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Horses: Basic Management Stephen R Schafer, EdD 2007 University of Wyoming D. Karen Hansen, PhD 2001 University of Wyoming D. Karen Hansen, PhD 2001 University.

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Presentation on theme: "Horses: Basic Management Stephen R Schafer, EdD 2007 University of Wyoming D. Karen Hansen, PhD 2001 University of Wyoming D. Karen Hansen, PhD 2001 University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Horses: Basic Management Stephen R Schafer, EdD 2007 University of Wyoming D. Karen Hansen, PhD 2001 University of Wyoming D. Karen Hansen, PhD 2001 University of Wyoming

2 Information Development Much effort and time was devoted to: developing accurate/current information incorporating appropriate pictures/graphics providing proper credit of pictures/graphics obtaining user/educational permission Any and/or all errors, omissions, etc. are purely unintentional and/or accidental. This presentation was developed for use as resource and is provided as an educational resource and is provided as an educational service. User and/or purchase fees are not associated with this presentation.

3 Basic Management Housing Facilities Housing Facilities Daily Monitoring Daily Monitoring Vital Signs (TPR) Vital Signs (TPR) Teeth and Hoof Care Teeth and Hoof Care Nutrition/Feeding Nutrition/Feeding Disease Awareness Disease Awareness

4 Housing Facilities Housing that provides safety, comfort, and room Housing that provides safety, comfort, and room For the horse For the horse For the workers For the workers Permits ease of sanitation (removal/disinfecting) and allows for ease of the facility (design/layout) Permits ease of sanitation (removal/disinfecting) and allows for ease of the facility (design/layout) Meets/exceeds Environmental Concerns Meets/exceeds Environmental Concerns Meets/exceeds Animal Welfare Issues Meets/exceeds Animal Welfare Issues Meets/exceeds Animal Health Requirements Meets/exceeds Animal Health Requirements

5 Daily Monitoring Behaving Differently (stands off, not hungry, etc) Behaving Differently (stands off, not hungry, etc) Looks Differently (head/ears droopy, hump back, etc) Looks Differently (head/ears droopy, hump back, etc) Cuts and/or Scrapes (cause….nail, screw, board, etc) Cuts and/or Scrapes (cause….nail, screw, board, etc) Bruises and/or Swellings (cause…stall, insect bite, etc) Bruises and/or Swellings (cause…stall, insect bite, etc) Limping/Lameness (not always serious, but check it) Limping/Lameness (not always serious, but check it) Cosmetic/Appearance Issues (grooming, clipping, etc) Cosmetic/Appearance Issues (grooming, clipping, etc) Other Minor Items (dirty eyes/ears, etc) Other Minor Items (dirty eyes/ears, etc)

6 Restraint It is common/recommended practice to use some sort of restraint when performing management procedures It is common/recommended practice to use some sort of restraint when performing management procedures Provides protection and safety for the horse Provides protection and safety for the horse Provides security and safety for the handler/worker Provides security and safety for the handler/worker Common types of restraints:1. Stock 2. Twitch 3. Hobbles Common types of restraints:1. Stock 2. Twitch 3. Hobbles

7 Vital Signs Important to be familiar with normal/typical TPR (temperature, pulse, and respiration) of your horse Important to be familiar with normal/typical TPR (temperature, pulse, and respiration) of your horse Temp = (ave ) degrees…at rest Temp = (ave ) degrees…at rest Pulse = bpm (ave. 35)…at rest Pulse = bpm (ave. 35)…at rest Respiratory rate = 8-20 (ave. 12) breaths/min…at rest Respiratory rate = 8-20 (ave. 12) breaths/min…at rest

8 Vital Signs Drawing: Wyoming 4-H Horse Manual

9 Injections Injections should only be given with the approval and direction of a veterinarian Injections should only be given with the approval and direction of a veterinarian Always use sterile needle and syringe….never share a needle or re-use a needle (infection or transmittal) Always use sterile needle and syringe….never share a needle or re-use a needle (infection or transmittal) Most commonly given via: Most commonly given via: Intramuscular (IM), many/most vaccines are IM and they are given in muscles in neck or lower in stifle….also it is important to rotate sides if long-term treatment Intramuscular (IM), many/most vaccines are IM and they are given in muscles in neck or lower in stifle….also it is important to rotate sides if long-term treatment Subcutaneously (SQ), given under the skin….usually in the neck or loose skinned areas such as the elbow or flank Subcutaneously (SQ), given under the skin….usually in the neck or loose skinned areas such as the elbow or flank Intravenous (IV), given directly into the blood stream Intravenous (IV), given directly into the blood stream

10 Injections Drawing: Wyoming 4-H Horse Manual

11 Teeth Teeth There are two types of teeth: There are two types of teeth: Incisors….for cutting and ripping Incisors….for cutting and ripping Molars….for grinding and smashing Molars….for grinding and smashing The total number of teeth vary according to the age and sex of the horse: The total number of teeth vary according to the age and sex of the horse: 24 teeth in foals 24 teeth in foals teeth in mature females teeth in mature females teeth in mature males teeth in mature males Photo: EQUUS

12 TeethVisual Tooth Schematic Photo: EQUUS

13 TeethWhole Tooth Schematic Photo: EQUUS

14 Teeth & Aging Age horses by the incisors teeth: Age horses by the incisors teeth: Type, for younger horses Type, for younger horses Wear, for more mature horses Wear, for more mature horses Permanent incisors in: Permanent incisors in: Center, 2 to 2 ½ years old (typically, we say 2 years) Center, 2 to 2 ½ years old (typically, we say 2 years) Intermediate, 3 to 3 ½ years old (tend to say 3 years) Intermediate, 3 to 3 ½ years old (tend to say 3 years) Corner, 4 to 4 ½ years old (typically, we say 4 years) Corner, 4 to 4 ½ years old (typically, we say 4 years) All permanent incisors are in, this has greater than variation than the previous indicators…this typically occurs between 6 and 9 years of age, the horse term for this is full mouth All permanent incisors are in, this has greater than variation than the previous indicators…this typically occurs between 6 and 9 years of age, the horse term for this is full mouth

15 Teeth & Aging The incisor teeth of a horse are cupped on the grinding surface of each tooth The incisor teeth of a horse are cupped on the grinding surface of each tooth These cups wear down with use (age) These cups wear down with use (age) When all cups are worn from the permanent incisors the horse is about 12 years of age, the horse term for this is smooth mouth When all cups are worn from the permanent incisors the horse is about 12 years of age, the horse term for this is smooth mouth

16 Teeth & Aging Past the age of smooth mouth, it becomes more difficult to tell age Past the age of smooth mouth, it becomes more difficult to tell age However, the teeth continue to become more and more angled when viewed from the side However, the teeth continue to become more and more angled when viewed from the side Also, the gums recede (hence the terminology of long in tooth or getting long in tooth) Also, the gums recede (hence the terminology of long in tooth or getting long in tooth)

17 Teeth & Aging Photos: EQUUS

18 Normal Tooth Care Horse teeth need to be checked yearly, every six months is even better Horse teeth need to be checked yearly, every six months is even better Top jaw is larger than lower jaw, as a result normal chewing wears teeth unevenly Top jaw is larger than lower jaw, as a result normal chewing wears teeth unevenly Sharp points (known as hooks) develop and these need to be filed off, this filing is known as floating Sharp points (known as hooks) develop and these need to be filed off, this filing is known as floating Equine dentists are becoming more and more popular/accepted, just like farriers Equine dentists are becoming more and more popular/accepted, just like farriers

19 Hoof: Purpose & Physiology Wall is thickest in the toe, thinnest in the quarter Wall is thickest in the toe, thinnest in the quarter Absorbs the concussion of the weight of the horse Absorbs the concussion of the weight of the horse As foot hits ground, heels are expanded due to frog action (flattens out….more softness/cushioning) As foot hits ground, heels are expanded due to frog action (flattens out….more softness/cushioning) Digital cushion expands lateral cartilages; compress blood veins in hoof Digital cushion expands lateral cartilages; compress blood veins in hoof Third phalanx descends slightly, sole yields slightly, and laminae absorb the concussion Third phalanx descends slightly, sole yields slightly, and laminae absorb the concussion Some weight transferred to navicular bone, which is supported by deep flexor tendon Some weight transferred to navicular bone, which is supported by deep flexor tendon

20 Proper Angle Of The Hoof Proper angle should be the angle of the pastern Proper angle should be the angle of the pastern Front Legs: degrees or so Front Legs: degrees or so Hind: degrees or so Hind: degrees or so Regardless of the horse or the exact angle, the rear angle should be greater than the front angle Regardless of the horse or the exact angle, the rear angle should be greater than the front angle

21 Parts Of The Hoof FROG: very elastic tissue FROG: very elastic tissue V shaped V shaped Helpful in blood flow in hoof and leg Helpful in blood flow in hoof and leg SOLE: protective outer covering SOLE: protective outer covering Should be concave Should be concave Sensitive to bruising Sensitive to bruising HOOF WALL: HOOF WALL: Primary weight carrier Primary weight carrier Inside of hoof wall---LAMINAE: sensitive on inside and insensitive on the surface Inside of hoof wall---LAMINAE: sensitive on inside and insensitive on the surface WHITE LINE: where laminae connects to hoof wall WHITE LINE: where laminae connects to hoof wall

22 Parts Of The Hoof Wall Heel (located at the rear of the hoof) Heel (located at the rear of the hoof) Quarter (located at the side of the hoof) Quarter (located at the side of the hoof) Toe (located at the front of the hoof) Toe (located at the front of the hoof)

23 The Hoof: Blood Circulation Photo: EQUUS

24 Parts Of The Hoof: Side View Photo: EQUUS

25 Parts Of The Hoof: Bottom View Photo: EQUUS Photo: Unknown Source

26 Hoof Drawing: Bottom View

27 Normal Hoof Care Clean daily, hoof pick from the hoof heel to hoof toe Clean daily, hoof pick from the hoof heel to hoof toe Examine for injury, whenever the horse is showing signs of lameness or whenever cleaning the hoof Examine for injury, whenever the horse is showing signs of lameness or whenever cleaning the hoof Add or limit moisture, via dressings or sealants Add or limit moisture, via dressings or sealants Trim or shoe : EVERY 6-8 WEEKS or more frequently depending on horse and season Trim or shoe : EVERY 6-8 WEEKS or more frequently depending on horse and season

28 Hoof Problems Bruises (stone bruises) Bruises (stone bruises) Cracks – quarter and/or toe Cracks – quarter and/or toe Laminitis (inflammation/infection of laminae) Laminitis (inflammation/infection of laminae) Photos: Unknown Source

29 Hoof Problems Founder, typically caused from over-feeding Founder, typically caused from over-feeding Navicular Disease: not actually a disease, it typically starts from an injury such as stepping on a stone or something else that causes injury to navicular bone Navicular Disease: not actually a disease, it typically starts from an injury such as stepping on a stone or something else that causes injury to navicular bone Thrush, a bacterial disease that occurs in hooves that are not cleaned out on a regular (and often) basis and the horse tends to spend much time in mud, manure, and/or in other moist conditions Thrush, a bacterial disease that occurs in hooves that are not cleaned out on a regular (and often) basis and the horse tends to spend much time in mud, manure, and/or in other moist conditions

30 Horse Shoes/Shoeing Often times referred as a necessary evil: Often times referred as a necessary evil: Nailing an iron plate to foot doesnt make walking easier Nailing an iron plate to foot doesnt make walking easier The weight of the shoe does not increase agility The weight of the shoe does not increase agility Nail holes weaken the hoof wall Nail holes weaken the hoof wall Nail holes facilitate entry ease for bacteria and infections Nail holes facilitate entry ease for bacteria and infections Must change the shoe every 6-8 weeks because of hoof growth Must change the shoe every 6-8 weeks because of hoof growth Positive Purposes: Positive Purposes: Protects the hoof against wear, especially when working Protects the hoof against wear, especially when working Better traction in unfavorable conditions and terrain Better traction in unfavorable conditions and terrain Helps to correct defects in stance or gait Helps to correct defects in stance or gait Helps to cure hoof diseases and hoof defects Helps to cure hoof diseases and hoof defects Helps to prevent a multitude of hoof problems Helps to prevent a multitude of hoof problems

31 A Good Shoeing Job Balance Balance The nails are evenly spaced around the hoof The nails are evenly spaced around the hoof All of the clinches firmly set All of the clinches firmly set The shoe fits foot….it is the right size shoe The shoe fits foot….it is the right size shoe The heels of the shoe extend 1/16 of an inch beyond horses heel, this allows for expansion The heels of the shoe extend 1/16 of an inch beyond horses heel, this allows for expansion

32 Corrective Trimming Can be used when foal is young Can be used when foal is young Must be done on a gradual basis or it will cause lameness (or worst) Must be done on a gradual basis or it will cause lameness (or worst) Should only be undertaken by an individual with experience and knowledge Should only be undertaken by an individual with experience and knowledge

33 Therapeutic/Corrective Shoeing Should only be done by someone who is very experienced and knowledgeable Should only be done by someone who is very experienced and knowledgeable Bar shoes are an example of something that is becoming more and more common….the purpose of bar shoes is for support Bar shoes are an example of something that is becoming more and more common….the purpose of bar shoes is for support There are many types of corrective/therapeutic shoes and shoeing, but each has a specific goal/purpose There are many types of corrective/therapeutic shoes and shoeing, but each has a specific goal/purpose WEBSITE: WEBSITE:

34 Summary: Horse Basic Care Housing that provides safety and comfort Housing that provides safety and comfort Proper sanitation (removal and disinfecting) Proper sanitation (removal and disinfecting) Always provide clean and fresh feed/hay Always provide clean and fresh feed/hay Always provide only clear and cool water Always provide only clear and cool water Proper management Proper management Health---care and maintenance Health---care and maintenance Teeth---care and maintenance Teeth---care and maintenance Hooves---care and maintenance Hooves---care and maintenance


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