Buds or stem tips placed in jar
Micropropagation Tiny sprouts start, pulled off with sterile tweezers, placed in new medium in another container to grow roots Harden off as roots develop Many thousand plants exactly like parent
Micropropagation Used for orchids Only used for professionals
Other types of Softwood Cuttings Leaf Cuttings African Violet cut base of leaf stem, place in rooting medium Pg 87 figure 7-16
Other types of Softwood Cuttings Leaf-Bud Cutting Cut from stem with bud, remove wooden shield of stem, cutting placed in rooting medium with bud in soil Pg 87 figure 7-17
Other types of Softwood Cuttings Mallet Cutting 2-4 inch piece of 2 year old wood with current season or 1 year old shoot on it Mallet placed horizontally & covered 1 inch with rooting medium
Other types of Softwood Cuttings Root Cuttings Any plant that will sprout from root Place root in container, water well, place clear glass/plastic over Page 88 figure 7-19
Activity Root spider plant in Greenhouse
PLANT PROPAGATION Hardwood Cuttings
Warm-up What is important to remember about tissue cultures?
Lesson Essential Question How do we propagate hardwood cuttings?
Hardwood Cuttings Easiest & least expensive of asexual propagation Prepared in winter Can be shipped long No expensive equipment or storage facility needed
Hardwood V. Softwood/semihardwood Time of year Hardness (maturity) Absence of leaves Storage
Hardwood Cuttings 6 steps Pg 92 procedure
Selecting Hardwood Cuttings From current years growth Cut from ends of branches or long shoots from base Collected once dormant Taken all winter
Collecting Hardwood Cuttings Use sharp knife or hand pruner Label 6-8 inch cuttings for immediate use or stored in cool moist place Cover with sawdust, sand or peat moss to maintain moisture Not too wet or dry
Taking Hardwood Cuttings Bottom cut just above a node & top about 1 inch above a node or bud Bottom cut 45* angle & top 90*
Storing Hardwood Cuttings Treated with rooting hormone for better growth Tied in bundles for storage Stored for 6-8 weeks before planting Allows callus to form- root quicker
Storing Hardwood Cuttings May be buried in sand containers Low enough temp to prevent growth at top First 4 weeks- 50-55* Lowered to 40* after
Lining out Hardwood Cuttings Planted outside soon as soil ready in spring (lining out) Prepare soil Place cutting in soil and firmly surround with soil, careful not to put too much pressure on
Lining out Hardwood Cuttings Mulch to retain moisture Watch growth to make sure roots have formed No extensive care
Warm-up What is different between hardwood and softwood propagation?
Lesson Essential Question How can we effectively propagate using separation and division?
Separation Method of propagation in which naturally reproductive organs of a plant detach from the parent plant to become new plants Usually removed during dormant stage
Separation Bulbs & corms Responisble for food storage & propagation of plant Natural process
Bulbs Plant structure containing many parts but primarily composed of leaf scales Outside of foliage leaves are bulblets – produce tiny bulbs that grow into bigger bulbs, separated & planted
Bulbs Splits or slabs –first separated 1 year- round bulb 2 year- second flower bud- double nose- 2 flower stalks Round & double nose sold commercially
Types of Bulbs No special care or handling- tulip bulb- laminate or tunicate, dry membranous outer scales Lily- loosely scaled, cannot withstand handling- nontunicate or scaly, no tough outer cover
Bulbs- Propagation Procedure Dug & separated after foliage dies back & plant dormant, stored & planted at correct time Washed & cleaned before storage EX: narcissus, hyacinth, grape hyacinth, tulip
Bulbs- Lily Propagation Much slower rate Mother bulbs split at base to force production of bulblets Flowering bulbs pulled from ground in late August-mid September, kept moist by sprinkling with water
Bulbs- Lily Propagation Mid-October, placed 4 inches deep & planted 1 inch apart Moved again in September, planted 6 inches deep & apart Then sold as flowering bulbs Should be 7 inches in circumference
Corms Very solid, compact stem with nodes & internodes Very short specialized stem for food storage Covering that protects from injury & drying
Corms- Propagation Development of cormels is means of reproducing Form naturally When dies back, dug up & small cormels separated & grown to larger size
Propagation by division Method of propagation in which parts of the plant are cut into new sections, each will develop a new plant Use knife or pruners
Rhizomes Underground stems that grow horizontally and produce roots on the bottom & stems on top
Rhizomes- Propagation Removed by digging underneath with a garden fork or shovel Soil washed off Cut rhizome into sections- make sure each has one eye (bud)
Tubers Swollen end of an underground side shoot or stem Distinguished by eyes- produces separate plant as sprouts, developing a shoot with roots at base Contains stored food for plant until leaves form
Tubers EX: Irish Potato To propagate: Cut tubers into pieces, each must contain one eye Planted same as seeds
Tuberous Roots Thickened roots that contain large amounts of stored food Have buds at stem end
Tuberous Roots- Propagation Dividing crown, or cluster of roots, when plant is dormant Dug in fall after frost killed top, stored in dry sawdust, peat at 40- 50* to prevent shriveling or complete drying out
Tuberous Roots- Propagation In spring, clumps or crowms are cut apart so each has a bud New pieces planted EX: Sweet potato Adventitious buds- sporadic & unexpected places, pulled off & planted
Activity Plant bulbs correctly Correctly separate a plant
PLANT PROPAGATION Grafting
Warm-up Why is it important to know about bulbs?
Lesson Essential Question How do we propagate using grafting?
Grafting Two different plants are united to become one Scion- newly installed shoot or top of plant Rootstock- seedling or plant used as bottom half of the graft
Grafting Growing together of tissues Used to rapidly increase # of a plant & give stronger, disease- resistant roots Two plants must be compatible
Grafting Used to: Topwork a large tree Insert a different variety on part of the limbs of a tree for cross pollination To propagate plants that may be difficult to bud
Grafting Requirements Compatibility- must be related to one another, stock & scion grow together Know what families grow best together
Grafting Requirements Scion wood- 1 year old & vigorous growth Timing- dont when stock & scion are dormant Matching of tissues- cambium layer, scion & rootstock must have close contact & held tightly together
Grafting Requirements Waterproofing- all cut surfaces must be covered with grafting wax, plastic or rubber ties
Whip or Tongue Graft During winter months Small material Fruit trees Scion should contain 3 buds Root piece 4-8 inches & small fibrous roots
Whip or Tongue Graft Grafting cut made below bud on stock, slant at angle, smooth surface Cut on rootstock should be same= even fit Cambium must match growing area at edge of root piece
Whip or Tongue Graft Second cut made on first cut surface in reverse direction, 1/3 of distance from tip & nearly parrallel to first cut Half as long as first cut Pieces slipped together w/tongues interlocking
Whip or Tongue Graft Pieces tightly tied together with plastic propagation tape or rubber bud ties Stored in moist sand or peat moss to heal 3-4 wks @ 50-55* After- 32-40*
Whip or Tongue Graft Then planted in nursery, graft union must be below ground
Side Veneer Graft Effective way to graft evergreens Colorado Spruce grafted w/ blue spruce to obtain shade of blue
Side Veneer Procedure Pencil size Made in early spring Shallow cut made 1 ½ in long made into one side of seedling rootstock Second cut made to remove piece of wood
Side Veneer Procedure Two cuts made on scion to shape it so it fits cut made in rootstock. Scion inserted into rootstock. Cambium layers must match at least one side Scion tied tightly in place mulch
Cleft Graft Used in topworking trees (grafting to rootstock considerably larger than scion
Cleft Graft Procedure Rootstock sawed off at right angle Rootstock split with heavy knife & hammer Split help open with wedge Scion cut in a long, smooth wedge shape
Cleft Graft Procedure Scions placed in rootstock, must make close contact with rootstock for entire distance, must be cut at same slant as the split in the rootstock Cambium of both must match
Stenting Roses Grafting selected scion of desired plant onto a piece of stem that produces good roots
Stenting Grafted stems then placed in rooting chamber for healing & roots to form Treated exactly as a semihardwood cutting
Activity Grafting Video
PLANT PROPAGATION Budding
Warm-up What are the 3 types of grafting?
Lesson Essential Question What is the process of budding propagation?
Budding Form of grafting Single bud used instead of scion Many more plants reproduced from same amount of parent wood More quickly Time- during active growth
Budding Steps Plant seeds for seedling rootstock Select variety of budwood to be propagated Determine correct date to bud Cut budwood, label it, & protect it so does not dry out
Budding Steps Perform budding process Check to see if buds taken Cut off rootstock above bud the following spring
T-Budding Small 1-2 yr old seedlings Actively growing, disease resistant, & able to give desired growth Scion & rootstock must be compatible
Collecting Budwood Bud sticks, small shoots of current seasons growth, collected on same day to be inserted Kept wrapped in waterproof paper Vegetative buds necessary for propagation Cut all leaves except 1 for handling
Rootstock Developed for 1 yr, good size Make t-shaped cut to determine if seedling is receptive, if bark separates from wood of stem & is moist and smooth
Cutting & Inserting Bud Obtain materials 1 person makes cut & inserts bud while other person ties securely T-shaped cut made in the rootstock, corners of bark lifted for easy insert Bud cut from bud stick middle portion with shield of back & sliver of wood
Cutting & Inserting Bud Bud immediately inserted in the T cut until bud shield even w/ top fo T-cut Tie area with bud tie Entire area covered, only bud itself exposed Inspection in 3 weeks, transplanted in 1-2 yrs
Cutting & Inserting Bud Page 114-116 in book
Chip Budding Used for grapes Done when rootstock not in active growth
Chip Budding Procedure Pg 117 45* cut made in rootstock ¼ of way thru stem Second cut made 1 ½ in above first cut, extending down to meet first Chip produced removed
Chip Budding Procedure Bud to be inserted cut from bud stick exactly as chip removed bud is inserted in rootstock & tied with bud tie
Chip Budding Care Cut rootstock off just above bud 10- 15 days for spring budding Fall budding, cut rootstock just above bud the following spring, as growth starts
PLANT PROPAGATION Layering
Warm-up How do the 2 types of budding differ?
Lesson Essential Question How do we layer to propagate?
Layering Asexual propagation, roots are formed on a stem or root while still attached to the parent plant Stem or root to be rooted is called a layer Layer is cut free from parent only after rooting
Advantages & Disadvantages Simple but time consuming Few plants started Very high success rate Some plants naturally do this….strawberries, red raspberries, & African Violets
Simple Layering Branch from parent bent to ground, partially covered w/ soil. Terminal end exposed Early spring Water liberally Create a visual organizer to represent the steps in layering page 123
Air Layering Process that eliminated the burrying part of the parent plant Part of plant is slit or girdled (girdle- completely remove bark & cambium around plant) Surrounded by moist growing medium
Air Layering Roots form where plant has been wounded Generally made in spring on wood of previous year Create a visual organizer to represent air layering page 124- 125
Other methods of layering Trench layering- mother plant bent to ground & burried in trench, roots form on covered portion of plant, shoots can be separated
Other methods of layering Stool Layering- begins with planting of rooted layer in soil, parent plant cut back to soil level, stem covered with soil, as shoots grow, more soil is added. Shoots cut & planted in early spring
Other methods of layering Compound Layering- springtime, very similar to simple layering, except stem covered by soil at 2 or more points along length. Stem girdled at point below ground where new roots will form Several plants produced from single stem