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The Equine Hoof By: Nadja Koehler.

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Presentation on theme: "The Equine Hoof By: Nadja Koehler."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Equine Hoof By: Nadja Koehler

2 Hoof Wall Made up of keratinized epithelial cells
Cells are arranged in tubules and run from coronary band to ground surface Thickest at toe becoming thinner at quarters (sides) Contains pigment

3 Hoof Wall Function: Weight-bearing surface of the hoof
Helps retain moisture Protect internal structures of the foot

4 Laminae Two Layers: Insensitive-forms inner layer of hoof wall
Sensitive-covers surface of coffin bone, acts as attachment for hoof wall and coffin bone, and acts as main area of circulation within foot White Line-yellowish area where layers intermesh

5 Bars Function: Where hoof wall is reflected back toward toe
Located in heel area of hoof Function: Prevent over-expansion of hoof wall

6 Sole Covers bottom of coffin bone Sensitive Self-limiting growth
Sloughs off when thickness > hoof wall Concave at ground surface Shape prevents sole from directly bearing weight Easily bruised Occurs when bearing weight: heavy riders, “flat feet”

7 Frog Occupies area between bars Wedge-shaped Sensitive
Apex — point of frog Cleft—ridge in rear portion of frog Sensitive Produced by papillae Elastic Moisture content ~ 50% Greasy secretions from fat glands bet. digital cushion and frog

8 Digital Cushion Functions: Also called plantar cushion Fleshy “heel”
Back half of hoof Fibro-elastic, fatty Functions: Shock absorber for foot Pumps blood from foot back to heart

9 Bones Three Bones: Short pastern Navicular bone
Partly in and partly above hoof Navicular bone Smallest bone Increases articular surface and movement of coffin bone

10 Bones Continued Coffin bone
Location-to the front and slightly to outer side of hoof Largest bone Provides shape to foot and rigidity needed for weight-bearing Resembles miniature hoof in shape


12 The Horse’s Second Heart
What do I mean?? The Hoof, of course!

13 How? Blood is pumped to the hoof from the heart through arteries
With each step, pressure is put on the veins in the plantar cushion of hoof which pumps the blood back to the heart As this pressure is released, the blood flows back to the hoof through the arteries by a combination of heart pulses and gravity

14 Lameness How? Most lameness can be prevented
Proper foot care and management

15 Healthy Hooves Frog is a good indicator of foot health
Daily maintenance prevents lameness Good foot care should include: Regularity--Routine cleaning Frequency--Periodic trimming Cleanliness Use of proper corrective measures--Corrections and treatment

16 Routine Cleaning Includes use of: Always clean from heel toward toe
Hoof pick Fine-bristled wire brush Always clean from heel toward toe Do not apply too much pressure with either tool. This can cause: Damage-bruising, abcess, infection, etc. Disturbance of moisture balance

17 Trimming Goal: To maintain proper shape and length of the hoof Hooves should be trimmed every 4-6 weeks depending on usage of your horse Tools: Hoof knife Nippers Rasp

18 What causes lameness? Stone in the foot- Bruised sole- Corns-
Stones lodge between shoe and frog Bruised sole- Direct injury of flat of foot by stones or irregular ground Corns- Bruising of sole between bar and hoof wall Caused from poorly fitted shoes or neglect to reshod regularly

19 Causes continued... Pricked foot or Puncture wounds- Hoof cracks-
Result from foreign objects entering sole (stone, glass, wire, etc.) Foreign objects can stay in foot for as long as a year Hoof cracks- Occur mostly in dry or untrimmed hooves Can also be caused by injury of hoof forming tissue Thrush- Bacterial infection of frog and sole due to irregular cleaning and dirty conditions

20 Causes continued... Laminitis- Navicular disease-
Inflammation of laminae Caused by overeating of grain, ingestion of cold water by a hot horse, retained afterbirth, overfatness, idle horse on a lush pasture Navicular disease- Caused by injury to navicular bone Common in breeds with genetic defects in conformation Increased probability with heavy use on hard ground

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