Presentation on theme: "Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script"— Presentation transcript:
1Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Basic TrainingSession 1September 28, 2010Kathy DeVries and Lil Sedgwick, PresentersThe Local Capacity Building (LCB) Workshop is designed to train district or state level curriculum specialists, staff developers, literary coaches, etc., on how to share Step Up to Writing within their constituent schools as part of their support position. The LCB workshop helps districts build their own support for Step Up to Writing using their own personnel. This script and CD makes sharing Step Up to Writing easy and economical as well as ensuring program fidelity. The LCB materials are not to be used for student or classroom instruction; they are for teacher training only. Also these materials may not be used for any fee-based training without explicit written permission from Sopris West Educational services.It is the goal of Sopris West Educational Services to support our products and their uses by providing thorough and easy- to-use LCB materials and trainings.Note: In the lower right hand corner of each PowerPoint slide on the Participant Handouts is the correlating “Step Up to Writing,” Edition and page number. The Edition 1 page number is in parenthesis.
2Agenda: Basic SUTW Materials Introduction to SUTW Using Colors to Organize WritingTwo Kinds of WritingInformal Outlines
3Outcomes:Identify writing needs for your classroom situationLeave with some strategies you can applyLeave with the materials you need to begin SUTW
4Essential Step Up To Writing, 2nd Edition Materials
5SUTW Materials Checklist for Elementary BinderClassroom ReproduciblesPrimary Steps ReproduciblesPostersHandy PagesSupply PacketHighlightersColored Paper StripsDotsSticky NotesIndex Cards
7Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Step Up to Writing BinderContents:Section 1 IntroductionSection 2 Accordion ParagraphsScript:The Step Up to Writing Manual is divided into eight sections:1. Introduction and background of the program.2. Accordion paragraphs- Basic expository paragraph - Developed paragraph3. Paragraphs with a special purpose- Summary - All other text structures4. Multiparagraph papers- Expanding the paragraph5. Accordion speeches- Using logic in writing to organize speechesSection 3 Paragraphs With a Special PurposeSection 4 Multiparagraph PapersSection 5 Accordion Speeches
8Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Contents:Section 6 Creative WritingSection 7 Improving and Scoring Student WorkSection 8 Active Reading and ListeningSection 9 Taking NotesSection 10 Step Up Workshop Materials6. Narratives and Creative writing- Strategies for Creative Writing7. Improving and scoring student work- Hints for editing and revising - Rubrics8. Active reading and listening- Strategies for comprehension - Writing for class assignments9. Taking notes- Two-column notes and variations- Supplementing materials
11Overhead Masters Grades 6th-12th Examples Templates Posters Transparencies/ Materials for a document camera
12Using SUTW Posters Reminder and reference and support guided lessons Laminate them to use as a flip chart, or attach magnets to the back and display them as part of a guided lessonThey provideHints and examples for summarizing and note-taking and working with definitionsHelp for writing sentence, information paragraphs, reports, and essays
13Using SUTW Handy Pages Levels—Primary, Level 1, and Level 2 Student BookletsQuick, student-friendly reference for major Step Up concepts, including information/expository and story/ narrative writing as well as note taking summarizingGreat reference for parent teacher conferences
14Supply Packet—You will need one of these for each student Zippered Pencil PouchHighlighters--Green, Yellow ,Pink or Red, and BlueColored Dots--Green, Yellow, Red, and BlueColored Paper Strips- Green, Yellow, Red, and Blue2”x1-1/2” Yellow Post It NotesIndex Cards- size depends on grade level
15Setting Up the Room for “Step Up” Needs:Topic = Poster2 Column Notes PosterSentence Strips or Crayon MarkersPost transition wordsPrompts available-colors, stars, dashesPlanning a Story Poster
17Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Step Up to Writing Is About Common Language and Common ExpectationsStep Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training ScriptCommon languageSame terminologyBuilds on instructionScript:One of the main reasons Step Up to Writing has met with such success is that it promotes common language and common expectations within a school community.Common language means using the same terminology and strategies in all grades, all classes. Students are not exposed to a variety of books and writing programs. Everyone is explaining a process in the same way, building on what was taught in the previous grade.Common expectations help students because they learn that writing is a skill needed in all classes, not just in language arts. Content teachers feel comfortable making writing assignments because they know the “lingo” and see that writing reinforces content learning.Common high expectationsQuality writing required in all classes1.8
18Think/ share activity Consider: What types of reading and writing tasks do your students need to perform?What are the state and district standards your students need to meet?What kinds of daily writing skills do they need to be successful in their classes?
2011 Effective Elements to Improve Writing Achievement From the Writing Next Report Writing StrategiesSummarizationCollaborative WritingSpecific Product GoalsWord ProcessingSentence CombiningPrewritingInquiry ActivitiesProcess Writing ApproachStudy of ModelsWriting for Content Learning
21Step Up to Writing is About Promoting the Traits of Good Writing Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training ScriptStep Up to Writing is About Promoting the Traits of Good WritingContentOrganizationStyleVocabularySentence StructureConventionsEstablishing the traits of good writing has been an essential key to helping teachers. Students verbalize what makes good writing. Let’s look at these traits.Click to add the traits.But verbalizing is still not the same as doing. One can verbalize the elements of what would make a great painting. Though that is helpful, it would still not ensure excellent artistry.Step Up to Writing helps, students develop the skill to successfully apply these traits to their writing.1-6
22Six Traits / Step Up to Writing Comparison See handout
23Using SUTW Across Content Areas “good writing assignments often take shape by thinking backwards. In effect, teachers ask themselves, ‘What do I want to read at the end of this assignment?’ By working from what they anticipate the final product to look like, teachers can give students detailed guidelines about both the writing task and the final written product….”-Writing Across the Curriculum Clearinghouse (2007)
24Key Principles of Content-Area Writing Tie the writing task to specific content-learning goalsAlert students to the specific purpose and audience for the writingMake all elements of the task clearInclude grading criteria on the assignment sheet (use rubrics)Break down the task into manageable steps
25SUTW as a School Wide Writing Intervention Teach and reinforce writing and literacy skills in all classes and grade levels by establishing a common language about teaching writingEstablishes common high standards for assessing writing and other academic skills
26Steps for Implementation of SUTW School Wide: Create a School Wide planSome skill areas you might focus on may include:Active reading and listeningVocabulary developmentAsking and answering questionsReport and essay writing
27Some additional skill areas of focus Writing storiesResponding to literatureSummarizing and note-takingSentence masteryParagraph writingGiving speechesWriting to persuade
28Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script To write clear, concise, organized paragraphs, students need:Direct instructionsScript:Step Up to Writing helps teachers provide students with:• Direct instructions• Step-by-step guidelines• Examples• Opportunities to practice• Specific feedbackStep-by-step guidelinesExamplesOpportunities to practiceSpecific feedback2-4
29Step Up to Writing Is About Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training ScriptStep Up to Writing Is AboutDirect InstructionGuided PracticeOpportunities for Independent PracticeRead points on slides aloud. Click to add each point.When Step Up to Writing says it uses direct instruction, the intent is not a scripted teaching model. Rather, Step Up gives teachers the hands-on tools to model the process for the students. Writing instruction becomes interactive between the teacher and the student.1-2
30Step Up to Writing Is About Tools Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training ScriptStep Up to Writing Is About ToolsMultisensoryColorWord ListsInformal OutlinesExamplesSmall StepsAs we go through the Step Up to Writing strategies, you will see how each of these is used to help students internalize the skills and logic needed for clear writing.Read points on slides aloud as you click.1-1
31Step Up to Writing Is About the Writing Process Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training ScriptStep Up to Writing Is About the Writing ProcessPrewriting and PlanningRead through the steps of the writing process. Click to add the components.Students have been taught the writing process. They recite the steps from memory.An artist knows how to put paint on a canvas; however, just knowing that information does not make him an artist. Likewise, knowing the process of writing, though essential, does not by itself ensure good writing.Drafting, Revising, and EditingCreating a Final Copy, Proofreading, and Sharing1-6
32Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Expository vs. NarrativeScript:At this point, we want students to be very clear there are two types of writing—expository and narrative.For younger students, we recommend making a poster or chart like this and physically pointing to it when you make a writing assignment, so students will be clear on whether they are writing an information piece or a narrative piece.Also, in working with narratives, do not color code with green, yellow, or red. This makes the students think “accordion paragraph.” If you want to color code anything, use different colors.PS-30 &31, CR- 1-32.3
33The Logic of the ColorsHelps students organize information into an outline, then a paragraphAssists students in the editing process.
34Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Write a topic sentence.Go!Give a reason, detail, or fact. Use a transition.Slow Down!Script:Our paragraph is complete. Now let’s look at it. What are the three colors used? They are green, yellow, and red. We tell students that we use the colors of the traffic signal to help them remember how to prepare a paragraph.Explain.Give an example.Stop!Remind the reader of your topic.Go Back!2-11, PS-69, CR-9
35Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Using Colors to Teach OrganizationTopic Sentence:Green means “go.”Green asks the writer to decide — “What am I going to prove?” “What am I going to explain?” “What information will I share?”Script:Green is for the topic sentence. It means “go.” Where are we going in this paragraph?These prompting questions are essential for the writer. Many students struggle with the topic sentences. So, if the prompt was “Why was Abraham Lincoln a great man?” The topic sentence might be “Abraham Lincoln was remembered for several reasons” or “Although he has been dead for almost 150 years, Lincoln is still considered as one of the greatest Americans ever.”2-11
36Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Using Colors to Teach OrganizationReasons/Details/Facts:Yellow means “slow down.”Introduce key concepts to support the topic sentence.Script:Yellow means to slow down. Give a reason that supports your topic sentence, or a detail that supports it, or a fact that supports it. In this paragraph, because we were writing an information paragraph, we used facts.If we were writing a paragraph on why Lincoln was great, the yellows would be the categorical reasons he was great.2-11
37Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Using Colors to Teach OrganizationExplain:Red means “stop and explain.”Present evidence.Provide explanation and examples.Script:Red means stop and give an example or an explanation.The yellow supports the green. The red provides more elaboration on the yellow.If we were writing a paragraph on Lincoln’s greatness, the reds would be the examples from his life that illustrated or elaborated his greatness.2-11
38Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Using Colors to Teach OrganizationConclusion:Green means “go back to your topic.”Restate the topic and the position.Do not introduce new information.Use synonyms and leave your reader with something to remember.Script:Both the topic sentence and the conclusion are colored green because they should both be about the topic. The topic sentence clearly defines where the paragraph is headed; the conclusion revisits that thought.If the paragraph starts off on the topic “Cats can protect themselves in two ways,” and the student finishes the paragraph with “Fluffy died last year,” then the paragraph has wandered off track.2-11
39Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Narratives and Creative WritingScript:When Colorado implemented state writing assessments, one of the possible writing options for fourth graders was a short story.Teachers flocked to Maureen Auman for help. Because the accordion paragraph and the informal outline had been so successful in helping students quickly and clearly organize their thoughts and compose a paragraph, teachers were hoping she could come up with a narrative writing plan, too.Maureen came up with “The Quick Sketch” method for story writing in the elementary grades.6.2
40Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Baseball and football require similar skills; however, the goals of each game are different.Script:However, we want students to realize that the same level of writing quality is expected. One way to explain this to the students is to compare the two games of football and baseball.In both football and baseball, good players must be able to throw the ball, catch the ball, and run fast. However, if a football player runs in a big circle like a baseball player, he will not win the game.These two games require many of the same skills, but they have different rules. Likewise, narrative writing also requires good organization, good capitalization, good punctuation, good spelling, good word choice, etc., just like an accordion paragraph. However, it has a different purpose, thus different rules.
42Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script The Quick Sketch MethodScript:Students love to write stories. However, as many of us have seen, the kids start writing with no plan. Ten pages later, not only have they not finished the “adventure” they are writing about, nothing has actually happened!With the state assessments being timed, the key to success was to help students plan out and pace their stories.Here is how an elementary student used a graphic organizer to plan her story.Explain how the student draws her picture, establishing setting and characters. Then, to the right, she jotted notes. She progressed to the events of the story by drawing and jotting notes. Finally, she drew the conclusion and wrote her notes.6-5, PS ,
43Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Activity TimeFind two books-an informational book and a story.Share the books with the class.Point out that stories have a beginning a middle, and an end.Show two books…Show reading charts….shape cards….
47Smooth Ending: Feel a feeling Remember a character Get your point Think about the story
48Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Quick Sketch StoriesStep 1: TitleStep 2: Quick SketchStep 3: Quick NotesStep 4: Get the Story RollingStep 5: Story TransitionsStep 6: Smooth StopStep 7: Revise, Edit, ProofreadWriting a Quick Sketch Story comprises these seven steps.Click and read through these seven steps.6-2, CR-71-73
49Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Planning a Short StoryStep 1 Title ______________________________________Step 2 Quick sketch your plan for your storyStep 3 Jot ideas, descriptions, and plans for your story______________________________________________________________________________________________________Script:The Quick Sketch Method utilizes a graphic organizer for students to use.Step 1: Write a title. We tell students they may change their title later if they like, but a title will help them focus.Step 2: Draw a picture of what is happening in your story.Step 3: Then jot down in words/phrases what is happening.It is recommended that students jot down their words/phrases after each picture rather than draw all the pictures and then go back to the top again. They might have forgotten what happened in the first picture.Each block will be a new paragraph. The last block will be the climax or how the problem is solved.6-4 , PS , CR-74-77
50Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Get the Story RollingStep4Provide a WhereNear the parkBelow the surface of the waterIn ChicagoBehind the old shed near mother’s rakeScript:Some students get stuck on how to start their stories. In Section 6 of Step Up to Writing, there are six methods for starting a story. We are going to cover three. If your students master these and need other choices, look at the options on pages 6-5 — 6-6.Here is the first method. Stories can start with a “where.”Beyond the city limitsThroughout the crowded room6-5
51Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Get the Story RollingProvide a WhenStep4Just as the bell rangAfter we left the movieBefore I turned sixBefore my eighth birthdayScript:Stories can also start with a “when.”Click to reveal options.When the alarm went offWhen the firefighters arrived6-5
52Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Get the Story RollingOther OptionsStep4Provide an Action VerbIntroduce a CharacterInteresting CommentDialogueScript:Introducing a character is another easy was to start a story.Click to reveal options.Tell students to pick one and use that as the first sentence of their story.There four additional story-starter options: provide an action, introduce a character, make an interesting comment, and start with a conversation. When students master the where, when, and character starters, try these other ideas.6-6
53Get the Story Rolling The Velveteen Rabbit “There was once a Velveteen Rabbit, and in the beginning he was really splendid. He was fat and bunchy, as a rabbit should be: his coat was spotted brown and white, he had real thread whiskers, and his ears were lined with pink sateen. On Christmas morning, when he sat wedged in the top of the Boy’s stocking, with a sprig of holly between his paws, the effect was charming.”
54Classroom Reproducibles Starting a StoryPrimary Steps“Where, When Cards” pClassroom Reproducibles“Six Options” p.78“Provide a Where” p. 79“Provide a When” p. 80“Provide an Action Word” p. 81“Introduce a Character” p. 82“Making a Simple but Interesting Comment” p. 83“Start With a Conversation” p. 84
55Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Story Transitions Move the Story AlongThe next dayWhen we arrivedAt duskImmediatelyScript:When students have planned out their short stories, they are then to use story transitions.The story transitions help move the story along with time or place cues.In between timesHours went bySome time laterAfter we walked a mileIn the afternoon6-6, PS , CR-85 & 86
57Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Writing the Story of GoldilocksOnce upon a time there were three bears, Papa Bear, Mama Bear, and Baby Bear, who lived in a house in the woods.Each morning Mama Bear would make wonderful porridge. Papa Bear had a big bowl of porridge. Mama Bear had a medium-sized bowl. Baby Bear had a little bowl for his porridge.One morning Mama said the porridge was too hot to eat, so the bears decided to go for a walk and let the porridge cool off.While they were gone, a little girl by the name of Goldilocks came to the house. She knocked on the door and looked in the window, but no one was home. She tried the door and it opened. She went in and she saw the bowls of porridge on the table.Goldilocks was hungry, so she tasted the porridge in the big bowl. It was too hot. She tried the medium-sized bowl of porridge, and it was too cold. The porridge in the little bowl was just right, so she ate it all up.Each morningOne morningWhile theyScript:Look at this story about Goldilocks. Notice that each paragraph (after the first one) begins with a story transition.We recommend teachers call these story transitions, not just transitions. We must be clear so students will not go back to the “first, second, third, finally” routine. These are appropriate for information writing, but not as effective for story writing.Also, we recommend that teachers use a color other than yellow if highlighting these for teaching purposes. Perhaps story transitions could be circled in hot pink or turquoise— anything but yellow.6-8
58Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Title: _______________________________________________In Johnson Elementary School______________________________________________________________________________________________________Each morning______________________________________________________________________________________________________Script:By each picture section, have students write in a story transition.Model on the transparency: Each morning Just as she About that timeOf course, these are just examples. Students would use whatever story transitions that are appropriate.Now it’s time to write the story.Just as she______________________________________________________________________________________________________About that time____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________6-17
59Hints for Writing a GREAT! Story: Include detailsExplainUse vivid descriptionsBe specificAppeal to the sensesCR- 87
60Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Step 6: Come to a Smooth StopDon’t write “THE END.” Instead, finish with a strong sentence that will help your reader.Script:To smoothly end a story, have students try one of these techniques:Go over the four points on this slide.Feel a feeling endingRemember a character endingGet your point endingThink about the story ending6-9, PS-183, CR- 89,
61Come to a Smooth Ending“I pressed my hands to his face again, hefted the shield right out of my mind, and then started in where I”d left off—with the crystal-clear memory of the first night of my new life…lingering on the details…..And then we continued blissfully into this small but perfect piece of our forever.”
63Some Strategies to Eliminate an “All Beginning, Weak Middle, and No Ending”
64Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Here is a practical tip we found that helps students pace their writing.Students in timed assessments will write page after page on the first part of the story and then rush through the ending because they are out of time.To help students pace themselves, try this strategy.Model this as participants do it.Take a sheet of notebook paper and fold it in half horizontally. This is called a “hamburger fold.”At the top of each half page, draw an indent box.
65Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script XXXXXXScript:Students are to try to write a half page for each paragraph. If their Quick Sketch had four boxes, they would have four half-page paragraphs.If students cannot write that much, we suggest they put an “X” on every other line and then write on the “X” lines.This method helps students pace themselves.Now students are ready to convert their Quick Sketch to the paragraph form. This will be their rough draft. They can rewrite it later, as time permits.XXXXXX
68Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Now, let’s work in groups of three to four to do our own Quick Sketch. Students need to practice this a great deal in order to be up to speed if required to do this on a timed assessment.Pass out chart paper to each group. Tell them to get their markers.Use it as a model. Design your chart paper like this graphic organizer.Now, here is your prompt: Suzy and Marla set off to the park for a picnic. They follow a puppy and get lost. Write a story on how they finally get home.This activity will take about forty-five minutes. Leave the next slide on the screen for a while so they can see the steps.
71Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Quick Sketch StoriesStep 1: TitleStep 2: Quick SketchStep 3: Quick NotesStep 4: Get the Story RollingStep 5: Story TransitionsStep 6: Smooth StopStep 7: Revise, Edit, ProofreadWriting a Quick Sketch Story comprises these seven steps.Click and read through these seven steps.6-2, CR-71-73
72But words are things, and a small drop of ink, falling like dew upon a thought, produces that which makes thousands, perhaps millions, think. Lord Byron
74What Does Each Color Stand For? POP QUIZGreenYellowRedBlue
75Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Why do we need to teach expository writing to all students at all grade levels?Most school writing will be expository writing.Expository writing teaches clear and logical thinking.Script:Emphasize that successful expository writing is essential for students because:It is what students are generally asked to do in school, especially on the upper levels.It helps them organize their ideas.Writing can reinforce what is being taught, thereby helping students learn content.The same logic can be used in speaking.Prepares students for the business world.Expository writing helps students learn content.Expository writing prepares students for the business world.2-4 (2.5)
76Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script The keys to an effective paragraph:Expository paragraphs need:A titleA topic sentenceScript:Step Up to Writing is the missing link. Teachers can now explain to students how to write clearly and well. Students can internalize this information and then do it independently for all school writing assignments.What are the keys?First, all paragraphs need:• A title• A topic sentence• Transitions• Good explanations and examples• A conclusionTransitionsGood explanations and examplesA conclusion2-4, CR 4
77Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Golf is a great sport to play. It’s fun to pound a golf ball around for nine to eighteen holes. However, to become good you need lots of practice and mental toughness. Practice is easy to come by, but we need toughness too. Personally, I need a lot of mental toughness. Golf can be really fun if you are playing well, but if you are playing badly, it can cause frustration.Script:Here is an example of an actual middle school student writing sample.Read the sample aloud.What is wrong with this paragraph?It starts out fine, but then it wanders. In other words, the student has a lot of thoughts about golf but does not present them clearly.However, in expository writing, the information is the focus. The writer must explain or inform, and it is the responsibility of the writer to be clear.As humans, when one mentions a topic to us, like golf, a myriad of thoughts flash through our brains. If we write them down in the order we think them, the reader is left running after us, trying to anticipate and figure out a pattern or where we are going next in our ideas.2-1 (2.1)
78Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Now, let’s look at an actual writing sample.Script:Now, let’s look at an actual writing sample.
79Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Smoking’s Health Toll and Price TagFifth GradeAlthough smoking may seem cool, it is very unhealthy and expensive. Many people die form smoking related problems such as cancer, heart disease etc. every year. According to World Book Encyclopedia during the mid-1980s smoking contributed to 30 percent of all deaths form cancer and heart disease in the United States of America. Furthermore, cigarette smoking was associated with 85 percent of all cases of lung cancer. Secondly, smoking is very expensive. If someone smoked one pack of cigarettes every day that cost $3.00 for 50 years it would cost them $54, which is enough money to buy an expensive and luxurious car. On the contrary, if someone put $3.00 a day into a bank or investment institution they would be making hundreds of dollars in only a few years just because of the interest they are collecting. Clearly smoking is very unhealthy and expensive too, so don’t start smoking until you have considered all of the negative effects!Script:Cover up the title line that says “fifth grade” when you display this slide. In the PowerPoint version it flies in on your final mouse click.Now, here is a paragraph of a student who has followed Step Up to Writing strategies. Compare this paragraph to the “Golf” paragraph. What do you notice?Give participants a chance to volunteer responses.Clear topic sentence.Stays on the topic.Easy for the reader to follow the logic.Ideas are well developed.Conclusion is appropriate.Ask: What do you think is the grade level of this student sample?Now you can reveal that this is an actual fifth grade sample.How can we help all our students write with thoroughness and clarity?Let’s examine the difficulties.2-5
80Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Gangs are just a bunch of people with nothing better to do. Gangs cause problems. I would not join a gang. Well, maybe if I was with my friends but probably not. My mom is against gangs. The movies are filled with gangs and there are a lot of songs about gangs. Stay away from gangs they are bad for you.Script:Read aloud the “Gangs” paragraph.Here is another middle school student example.Can’t you just envision the assignment for which this paragraph was written. The teacher has shown a video on gangs and has asked students to write a paragraph on what they learned.This student just did a brain dump until he/she exhausted all he/she had to say.As you can see, the material is random; there is no organization.2-1
81Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script GangsScript:So how does Step Up to Writing work?When the student wanted to write about gangs, he, like all humans, had lots of ideas flash through his brain.This is a web of how ideas may have occurred to the writer of the Gangs paragraph. Click to build the web.However, to communicate clearly in writing, one must organize these ideas form their random order to a logical, linear order.Here is the key to expository writing: the great ideas compiled in this “brainstorming” or “webbing” model must then be organized into linear logic.The problem with the Gangs paragraph was the student wrote the ideas in the order he thought them, not in the order that would make sense to the reader.
82Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script The Five Elements of Expository WritingOrganization is the key.Topic sentences and thesis statements are the heart.Script:So, how can we help students write? Let’s look at the five elements of expository writing:• Organization is the key.• Topic sentences (and later thesis statements) are the heart of good writing.• Transition words are the glue that holds our ideas together.• Examples, evidence, and explanation give our writing the meat.• Conclusions tie the paragraph together.Transitions are the glue.Examples, evidence, and explanations are the meat.Conclusions tie it all together.Section 2
83Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Great Expository ParagraphsOrganization is the key.Script:Let’s take a look at organization, the key to clear writing.2-8
84“Organization is what you do before you do something, so when you do it, it’s not all mixed up.” A.A. Milne a.k.a. Winnie the Pooh
87Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Informal OutlinesTopic = Cats can protect themselves(First) R/D/F Can get away from their enemiese Run fastScript:To help students organize their thoughts, train students to use an informal outline. Formal outlines, with the Roman numerals and all the accompanying rules, are hard to teach. However, an informal outline has no arbitrary rules.Once students learn the informal outline, the formal outline actually becomes easier for them to understand. They learn its logic, but with some very stringent rules.Before the “Cat” paragraph was written, an informal outline was prepared. An informal outline let me use words and phrases to sort my thoughts into the best order.Find this outline in your packet. Get your green, yellow, and pink markers form your supply packet and color code this along with me. Although our markers are pink instead of red, students understand they both represent the same thing.Click each line as participants color code with you.e Climb trees(Next) R/D/F Good fighterse Sharp clawse Sharp Incisors2-11
88Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script TopicReason/Detail/FactScript:So, how did Maureen Auman, the author, first help her students “see” paragraph organization? Let’s try out one of her techniques. Get a sheet of notebook paper. Fold it in half horizontally, then fold it in half horizontally again.Demonstrate this as the participants are doing it. Cover this transparency and just reveal it a section at a time as you talk the participants through it.Now grab a ballpoint pen and a sheet of colored dots.On the first section, write “topic” and put a green dot.On the second section, write “reason/detail/fact” and put a yellow dot.On the third section, write “explain” and put a red dot. Do the same for the fourth section.ExplainExplain2-8
89Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Reason/Detail/FactExplainScript:Now turn the paper over. At the top (behind the section on which you put the green dot), write “reason/detail/fact” and put a yellow dot.Then, on the next two sections, write “explain” and put a red dot on each.Finally, on the last section, write “conclusion” and put a green dot.Now, we are going to compile a paragraph.At this point, you are modeling for the participants one method they could use in their classrooms. Middle school teachers and students seem to really like the colored dots.ExplainConclusion2-8
90Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script TopicCats protect themselves in two ways.Reason/Detail/FactFirst, they are able to get away quickly from their enemies.Script:I recommend you only uncover one sentence at a time.With the PowerPoint presentation each block comes in separately.Let’s pretend we have been reading in class about cats, and I want the students to utilize their knowledge to write a paragraph about how cats are able to protect themselves.The topic sentence might be “Cats protect themselves in two ways.” Write this sentence in box one.Now, we said in the topic sentence that there were two ways, so let’s look at the first way.In box two, write “First, they are able to get away quickly form their enemies.”But how do they get away form their enemies? Do they fly or call a cab? Of course not. So, in box three, write “Cats are fast runners.”In box four, write “They can climb trees, too.”ExplainCats are fast runners.ExplainThey can climb trees, too.2-8
91Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Reason/Detail/FactNext, cats are good fighters.ExplainCats’ sharp claws can inflict pain and discourage attackers.Script:Turn your paper over.Now, it’s time for another reason/detail/fact. Write “Next, cats are good fighters.”We can see that this “yellow” also directly supports the topic sentence on how cats protect themselves.But let’s support this statement of cats being good fighters. How do they fight? Are they sharpshooters? Of course not.So, write in the “explain” box “Cats’ sharp claws can inflict pain and discourage attackers.”Continue with the next “explain.” “They can also use their pointed incisors to bite their enemies when necessary.”Now, let’s conclude. “Felines are able to take care of themselves.”ExplainThey can also use their pointed incisors to bite their enemies when necessary.ConclusionFelines can take care of themselves.2-8
92Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Accordion ParagraphsEight Sentence Paragraph:Topic SentenceReason/Detail/FactExplainScript:When Maureen Auman was teaching her eighth graders about paragraphs, she asked them how long a paragraph was. Each student answered, “Eight sentences.” Apparently, these students had been taught that there was a magic number of sentences needed in a paragraph.In attempting to explain to students that paragraphs varied in length depending on the topic, Maureen moved her hands close in front of her and then spread them in and out. One of the students said, “Gee, Mrs. Auman, it looks like you’re playing the accordion.” Hence, the method we are learning has been named the “accordion paragraph.”Maureen told the students that content drives the paragraph. To plan out an accordion paragraph, use an informal outline.Let’s look at the organization of this paragraph. Click each line and discuss the organization and color.Reason/Detail/FactExplainReason/Detail/FactExplainConclusion2-8
93Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script More Accordion ParagraphsNine Sentence Paragraph:Topic SentenceReason/Detail/FactExplainScript:As I said, the content drives the organization. Students decide how their information should be presented, and they are in the driver’s seat.Here is a sample 9-sentence paragraph. As you click through, emphasize that the number of “explains” varies, depending on the subject.ExplainReason/Detail/FactExplainExplainExplainConclusion2-8
94Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script More Accordion ParagraphsEleven Sentence Paragraph:Topic SentenceReason/Detail/FactReason/Detail/FactExplainScript:As you click through, note that one reason/detail/fact has no explains.Remember, the content determines the organization.Reason/Detail/FactExplainExplainReason/Detail/FactExplainExplainConclusion2-8
95Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Informal OutlinesTopic = Cats can protect themselves(First) R/D/F Can get away from their enemiese Run fastScript:The informal outline is like clay on a pottery wheel. It is easy to shape, mold, redo, move components, and evaluate. There has not been a great investment in time and energy, and the structure is malleable.The finished paragraph, however, is like the clay pot that has been fired. If the pot has been fired, then changing its shape, or adding or deleting portions, becomes problematic.Students who spend the time and effort writing a paragraph often resist suggestions for improvement simply because they do not want to rewrite. If they are able to make improvements or fixes using just the words and phrases on an informal outline, then they are more open to suggestions. And, they will brainstorm other ways a paragraph could be organized.e Climb trees(Next) R/D/F Good fighterse Sharp clawse Sharp incisors2-11
96The Writing Process Step One: Pre-Writing Activities Discussion, reading, exploringCR-112
97T= Step Two: () R/D/F e Planning (Organization) Informal Outline choose transitions and plan a conclusionT=() R/D/Fe
99“CUPS” Step 4: Editing Step 5: Revising Using the Strategy C= Capital lettersU= UsageP= PunctuationS= Spelling“CUPS”
100Step 6: Making a Final Copy—Using “Neat Paper Rules” Step 7: ProofreadingStep 8: Sharing and/ or Publishing
101Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Informal OutlinesTopic = Fun ways to spend a million dollarsScript:Good expository writing starts with the informal outline. We are going to write another paragraph. Feel free to work with a partner.This time, we are going to use another method for teaching the accordion paragraph. Look in your plastic supply packets and get out your colored strips.Now, get a piece of notebook paper and let’s create an informal outline.Click each line.Topic = Fun ways to spend a million dollarsNow use your green marker and highlight this line.2-11
102Topic = Fun ways to spend a million dollars Informal OutlinesTopic = Fun ways to spend a million dollarsR/D/FR/D/F2-11
103Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Informal OutlinesTopic = Fun ways to spend a million dollarsR/D/F ShoppingScript:Two ways we are going to have fun spending a million dollars are shopping (click) and travel (click). Write these down and skip some space between them. Highlight in yellow.R/D/F Travel2-11
104Topic = Fun ways to spend a million dollars Informal OutlinesTopic = Fun ways to spend a million dollarsR/D/F ShoppingeR/D/F Travele2-11
105Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Informal OutlinesTopic = Fun ways to spend a million dollarsR/D/F ShoppingScript:Now let’s go back and add the reds. The reds elaborate or give an example or explanation of the yellows.For the first yellow, “shopping,” I put “new wardrobe, Nordstrom’s.” You will put whatever you want to buy or where you would go shopping.Next, I want to travel to Paris. So I will write “Paris” as my red under “travel.” You write your own in words and phrases.Notice that we do not have a line for “conclusion.” Because the conclusion should be similar in intent to the topic sentence, writing a conclusion in the informal outline is redundant. However, if students indicate a need for this level of concreteness, feel free to add it.e New wardrobe, NordstromsR/D/F Travele Paris2-11
106Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Outline to ParagraphIf I had a million dollars, I would have a good time spending it.Script:Now let’s convert this informal outline to sentences.Get a green sentence strip form your supply packet. I will provide the topic sentence.Read the sentence aloud as participants copy.
107Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Informal OutlinesTopic = Fun ways to spend a million dollarsR/D/F ShoppingScript:The next thing on the informal outline is the yellow R/D/F, or “Shopping.” Get a yellow strip of paper.e New wardrobe, NordstromsR/D/F Travele Paris2-11
108Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Outline to ParagraphIf I had a million dollars, I would have a good time spending it.First, I would go shopping.2.20Script:Get a yellow strip. Copy this sentence.
109Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Informal OutlinesTopic = Fun ways to spend a million dollarsR/D/F ShoppingScript:Now we are ready for the first red. At this point, each student will be writing his or her own sentence.e New wardrobe, NordstromsR/D/F Travele Paris
110Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Outline to ParagraphIf I had a million dollars, I would have a good time spending it.First, I would go shopping.2.20Script:My sentence is “A new wardrobe form Nordstroms is a must.”You will take the information on your red line in the informal outline and write your own sentence.A new wardrobe from Nordstroms is a must.
111Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Informal OutlinesTopic = Fun ways to spend a million dollarsR/D/F ShoppingScript:Next is our second yellow.Get another yellow strip.e New wardrobe, NordstromsR/D/F Travele Paris
112Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Outline to ParagraphIf I had a million dollars, I would have a good time spending it.First, I would go shopping.2.20Script:Write “Next, I would travel.”A new wardrobe from Nordstroms is a must.Next, I would travel.
113Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Informal OutlinesTopic = Fun ways to spend a million dollarsR/D/F ShoppingScript:On my informal outline, I wrote I would go to Paris. Get a red strip.e New wardrobe, NordstromsR/D/F Travele Paris
114Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Outline to ParagraphIf I had a million dollars, I would have a good time spending it.First, I would go shopping.Script:My sentence says “Visiting Paris has always been a dream.”Now, look at your informal outline and write your red sentence.A new wardrobe from Nordstroms is a must.Next, I would travel.Visiting Paris has always been a dream.
115Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Informal OutlinesTopic = Fun ways to spend a million dollarsR/D/F ShoppingScript:Now it’s time for our conclusion. Because conclusions are hard to write, I tend to provide the conclusion sentences for a while until students feel more independence with the yellows and reds.e New wardrobe, NordstromsR/D/F Travele ParisConclusion =
116Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Outline to ParagraphIf I had a million dollars, I would have a good time spending it.First, I would go shopping.2.20A new wardrobe from Nordstroms is a must.Script:Get a green strip. Please copy this conclusion sentence: “Being wealthy would clearly make me very happy.”If you were doing this in your classroom, you might want to collect student paragraphs to see how they are doing. The easiest way to do this is to have students use a glue stick and glue their colored strips in order to a sheet of notebook paper.Post-it note glue sticks are also very useful because the strips can be moved, replaced, or added to very easily.A primary message of Step Up to Writing is this: Improving writing skills does not require more work, it just requires focused practice.Next, I would travel.Visiting Paris has always been a dream.Being wealthy would clearly make me very happy.
117Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Outline to ParagraphIf I had a million dollars, I would have a good time spending it.First, I would go shopping.2.20A new wardrobe from Nordstroms is a must.Script:Here is an analogy: Music students will work on measures that are problematic. Athletes will participate in drills that specifically remediate problem areas or strengthen certain muscle groups. Musicians and athletes do targeted drills and practice so that their skills will increase, thereby contributing to their overall performance of the music being performed or the game being played.Likewise, as teachers, we want to focus on specific components of writing and have students work on those areas.So tonight, if you were to take home your students’ paragraphs, what would you need to check? The greens?No, you provided those. The yellows? No, you provided those, too.The red strips would be the sentences that individual students wrote, so you would check only the reds to see how your students were doing.(NOTE: Mark Calonico of the Sacramento County Office of Education has his workshop participants keep their paragraphs and informal outlines. He then shows them how to expand these to Accordion Essays when he teaches Section 4.)Next, I would travel.Visiting Paris has always been a dream.Being wealthy would clearly make me very happy.
118Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Outline to ParagraphIf I had a million dollars, I would have a good time spending it.First, I would go shopping.2.20A new wardrobe from Nordstroms is a must.Script:Now, it’s time to have students convert this form sentence strips to the traditional text-wrap paragraph format. Older students will understand how to do this. Younger ones, however, will need to see that sentence two follows sentence one on the same line, if there is room, etc.Next, I would travel.Visiting Paris has always been a dream.Being wealthy would clearly make me very happy.
119Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Fun Being RichIf I had a million dollars, I would have a good time spending it. First, I would go shopping. A new wardrobe from Nordstrom’s is a must. Next, I would travel. Visiting Paris has always been a dream. Being wealthy would clearly make me very happy.Script:You might find it helpful to have students actually cut and paste these sentence strips on a larger sheet of paper so they can see how the sentences fit together. Also, they have to see that the first sentence indents.
120Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Younger students have difficulty writing on sentence strips unless there are lines. In Step Up Classroom Reproducibles, lined sentence strips are already designed. Just copy them on colored paper—topic sentences on green, R/D/Fs on yellow, explanations on pink or red, and conclusions on green.Hold up Classroom Reproducibles. You can pass this around for teachers to look at if you like. Even middle school teachers will like the lined sentence strips.It is helpful to give each student an envelope that he can keep in his desk or three-hole punch and keep in his binder. He can keep a variety of sentence strips and replenish them form a central classroom supply. Parent volunteers are wonderful at keeping these materials in stock.CR-19-22
121Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Here is another sentence strip option. This paragraph guide is on one sheet of paper. Instead of sentence strips, students can write in each of the boxes.This is handy to send home for a writing assignment if you are afraid students might lose the strips.Also, if you want students to write a paragraph to answer a test question, but the students still need some guidance, attach this to the test. There are several guides in Classroom Reproducibles, or you can make your own.CR-23-27
122Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script The Table AnalogyScript:We have now covered the basic accordion paragraph, but this just scratches the surface. At this point, students are just beginning to understand the logic and the correlation of the colors.Obviously, older students and more gifted students will assimilate this information more quickly. However, they, too, need to “see” the logic behind clear writing.Sometimes younger students or students with language difficulties need an even more concrete explanation. One analogy that is helpful is this: Ask students, “What is the most important part of a table?” Hopefully, they will answer “the top.” Draw that in green.Just like the tabletop is the most important part of a table, so is the topic sentence the most important part of the paragraph.
123Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script The Table AnalogyScript:Next, “What else does a good table need?” Of course, the answer is “legs.” So, draw yellow legs on your table.Not all tables need the same number of legs. The number of legs depends on the size of the table. Likewise, the number of yellow R/D/Fs depends on the subject of the paragraph and what you want to say.Now, table legs support the tabletop. However, a table leg must be attached to the tabletop for it to be of use. Likewise, an R/D/F idea must logically support the topic sentence. If not, it is like a table leg that is not attached. What happens to unattached table legs? They just fall down.
124Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script The Table AnalogyScript:Now, if we were to put our table in a dining room, we wouldn’t want one that was plain, but one that had some decoration.Click to add red decoration on your table legs.So, we want to add more explanation for our yellow R/D/F statements. They make our paragraph interesting, just as the decoration makes the table legs interesting.Although this is a simplistic explanation, for many students, it is helpful. Some first grade teachers actually make green tabletops and yellow legs from colored poster board. They laminate them and then use them as students dictate ideas for a paragraph. They use velcro or tape to add the red ideas.Once students have internalized the three colors, it’s time to develop the accordion paragraph.
125Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Topic = Plymouth ColonyR/D/F Mayflowere Arrived 1620R/D/F William Bradforde Governore Helped write Mayflower CompactScript:Color code the topic, “Plymouth Colony” green. This student’s two categories are “Mayflower” and “William Bradford.” Color these yellow. Now color code the explanations in red.Let’s now focus on the yellow R/D/Fs. Actually, yellow R/D/F/s require students to categorize information. The question students must ask themselves is this: What categories can I use to support my topic? Let’s pretend you are in third grade and I’m your teacher. We have studied the Plymouth Colony, and I want each of you to write a paragraph on the two most interesting things you learned.Find the sheet in your packet that looks like this overhead and grab your markers.
126Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Topic = Plymouth ColonyR/D/F Hardshipse Long wintere No foodScript:Another child might do it like this. Write and color code as we go along.Topic = Plymouth ColonyR/D/F Hardshipse Long wintere No foodR/D/F First Thanksgivinge Invited IndiansNotice how the number of explanations can vary. It does not have to be the same for each student. Even the R/D/Fs can vary.R/D/F First Thanksgivinge Invited Indians2-9 (2.17)
127Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script Topic = Plymouth ColonyR/D/F Difficult trip across Atlantice Dangerous waterse One ship turned backe Poor living conditionsR/D/F Difficult winterScript:Yet another student might have this:Topic = Plymouth ColonyR/D/F Difficult trip across Atlantice Dangerous waterse One ship turned backe Poor living conditionsR/D/F Difficult wintere Arrived in wrong locatione Arrived too late to plant gardene Arrived too late to build homesR/D/F Befriended by Indianse Invited to first ThanksgivingThe number of yellows and reds depends on what each student wants to say. There is no magic number.e Arrived in wrong locatione Arrived too late to plant gardene Arrived too late to build homesR/D/F Befriended by Indianse Invited to first Thanksgiving
128Step Up to Writing Local Capacity Building Workshop Training Script It’s the Color, Not the FormTopic =Script:The key to strong expository writing is clear organization. The informal outline can help students take a mass of ideas or information and convert this mass to linear logic for the reader. If not, the reader is left playing mental Ping-Pong, trying to keep track of the writer’s stream-of-consciousness writing.There are several ways to use the informal outline. We are going to look at several ways to reach the same goal.Here are three informal outlines. One uses shapes; one uses numbers; one uses symbols.(Refer to Method 3.)Whether one uses shapes, numbers, or star/dash/dot, the concept is the same. As long as teachers are consistent with the colors, students understand the concept.Note: As you do teacher trainings, it is often helpful to have teachers color code their copy of the PowerPoint slides as you go through this material.1_____2 _____3_____2_____2.13
129Perfect Three Sentence Paragraphs (See handout)
130Writing Portfolio Includes: Perfect Three Sentence Paragraphs Accordion Paragraphs- Informal Outline and Final Copy
131Next StepsReview your materialsApply what you have learned todayBegin thinking about what skills need to be taught at what grade levelGet your room ready for Step UpCall/ with questionsVisit my blog (ksedgwick)