Presentation on theme: "School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS University of Connecticut May 24-25, 2006 www.pbis.org www.swis.org."— Presentation transcript:
School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS University of Connecticut May 24-25,
PURPOSE Enhance capacity of school teams to provide the best behavioral supports for all students…...
MAIN TRAINING OBJECTIVES Establish leadership team Establish staff agreements Build working knowledge of SW-PBS practices & systems Develop individualized action plan for SW- PBS –Office Discipline Data –EBS Self-Assessment Survey –Team Implementation Checklist
Getting to these objectives Rationale & features Implementation practices, structures, & processes Outcomes & examples Brief activities & team action planning
Competing, Inter-related National Goals Improve literacy, math, geography, science, etc. Make schools safe, caring, & focused on teaching & learning Improve student character & citizenship Eliminate bullying Prevent drug use Prepare for postsecondary education Provide a free & appropriate education for all Prepare viable workforce Affect rates of high risk, antisocial behavior Leave no child behind Etc….
SW-PBS Logic! Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable (Zins & Ponti, 1990)
Context Matters: Examples Individual Student vs. School-wide
Reiko Assessments indicate that Reiko performs in average to above average range in most academic areas. However, her teacher has noticed Reikos frequent talking & asking & answering questions without raising her hand has become an annoying problem to other students & to teacher. What would you do?
Kiyoshi Kiyoshi is a highly competent student, but has long history of antisocial behavior. He is quick to anger, & minor events quickly escalate to major confrontations. He has few friends, & most of his conflicts occur with peers in hallways & cafeteria & on bus. In last 2 months, he has been given 8 days of in school detention & 6 days of out of school suspension. In a recent event, he broke glasses of another student. What would you do?
Mitch Mitch displays a number of stereotypic (e.g., light filtering with his fingers, head rolling) & self-injurious behaviors (e.g., face slapping, arm biting), & his communications are limited to a verbal vocabulary of about 25 words. When his usual routines are changed or items are not in their usual places, his rates of stereotypic & self-injurious behavior increase quickly. What would you do?
Rachel Rachel dresses in black every day, rarely interacts with teachers or other students, & writes & distributes poems & stories about witchcraft, alien nations, gundams, & other science fiction topics. When approached or confronted by teachers, she pulls hood of her black sweatshirt or coat over her head & walks away. Mystified by Rachels behavior, teachers usually shake their heads & let her walk away. Recently, Rachel carefully wrapped a dead squirrel in black cloth & placed it on her desk. Other students became frightened when she began talking to it. What would you do?
Fortunately, we have a science that guides us to… Assess these situations Develop behavior intervention plans based on our assessment Monitor student progress & make enhancements All in ways that can be culturally & contextually appropriate Crone & Horner, 2003
However, context matters…. What factors influence our ability to implement what we know with accuracy, consistency, & durability for students like Rachel, Reiko, Mitch, & Kiyoshi?
141 Days! Intermediate/senior high school with 880 students reported over 5,100 office discipline referrals in one academic year. Nearly 2/3 of students have received at least one office discipline referral. Reiko is in this school!
5,100 referrals = 76,500 min = 1,275 hrs = hrs
Da place ta be During 4 th period, in-school detention room has so many students that the overflow is sent to the counselors office. Most students have been assigned for being in the hallways after the late bell. Kiyoshi is in this school!
Cliques During Advisory Class, thesportsters sit in the back of the room, & goths sit at the front. Most class activities result in out of seat, yelling arguments between the two groups. Mitch is in this classroom!
Four corners Three rival gangs are competing for four corners. Teachers actively avoid the area. Because of daily conflicts, vice principal has moved her desk to four corners. Rachel is in this school!
FTD On 1 st day of school, a teacher found floral arrangement on his desk. Welcome to the neighborhood was written on the card You are in this School!
Questions! What would behavior support look like if Mitch, Rachel, Kiyoshi, & Reiko were in these classrooms & schools? Are these environments safe, caring, & effective? Context Matters!
Messages Repeated! 1.Successful Individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or schools that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable 2.Learning & teaching environments must be redesigned to increase the likelihood of behavioral & academic success
2 Worries & Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior Get Tough (practices) Train-&-Hope (systems)
Worry #1 Teaching by Getting Tough Runyon: I hate this f____ing school, & youre a dumbf_____. Teacher: That is disrespectful language. Im sending you to the office so youll learn never to say those words again….starting now!
Reactive responses are predictable…. When we experience aversive situation, we select interventions that produce immediate relief –Remove student –Remove ourselves –Modify physical environment –Assign responsibility for change to student &/or others
When behavior doesnt improve, we Get Tougher! Zero tolerance policies Increased surveillance Increased suspension & expulsion In-service training by expert Alternative programming …..Predictable systems response !
Erroneous assumption that student… Is inherently bad Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of aversives Will be better tomorrow…….
But….false sense of safety/security! Fosters environments of control Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior Shifts accountability away from school Devalues child-adult relationship Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming
Science of behavior has taught us that students…. Are NOT born with bad behaviors Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences …….. Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback….consider function
Non-examples of Function- Based approach Function = outcome, result, purpose, consequence Lantana, you skipped 2 school days, so were going to suspend you for 2 more. Phloem, Im taking your book away because you obviously arent ready to learn. You want my attention?! Ill show you attention,…lets take a walk down to the office & have a little chat with the Principal.
2001 Surgeon Generals Report on Youth Violence: Recommendations Establish intolerant attitude toward deviance –Break up antisocial networks…change social context –Improve parent effectiveness Increase commitment to school –Increase academic success –Create positive school climates Teach & encourage individual skills & competence
Worry #2:Train & Hope
Development Map 2+ years of team training Annual booster events Coaching/facilitator school & district levels Regular self-assessment & evaluation data SIG & Center on PBIS for coordination & TA
Role of Coaching Liaison between school teams & PBS leadership team Local facilitation of process Local resource for data-based decision making
SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Student Behavior OUTCOMES Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement Supporting Decision Making 4 PBS Elements
Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems 1-5% 5-10% 80-90% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success
Agreements Team Data-based Action Plan ImplementationEvaluation GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: Getting Started CO PBS FCPS
Behavioral Capacity Priority & Status Data-based Decision Making Communications Administrator Team Administrator Specialized Support Student Community Non-Teaching Teaching Family Representation Start with Team that Works. Team-led Process Meetings
Initiative, Project, Committee PurposeOutcomeTarget Group Staff Involved SIP/SID/e tc Attendance Committee Character Education Safety Committee School Spirit Committee Discipline Committee DARE Committee EBS Work Group Working Smarter
Initiative, Committee PurposeOutcomeTarget Group Staff Involved SIP/SID Attendance Committee Increase attendance Increase % of students attending daily All studentsEric, Ellen, Marlee Goal #2 Character Education Improve character All studentsMarlee, J.S., Ellen Goal #3 Safety Committee Improve safetyPredictable response to threat/crisis Dangerous students Has not metGoal #3 School Spirit Committee Enhance school spirit Improve moraleAll studentsHas not met Discipline Committee Improve behaviorDecrease office referrals Bullies, antisocial students, repeat offenders Ellen, Eric, Marlee, Otis Goal #3 DARE Committee Prevent drug useHigh/at-risk drug users Don EBS Work GroupImplement 3-tier model Decrease office referrals, increase attendance, enhance academic engagement, improve grades All studentsEric, Ellen, Marlee, Otis, Emma Goal #2 Goal #3 Sample Teaming Matrix
3-4 Year Commitment Top 3 School- Wide Initiatives Coaching & Facilitation Dedicated Resources & Time Administrative Participation 3-Tiered Prevention Logic Agreements & Supports
Work as team for 10 minutes Complete Establishing Team Membership (1 p. 4-5) Touch Committee Group Work (6) Touch Guidelines for Conducting Leadership Team Meetings (3) Touch EBS Self-Assessment Survey (4) Present 2-3 big ideas from your group (1 min. reports) Leadership Team Review
Self-Assessment Efficient Systems of Data Management Team-based Decision Making Evidence- Based Practices Multiple Systems Existing Discipline Data Data-based Action Plan SWIS
Referrals by Problem Behavior
Referrals per Location
Referrals per Student
Referrals by Time of Day
Do we need to tweak our action plan? How often? Who? What? Where? When? How much? If problem, Which students/staff? What system? What intervention? What outcome? + If many students are making same mistake, consider changing system….not students + Start by teaching, monitoring & rewarding…before increasing punishment
Discipline Data Review 8 minutes Complete Discipline Referral Data Self-Assessment Checklist (9) Report 2-3 big ideas from your team discussion (1 min. reports)
Nonclassroom Setting Systems Classroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems
1.Common purpose & approach to discipline 2.Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors 3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior 4.Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation School-wide Systems
Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged Teaching classroom routines & cues taught & encouraged Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult- student interaction Active supervision Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors Frequent precorrections for chronic errors Effective academic instruction & curriculum Classroom Setting Systems
Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged Active supervision by all staff –Scan, move, interact Precorrections & reminders Positive reinforcement Nonclassroom Setting Systems
Behavioral competence at school & district levels Function-based behavior support planning Team- & data-based decision making Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes Targeted social skills & self-management instruction Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations Individual Student Systems
Organizational Features Common Vision Common Language Common Experience ORGANIZATION MEMBERS
School Rules NO Food NO Weapons NO Backpacks NO Drugs/Smoking NO Bullying Redesign Learning & Teaching Environment
Few positive SW expectations defined, taught, & encouraged
Jesse Bobo Elementary June 8, 2004 SC
Carmen Arace Intermediate, Bloomfield
Reviewing Strive for Five Be respectful. Be safe. Work peacefully. Strive for excellence. Follow directions. McCormick Elem. MD 2003
Identifying School-wide Expectations 11 minutes Select different spokesperson Review/develop positively stated school-wide expectations (1 p. 6-7) –3-5 positively stated –Mutually exclusive –Comprehensive –Contextually appropriate Present 2-3 big ideas from your team (1 min. reports)
Expectations & behavioral skills are taught & recognized in natural context
SETTING All Settings HallwaysPlaygroundsCafeteria Library/ Computer Lab AssemblyBus Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepared. Walk.Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, compute. Sit in one spot. Watch for your stop. Respect Others Be kind. Hands/feet to self. Help/share with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whisper. Return books. Listen/watch. Use appropriate applause. Use a quiet voice. Stay in your seat. Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays & utensils. Clean up eating area. Push in chairs. Treat books carefully. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriately. Wipe your feet. Sit appropriately. TEACHING MATRIX Expectations
SETTING All Settings HallwaysPlaygroundsCafeteria Library/ Compute r Lab AssemblyBus Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepared. Walk.Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, compute. Sit in one spot. Watch for your stop. Respect Others Be kind. Hands/feet to self. Help/share with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whisper. Return books. Listen/watch. Use appropriate applause. Use a quiet voice. Stay in your seat. Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays & utensils. Clean up eating area. Push in chairs. Treat books carefully. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriately. Wipe your feet. Sit appropriately. TEACHING MATRIX Expectations
Teaching Matrix Activity ClassroomLunchroomBusHallwayAssembly Respect Others Use inside voice Eat your own food Stay in your seat Stay to right Arrive on time to speaker Respect Environment & Property Recycle paperReturn trays Keep feet on floor Put trash in cans Take litter with you Respect Yourself Do your best Wash your hands Be at stop on time Use your words Listen to speaker Respect Learning Have materials ready Eat balanced diet Go directly from bus to class Go directly to class Discuss topic in class w/ others
Expected behaviors are visible Sirrine Elementary June 8, 2004 SC
RAH – at Adams City High School (Respect – Achievement – Honor) RAHClassroomHallway/ Commons CafeteriaBathrooms Respect Be on time; attend regularly; follow class rules Keep location neat, keep to the right, use appropriate lang., monitor noise level, allow others to pass Put trash in cans, push in your chair, be courteous to all staff and students Keep area clean, put trash in cans, be mindful of others personal space, flush toilet Achievement Do your best on all assignments and assessments, take notes, ask questions Keep track of your belongings, monitor time to get to class Check space before you leave, keep track of personal belongings Be a good example to other students, leave the room better than you found it Honor Do your own work; tell the truth Be considerate of yours and others personal space Keep your own place in line, maintain personal boundaries Report any graffiti or vandalism
RAH – Athletics RAHPracticeCompetitionsEligibilityLetteringTeam Travel Respect Listen to coaches directions; push yourself and encourage teammates to excel. Show positive sportsmanship; Solve problems in mature manner; Positive inter- actions with refs, umps, etc. Show up on time for every practice and competition. Show up on time for every practice and competition; Compete x%. Take care of your own possessions and litter; be where you are directed to be. Achievement Set example in the classroom and in the playing field as a true achiever. Set and reach for both individual and team goals; encourage your teammates. Earn passing grades; Attend school regularly; only excused absences Demonstrate academic excellence. Complete your assignments missed for team travel. Honor Demonstrate good sportsmanship and team spirit. Suit up in clean uniforms; Win with honor and integrity; Represent your school with good conduct. Show team pride in and out of the school. Stay out of trouble – set a good example for others. Suit up for any competitions you are not playing. Show team honor. Cheer for teammates. Remember you are acting on behalf of the school at all times and demonstrate team honor/pride.
P Perseverance Holding to a course of action despite obstacles Stay positive Set goals Learn from mistakes R Respect To show consideration, appreciation, and acceptance Respect yourself Respect others Demonstrate appropriate language and behavior I Integrity Adherence to an agreed upon code of behavior Be responsible Do your own work Be trustworthy and trust others D Discipline Managing ones self to achieve goals and meet expectations Strive for consistency Attend class daily; be on time Meet deadlines; do your homework E Excellence Being of finest or highest quality Do your personal best Exceed minimum expectations Inspire excellence in others NEHS website, Oct. 26, 2004
E Ola Pono- to live the proper way School Behavioral Standards All SettingsWalkwaysPlayground Recess P.E. CafeteriaRestroomsArrival/ Dismissal AssemblyField Trips Kuleana Be Responsible Be on time Be prepared w/ necessary supplies Be accountable for choices Respond to/complete tasks Keep area clean & litter free Plan ahead Walk directly to destination Take care of equipment/facilities Plan appropriate times for drinks/ restroom visits Have lunch card ready Be orderly in all lines Flush Turn off water Use restroom at designated times Use facilities for intended purposes Have money/pass ready Be on time Listen attentively Keep hands and feet to yourself Turn in paperwork/$ on time Wear appropriate footwear/clothing Bring home lunch Hoihi Be Respectful Use appropriate voice Listen to/follow directions of staff Respect self, others property Be polite/use manners Express appreciation Accept/respect differences in people Use quiet voices when classes are in session Be a good sport Include others in your play Use proper table manners Eat your own food Observe privacy of others Use polite words and actions Listen to JPOs supervisors and bus driver Use quiet voice and polite words on bus Focus on program Sit quietly Clap at appropriate times Care for the field trip site Listen to speakers Laulima Be Cooperative Be helpful Participate with a positive attitude Be patient; share/ wait your turn Acknowledge others Play in designated areas only Keep movement flowing Share equipment and play space Follow rules/ procedures Wait patiently/ quietly Enter/exit vehicles in an orderly fashion Share bus seats Sit properly in designated area Enter/exit in an orderly fashion Remain seated unless asked to do otherwise Stay with your chaperone/group Malama Be Safe Immediately report dangerous situations Remain in designated areas Practice healthy behaviors/universal precautions Use appropriate footwear Follow safety rules in all areas Walk at all times Avoid rough, dangerous play Use equipment properly Walk at all times Wash hands Chew food well; dont rush Use designated restroom Walk Wait in designated area Remain seated when riding the bus Watch out for traffic Use crosswalk only Be careful when approaching or leaving the stage area Use the buddy system Follow school/bus rules King Kaumualii on Kauai
Walkways Kuleana: Be Responsible Plan ahead Walk directly to destination Hoihi: Be Respectful Walk quietly when classes are in session Laulima: Be Cooperative Keep movement flowing Share equipment and play space Malama: Be Safe Walk at all times King Kaumualii on Kauai
Kuleana: Be Responsible Take care of equipment/facilities Plan appropriate times for drinks/restroom visits Hoihi: Be Respectful Be a good sport Laulima: Be Cooperative Follow rules/ procedures Malama: Be Safe Avoid rough, dangerous play Use equipment properly Playground / Recess / P.E. King Kaumualii on Kauai
Kuleana: Be Responsible Have lunch card ready Be orderly in all lines Hoihi: Be Respectful Use proper table manners Eat your own food Laulima: Be Cooperative Wait patiently/ quietly Malama: Be Safe Walk at all times Wash hands Chew food well; dont rush Cafeteria King Kaumualii on Kauai
Kuleana: Be Responsible Turn in paperwork/$ on time Wear appropriate footwear/clothing Bring home lunch Hoihi: Be Respectful Care for the field trip site Listen to speakers Laulima: Be Cooperative Stay with your chaperone/group Malama: Be Safe Use the buddy system Follow school/bus rules Field Trips King Kaumualii on Kauai
Skill Name Getting Help (How to ask for assistance for difficulty tasks) Teaching Examples 1. When you re working on a math problem that you can t figure out, raise your hand and wait until the teacher can help you. 2. You and a friend are working together on a science experiment but you are missing a piece of lab equipment, ask the teacher for the missing equipment. 3. You are reading a story but you don t know the meaning of most of the words, ask the teacher to read and explain the word. Kid Activity 1. Ask 2-3 students to give an example of a situation in which they needed help to complete a task, activity, or direction. 2. Ask students to indicate or show how they could get help. 3. Encourage and support appropriate discussion/responses. Minimize attention for inappropriate responses. After the Lesson (During the Day) 1. Just before giving students difficult or new task, direction, or activity, ask them to tell you how they could get help if they have difficulty (precorrection). 2. When you see students having difficulty with a task (e.g., off task, complaining), ask them to indicate that they need help (reminder). 3. Whenever a student gets help the correct way, provide specific praise to the student. Cool Tool
Teaching Academics & Behaviors
Traveling Passports Precorrecting new kids in Tigard, Oregon Procedures –Meet with key adults –Review expectations –Go to class
Character Education Easy to change moral knowledge difficult to change moral conduct To change moral conduct... –Adults must model moral behavior –Students must experience academic success –Students must be taught social skills for success
Teaching Expectations Meet as team for 9 minutes Review/develop procedures for teaching school-wide expectations (1 p. 8-10) (5) Present 2-3 big ideas from your team (1 min. reports)
Acknowledging SW Expectations: Rationale To learn, humans require regular & frequent feedback on their actions Humans experience frequent feedback from others, self, & environment –Planned/unplanned –Desirable/undesirable W/o formal feedback to encourage desired behavior, other forms of feedback shape undesired behaviors
Acknowledge & Recognize
Janney Jan 06
The Lucky Winner Is... McCormick Elementary School, MD
Cougar Traits in the Community Student Name __________________________________ Displayed the Cougar Trait of: Respect Responsibility Caring Citizenship (Circle the trait you observed) Signature _____________________________________________ If you would like to write on the back the details of what you observed feel free! Thank you for supporting our youth.
Are Rewards Dangerous? …our research team has conducted a series of reviews and analysis of (the reward) literature; our conclusion is that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our analyses indicate that the argument against the use of rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of circumstances. –Cameron, 2002 Cameron & Pierce, 1994, 2002 Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001
Good morning, class! Teachers report that when students are greeted by an adult in morning, it takes less time to complete morning routines & get first lesson started.
Tools (pbis.org) EBS Self-assessment TIC: Team Implementation Checklist SSS: Safe Schools Survey SET: Systems School-wide Evaluation Tool PBS Implementation & Planning Self- assessment ISSET: Individual Student Systems Evaluation Tool (pilot) SWIS: School-Wide Information System (swis.org)
Action Planning: Guidelines Agree upon decision making procedures Align with school/district goals. Focus on measurable outcomes. Base & adjust decisions on data & local contexts. Give priority to evidence-based programs. Invest in building sustainable implementation supports (>80%) Consider effectiveness, & efficiency, relevance, in decision making (1, 3, 5 rule)
Action Planning (3:00) Review big ideas –Content from today –Build action plan (what, when, how, who) Getting Started (1) SW PBS (B) EBS Self-Assessment Survey (4) School data Logistics –Complete & return TIC (2) TODAY –Develop report to staff –Build data-management (C/9) capacity –Schedule next team meeting date Report 2-3 planned activities from your team action planning (1 min.)
Measurable & justifiable outcomes On-going data-based decision making Evidence-based practices Systems ensuring durable, high fidelity of implementation PBIS Messages
To Conclude Create systems-based preventive continuum of behavior support Focus on adult behavior Establish behavioral competence Utilize data based decisions Give priority to academic success Invest in evidence-based practices Teach & acknowledge behavioral expectations Work from a person-centered, function-based approach Arrange to work smarter