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Published byMackenzie Gammons
Modified over 2 years ago
Machine Guarding MODULE 19
2©2006 TEEX What hazards exist? Crushed by or drawn into equipment Struck by moving parts Struck by failed components or particles
3©2006 TEEX Key parts of machines 1.Point of operation: where work is performed on the material, such as cutting, shaping, boring, or forming of stock. 2.Power Transmission Device: transmits energy to the part of the machine performing the work Includes flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings, cams, spindles, chains, cranks, and gears.
4©2006 TEEX Key parts of machines 3.Operation Controls: Control mechanisms 4.Other moving parts: can include reciprocating, rotating, and transverse moving parts, feed mechanisms, and auxiliary parts of the machine
5©2006 TEEX Hazards to be Guarded Things to guard include In-running nip points Rotating equipment Flying chips or sparks Belts or gears Parts that impact or shear
6©2006 TEEX Rotating Parts Can grip hair or clothing Can force the body into a dangerous position Projecting pieces increase risk
7©2006 TEEX In-Running Nip Points Between 2 rotating parts Between rotating and tangential parts Between rotating and fixed parts which shear, crush, or abrade
8©2006 TEEX Reciprocating Parts Risk of being struck between stationary and moving part
9©2006 TEEX Transverse motion Continuous straight line motion Worker struck or caught in pinch or shear point
10©2006 TEEX Cutting action Direct injury from cutting action Flying chips or sparks Saws, drills, lathes, mills
11©2006 TEEX Punching action Ram stamps materials Danger at point of operation
12©2006 TEEX Shearing action Powered blade that shears materials Hazard at point of operation
13©2006 TEEX Bending action Power applied to a slide to stamp/shape materials Hazard at point of operation
14©2006 TEEX Guarding Principles Prevent contact between hazardous moving parts and body or clothing Secure guard: not easily removed Protect from objects falling into machinery No new hazards: sharp/rough edges No interference with job/comfort/speed Allow safe lubrication: without removing guards if possible
15©2006 TEEX Guarding Methods Location / distance Guards Fixed Interlocked Adjustable Self-adjusting
16©2006 TEEX Guarding Methods Devices Presence sensing Pullback Restraint Safety controls (tripwire cable, two-hand control, etc.) Gates
17©2006 TEEX Guarding Methods Feeding & ejection methods Automatic and/or semi-automatic feed and ejection Robots Miscellaneous aids Awareness barriers Protective shields Hand-feeding tools
18©2006 TEEX Fixed Guard Barrier is a permanent part of machine Preferable over other types
19©2006 TEEX Interlocked Guard Stops motion when guard is opened or removed Interlocked guard on revolving drum
20©2006 TEEX Adjustable Guard Barrier may be adjusted for variable operations What are the drawbacks? Bandsaw blade adjustable guard
21©2006 TEEX Self-Adjusting Guard Adjusts according to size/position of material Circular table saw self-adjusting guard
22©2006 TEEX Pullback Device Cables attached to operators hands or wrists Removes hands from point of operation during danger period What are the drawbacks?
23©2006 TEEX Restraint Device Cables attached to fixed point and wrists or hands Adjustable to let hands travel in predetermined area May be accompanied by hand-feeding tools
24©2006 TEEX Safety Tripwire Cable Device located around the perimeter of or near the danger area Operator must be able to reach the cable to stop the machine
25©2006 TEEX Two-Hand Control Requires constant pressure on both pads to activate the machine Hands on controls at safe distance while machine is in dangerous cycle
26©2006 TEEX Gate Must close fully to protect user before cycle will start Gate OpenGate Closed
27©2006 TEEX Safeguarding by Location/Distance Location of hazardous parts that is inaccessible or not a hazard during normal operation Must maintain safe distance Training, warning, communication necessary
28©2006 TEEX Protective Shields Protection from flying particles or splashing fluids Do not protect completely from machine hazards
29©2006 TEEX What regulations apply? 29 CFR 1910 Subpart O 29 CFR 1910 Subpart P for hand and portable power tools API RP 54 6.8 Machinery and Tools
Machinery and Machine Guarding 29 CFR 1910 SUBPART O
31©2006 TEEX Organization 211.Definitions 212.General requirements for all machines 213.Woodworking machinery requirements 215.Abrasive wheel machinery 216.Mills and calenders in the rubber and plastics industries 217.Mechanical power presses 218.Forging machines 219.Mechanical power-transmission apparatus
General Requirements 29 CFR 1910.212
33©2006 TEEX 1910.212(a) Machine guarding 1.One or more types of guarding to protect from hazards. Barrier guards Two-hand tripping devices Electronic safety devices Etc. 2.Affixed to machine where possible Guard must not cause its own hazard
34©2006 TEEX 1910.212(a) Machine guarding 3.Point of operation guarding: ii.Guarded if exposes employee to injury According to standards or Keep any part of body out of danger zone iii.Hand tools to permit material handling – in addition to guards, not instead iv.Examples of machines requiring guards on point of operation
35©2006 TEEX 1910.212(a) Machine guarding 4.Revolving barrels, drums, containers guarded by interlocked enclosure (cannot turn without guard in place) 5.Exposure to fan blades: guard openings 1/2 inch
36©2006 TEEX 1910.212(b) Anchoring fixed machinery Machines designed for fixed location must be anchored to prevent moving This pedestal grinder is designed for anchoring, but is not anchored
Abrasive Wheel Machinery 29 CFR 1910.215
38©2006 TEEX 1910.215(a) General requirements Abrasive wheels must be guarded, with exceptions Guard design dependent on type of work and type of wheel
39©2006 TEEX 1910.215(a) General requirements Work rests: Rigid, clamped in place securely Adjusted to within 1/8 inch of wheel Never adjusted while in motion Work rest is closely adjusted
40©2006 TEEX 1910.215(b)(9) Exposure adjustment For type where operator stands in front of opening: Adjustable for decreasing wheel size Adjustable tongue guard must never be more than ¼ inch from wheel
41©2006 TEEX 1910.215(d) Mounting Inspect for damage and ring test immediately before mounting Tap with light nonmetallic implement (screwdriver, wooden mallet) If sound is dead, cracked ring may not be used Check spindle speed against maximum for wheel
42©2006 TEEX Ring Test
Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus 29 CFR 1910.219
44©2006 TEEX Organization of 1910.219 (a) General requirements (b) Prime-mover guards (1)Flywheels (2)Cranks and connecting rods (3)Tail rods or extension piston rods (c) Shafting (d) Pulleys
45©2006 TEEX Organization of 1910.219 (e) Belt, rope, and chain drives (f) Gears, sprockets, and chains (g) Guarding friction drives (h) Keys, setscrews, and other projections (i) Collars and couplings (j) Bearings and facilities for oiling (k) Guarding of clutches, cutoff couplings, and clutch pulleys
46©2006 TEEX Organization of 1910.219 (l) Belt shifters, clutches, shippers, poles, perches, and fasteners (m) Standard guards-general requirements (o) Approved materials (p) Care of equipment
Hazards on Oil and Gas Sites Machine Guarding
48©2006 TEEX Parts Requiring Guarding Drive belts and shafts – mud pumps and tank area Pony rods Rotating parts Shale shaker Agitator shafts & couplings Moving generator parts (explore)
49©2006 TEEX Mud Pumps
50©2006 TEEX Shale Shaker
51©2006 TEEX Generators
52©2006 TEEX Parts Requiring Guarding Air compressors Crown sheaves Kelly bushing – or controls Kelly bushing Rotary chain drive Air hoist line Drawworks Bench grinder wheels
53©2006 TEEX Crown Sheaves
54©2006 TEEX Kelly and Bushing Alternative Abatement: STD 1-12.28 CH-1
55©2006 TEEX Drawworks
56©2006 TEEX Parts Requiring Guarding Belts, drive chains, gears and drives on power and hand tools Traveling blocks Sheaves Cathead??
57©2006 TEEX Drilling Line
58©2006 TEEX Traveling Block
59©2006 TEEX Hoisting Line
Safety Responsibilities Machine Guarding
61©2006 TEEX Safety Responsibilities Management: Ensure all machinery is properly guarded Supervisors: Train employees on specific guard rules in their areas Ensure machine guards remain in place and are functional Immediately correct machine guard deficiencies Employees: Do not remove guards unless machine is locked and tagged Report machine guard problems to supervisors immediately Do not operate equipment unless guards are in place
62©2006 TEEX Training Operators/affected employees should receive training on: Hazards associated with particular machines How the safeguards provide protection and the hazards for which they are intended How and why to use the safeguards How and when safeguards can be removed and by whom What to do if a safeguard is damaged, missing, or unable to provide adequate protection
Hand and Portable Power Tools 29 CFR 1910 Subpart P and 1926 Subpart I
64©2006 TEEX Construction vs. General Industry Construction, alteration, or repair? Applicable standard depends on type of operations: 1910 Subpart P: Hand and Portable Powered Tools and Other Hand-Held Equipment 1926 Subpart I: Tools – Hand and Power
65©2006 TEEX 1910.242 General Employer is responsible for safe condition of tools and equipment Including equipment furnished by employee Compressed air must not be used for cleaning unless: Reduced to <30 p.s.i. Only with effective chip guarding and PPE
66©2006 TEEX 1910.243(a) Portable powered tools Portable circular saws >2 in. guarded Automatic return to covering position Switches and controls: constant pressure control for circular and chain saws other controls for other tools as appropriate
67©2006 TEEX 1910.243(a) Portable powered tools Portable belt sanding machine guarding Nip points Unused run of sanding belt Cracked saws: remove from service Grounding: Meet Subpart S
68©2006 TEEX 1910.243(b) Pneumatic powered tools and hose Tool retainer to prevent ejection Airhose designed for applied pressure and service
69©2006 TEEX 1910.243 Guarding of portable powered tools c.Portable abrasive wheels: Must be guarded Ring test and inspection d.Explosive actuated fastening tools e.Power lawnmowers Guarding Controls and shutoff device Labeling, manuals Design
70©2006 TEEX 1910.244 Other portable tools and equipment a.Jacks Loading and marking Operation and maintenance b.Abrasive blast cleaning nozzles: operating valve and support
71©2006 TEEX 1926.300 General requirements Maintained in safe condition whether furnished by employer or employee Shall be guarded when designed to accommodate guards Moving parts that create hazards shall be guarded by one or more methods Fan openings; anchoring machinery
72©2006 TEEX 1926.300 General requirements Abrasive wheel guards PPE if necessary for objects, particles, gases Allowable switches by tool type
73©2006 TEEX 1926.301 Hand tools Use of unsafe hand tools not permitted Wrenches shall not be used when jaws are sprung to the point of slippage Including adjustable, pipe, end & socket wrenches Impact tools shall be kept free of mushroomed heads Such as drift pins, wedges & chisels Wooden handles shall be kept Free of splinters or cracks Tight in the tool
74©2006 TEEX 1926.302 Power-operated hand tools Electric power-operated tools Double-insulated or grounded Never hold by the cord Pneumatic power-operated tools Secure tools, attachments, and muzzle Compressed air use restrictions Never hold by the hose Reduce pressure in case of hose failure
75©2006 TEEX 1926.302 Power-operated hand tools Fuel operated tools Stop while refueling or servicing Watch concentrations in enclosed spaces Hydraulic power tools Fire-resistant fluids Safe operating pressures Powder-actuated tools
76©2006 TEEX 1926 Subpart I Organization 1926.303 Abrasive wheels and tools 1926.304 Woodworking tools 1926.305 Jacks 1926.306 Air receivers 1926.307 Mechanical power- transmission apparatus
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