7Competing, Inter-related National Goals Improve literacy, math, geography, science, etc.Make schools safe, caring, & focused on teaching & learningImprove student character & citizenshipEliminate bullyingPrevent drug usePrepare for postsecondary educationProvide a free & appropriate education for allPrepare viable workforceAffect rates of high risk, antisocial behaviorLeave no child behindEtc….
12“Reiko” What would you do? Assessments indicate that Reiko performs in average to above average range in most academic areas. However, her teacher has noticed Reiko’s frequent talking & asking & answering questions without raising her hand has become an annoying problem to other students & to teacher.What would you do?
13“Kiyoshi” What would you do? Kiyoshi is a highly competent student, but has long history of antisocial behavior. He is quick to anger, & minor events quickly escalate to major confrontations. He has few friends, & most of his conflicts occur with peers in hallways & cafeteria & on bus. In last 2 months, he has been given 8 days of in school detention & 6 days of out of school suspension. In a recent event, he broke glasses of another student.What would you do?
14“Mitch” What would you do? Mitch displays a number of stereotypic (e.g., light filtering with his fingers, head rolling) & self-injurious behaviors (e.g., face slapping, arm biting), & his communications are limited to a verbal vocabulary of about 25 words. When his usual routines are changed or items are not in their usual places, his rates of stereotypic & self-injurious behavior increase quickly.What would you do?
15“Rachel” What would you do? Rachel dresses in black every day, rarely interacts with teachers or other students, & writes & distributes poems & stories about witchcraft, alien nations, gundams, & other science fiction topics. When approached or confronted by teachers, she pulls hood of her black sweatshirt or coat over her head & walks away. Mystified by Rachel’s behavior, teachers usually shake their heads & let her walk away. Recently, Rachel carefully wrapped a dead squirrel in black cloth & placed it on her desk. Other students became frightened when she began talking to it.What would you do?
16Fortunately, we have a science that guides us to… Assess these situationsDevelop behavior intervention plans based on our assessmentMonitor student progress & make enhancementsAll in ways that can be culturally & contextually appropriateCrone & Horner, 2003
17However, context matters…. What factors influence our ability to implement what we know with accuracy, consistency, & durability for students like Rachel, Reiko, Mitch, & Kiyoshi?
18“141 Days!” Reiko is in this school! Intermediate/senior high school with 880 students reported over 5,100 office discipline referrals in one academic year. Nearly 2/3 of students have received at least one office discipline referral.Reiko is in this school!
195,100 referrals =76,500 min =1,275 hrs =159 8 hrs
20Kiyoshi is in this school! “Da place ta be”During 4th period, in-school detention room has so many students that the overflow is sent to the counselor’s office. Most students have been assigned for being in the hallways after the late bell.Kiyoshi is in this school!
21Mitch is in this classroom! “Cliques”During Advisory Class, the “sportsters” sit in the back of the room, & “goths” sit at the front. Most class activities result in out of seat, yelling arguments between the two groups.Mitch is in this classroom!
22Rachel is in this school! “Four corners”Three rival gangs are competing for “four corners.” Teachers actively avoid the area. Because of daily conflicts, vice principal has moved her desk to four corners.Rachel is in this school!
23“FTD” You are in this School! On 1st day of school, a teacher found “floral” arrangement on his desk. “Welcome to the neighborhood” was written on the cardYou are in this School!
24Questions!What would behavior support look like if Mitch, Rachel, Kiyoshi, & Reiko were in these classrooms & schools?Are these environments safe, caring, & effective?Context Matters!
25Messages Repeated!Successful Individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or schools that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durableLearning & teaching environments must be redesigned to increase the likelihood of behavioral & academic success
262 Worries & Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior Get Tough (practices)Train-&-Hope (systems)
27Worry #1 “Teaching” by Getting Tough Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.”Teacher: “That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!”
28Immediate & seductive solution….”Get Tough!” Clamp down & increase monitoringRe-re-re-review rulesExtend continuum & consistency of consequencesEstablish “bottom line”...Predictable individual response
29Reactive responses are predictable…. When we experience aversive situation, we select interventions that produce immediate reliefRemove studentRemove ourselvesModify physical environmentAssign responsibility for change to student &/or others
30When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!” Zero tolerance policiesIncreased surveillanceIncreased suspension & expulsionIn-service training by expertAlternative programming…..Predictable systems response!
31Erroneous assumption that student… Is inherently “bad”Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives”Will be better tomorrow…….
32But….false sense of safety/security! Fosters environments of controlTriggers & reinforces antisocial behaviorShifts accountability away from schoolDevalues child-adult relationshipWeakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming
33Science of behavior has taught us that students…. Are NOT born with “bad behaviors”Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences……..Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback….consider function
34Non-examples of Function-Based approach “Function” = outcome, result, purpose, consequence“Lantana, you skipped 2 school days, so we’re going to suspend you for 2 more.”“Phloem, I’m taking your book away because you obviously aren’t ready to learn.”“You want my attention?! I’ll show you attention,…let’s take a walk down to the office & have a little chat with the Principal.”
352001 Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence: Recommendations Establish “intolerant attitude toward deviance”Break up antisocial networks…change social contextImprove parent effectivenessIncrease “commitment to school”Increase academic successCreate positive school climatesTeach & encourage individual skills & competence
37Development “Map” 2+ years of team training Annual “booster” events Coaching/facilitator school & district levelsRegular self-assessment & evaluation dataSIG & Center on PBIS for coordination & TA
38Role of “Coaching” Liaison between school teams & PBS leadership team Local facilitation of processLocal resource for data-based decision making
39Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement4 PBS ElementsOUTCOMESSupportingDecisionMakingSupportingStaff BehaviorDATASYSTEMSPRACTICESSupportingStudent Behavior
40Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE Tertiary Prevention:SpecializedIndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk BehaviorCONTINUUM OFSCHOOL-WIDEINSTRUCTIONAL &POSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORT~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior~15%Primary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & SettingsSAY: One of the most important organizing components of PBS is the establishment of a continuum of behavior support that considers all students and emphasizes prevention. This logic of this 3-tiered approach is derived from the public health approach to disease prevention.All students and staff should be exposed formally and in an on-going manner to primary prevention interventions. Primary prevention is provided to all students and focuses on giving students the necessary pro-social skills that prevents the establishment and occurrence of problem behavior. If done systemically and comprehensively, a majority of students are likely to be affected.Some students will be unresponsive or unsupported by primary prevention, and more specialized interventions will be required. One form of assistance is called secondary prevention, and is characterized by instruction that is more specific and more engaging. These interventions can be standardized to be applied similarly and efficiently across a small number of students. The goal of secondary prevention is to reduce/prevent the likelihood of problem behavior occurrences, and to enable these students to be supported by the school-wide PBS effort.If primary prevention is in place, a small proportion of students will require highly individualized and intensive interventions. The goal or tertiary level interventions is to reduce the intensity, complexity, and impact of the problem behaviors displayed by these students by providing supports that are (a) function-based, (b) contextually appropriate and person-centered, (c) strength-based and instructionally oriented, (d) continuously evaluated and enhanced, and (e) linked to the school-wide PBS approach.~80% of Students
41Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success Academic SystemsBehavioral SystemsIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedHigh IntensityIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable procedures1-5%1-5%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid response5-10%5-10%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseUniversal InterventionsAll studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%Universal InterventionsAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%
42GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started” TeamGENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started”CO PBSAgreementsFCPSData-basedAction PlanSAY: In general, the implementation of a school-wide PBS approach at the school level is built around five main implementation steps.EvaluationImplementation
43Team-led Process Non-Teaching Meetings Family Behavioral Capacity Priority &StatusRepresentationSpecialized SupportAdministratorTeamCommunityData-basedDecisionMakingAdministratorStudentSAY: One of the most important steps is to establish or identify an existing group of individuals who can lead the establishment of a school-wide PBS approach. This team must be made of school staff who are respected, have effective communication skills and means, and can influence school policy, organization, and operations.An important factor in effective leadership teaming is ensuring that members of the team agree on how they will conduct business (e.g., agenda, problem solving, voting, etc.). The Conducting Leadership Team Meetings Checklist (see Appendix.1) can be used to assess for and establish agreements about how team meetings will be conducted.TeachingCommunicationsStart withTeam that“Works.”
44Initiative, Project, Committee Working SmarterInitiative, Project, CommitteePurposeOutcomeTarget GroupStaff InvolvedSIP/SID/etcAttendance CommitteeCharacter EducationSafety CommitteeSchool Spirit CommitteeDiscipline CommitteeDARE CommitteeEBS Work Group
45Sample Teaming Matrix Initiative, Committee Purpose Outcome Target GroupStaff InvolvedSIP/SIDAttendance CommitteeIncrease attendanceIncrease % of students attending dailyAll studentsEric, Ellen, MarleeGoal #2Character EducationImprove characterMarlee, J.S., EllenGoal #3Safety CommitteeImprove safetyPredictable response to threat/crisisDangerous studentsHas not metSchool Spirit CommitteeEnhance school spiritImprove moraleDiscipline CommitteeImprove behaviorDecrease office referralsBullies, antisocial students, repeat offendersEllen, Eric, Marlee, OtisDARE CommitteePrevent drug useHigh/at-risk drug usersDonEBS Work GroupImplement 3-tier modelDecrease office referrals, increase attendance, enhance academic engagement, improve gradesEric, Ellen, Marlee, Otis, Emma
463-4 Year Commitment Top 3 School- Wide Initiatives 3-Tiered Prevention LogicAgreements &SupportsCoaching &FacilitationAdministrativeParticipationDedicatedResources& TimeSAY: Although verbal behavior is a poor predictor of change in actual behavior, securing agreements and commitments from school staff establishes an understanding and priority for the school-wide PBS effort.Agreements must focus on a long term commitment to a prevention and action-based approach to system change. Administrator presence, and resources should be established before action plan implementation. If possible, frequent and regular external coaching or facilitation (prompting/reminding) should be arranged to keep school leadership teams on task and track.The “Team Implementation Checklist” can be used as a self-assessment tool by teams or a monitoring guide for facilitators. See Appendix 3.
47Leadership Team Review Work as team for 10 minutesComplete “Establishing Team Membership” (1 p. 4-5)Touch “Committee Group Work” (6)Touch “Guidelines for Conducting Leadership Team Meetings” (3)Touch “EBS Self-Assessment Survey” (4)Present 2-3 “big ideas” from your group (1 min. reports)
48Self-Assessment Efficient Systems of Data Management Existing DisciplineDataData-basedAction PlanTeam-basedDecisionMakingMultipleSystemsEvidence-BasedPracticesSAY: Team should work from a specific action plan that specifies (a) what needs to be achieved, (b) what needs to be done, (c) who needs to do the work, (d) what resources are needed to achieve the desired outcome, (e) when the outcomes need to be achieved, (f) how progress will be monitored.Data must be collected to specify the above features of an action.A variety of data sources should be considered:The EBS Survey allows staff members to give their perception of what is in place and the degree to which it needs to be improved. (Appendix 4).2. Office discipline referrals are collected in most schools and represent an excellent source of information to determine the general effectiveness of the school-wide discipline systems. (SeeAcademic achievement data also can be used to identify which students might need behavioral supports.Other information also might be available to guide how the action plan is developed and implemented, for example, (a) attendance/tardy patterns, (b) bus citations, (c) staff/parent recommendations.The Team Implementation Checklist (Appendix 3) can be used as an implementation self-monitoring tool, especially, w/r to systems level elements of school-wide PBS.SWIS
55Do we need to tweak our action plan? + If many students are making same mistake, consider changing system….not students+ Start by teaching, monitoring & rewarding…before increasing punishmentDo we need to tweak our action plan?How often?Who?What?Where?When?How much?If problem,Which students/staff?What system?What intervention?What outcome?
56Discipline Data Review 8 minutesComplete “Discipline Referral Data Self-Assessment” Checklist (9)Report 2-3 “big ideas” from your team discussion (1 min. reports)
57School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems Classroom Setting SystemsNonclassroomSetting SystemsIndividual StudentSystemsSchool-wideSystems
581. Common purpose & approach to discipline School-wide Systems1. Common purpose & approach to discipline2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluationSAY: Although most schools have a written conduct of conduct or discipline policy which is important, it tends to focus on procedures for processing rule violations (5.).Effective school-wide discipline systems have a matching and strong proactive component that teaches and encourages prosocial behavior, and provides an on-going progress monitoring system.The remaining five items are important but difficult to sustain without clear school-wide investments and structures in place.
59Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged Setting SystemsClassroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouragedTeaching classroom routines & cues taught & encouragedRatio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interactionActive supervisionRedirections for minor, infrequent behavior errorsFrequent precorrections for chronic errorsEffective academic instruction & curriculumSAY: Effective classroom environment is important because well-organized and managed classrooms provide opportunities for teachers to teach and students to learn both academic and social skills.If you were to visit these classrooms, you would see these practices on a daily basis.The “Classroom Practices Self-Assessment” in Appendix 5 can be used by educational leaders, teams, or facilitators to assist staff in reflecting on their own teaching practices and to develop individual or group action plans for professional development.
60Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged NonclassroomSetting SystemsPositive expectations & routines taught & encouragedActive supervision by all staffScan, move, interactPrecorrections & remindersPositive reinforcementSAY: All teachers and educational leaders know that what happens in the non-classroom settings (e.g., hallways, cafeterias, playgrounds, parking lots, etc.) can carryover into the classroom (and vice versa). In nonclassroom settings, academic instruction isn’t available to engage students and serve as a behavior management strategy.Educational leaders must ensure that effective practices are in place in nonclassroom settings. The most important evidence-based practice is “active supervision.”The “Active Supervision and Nonclassroom Setting Self-Assessment” in Appendix 6 can be used by educational leaders, teams, or facilitators to assist staff in reflecting on their own teaching practices and to develop individual or group action plans for professional development.
61Behavioral competence at school & district levels Individual StudentSystemsBehavioral competence at school & district levelsFunction-based behavior support planningTeam- & data-based decision makingComprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processesTargeted social skills & self-management instructionIndividualized instructional & curricular accommodationsSAY: If we are successful in establishing effective school-wide, classroom, and nonclassroom practices and systems, we can support a majority of students and staff. However, some students will require more specialized, intensive, and possibly individualized PBS.To be effective in supporting high-need students, behavior specialists must have access to and fluent knowledge about tertiary level interventions and systems as characterized by these 6 sample items. They also must be fluent in the use and facilitation of these skills.One of the main objectives of school-wide PBS is to facilitate the accurate and sustained implementation of tertiary level interventions with student who display the most challenging problem behaviors.An important element of individual student systems is adopting a “function-based approach” which generally means using information about what triggers and maintains problem behaviors to build effective behavior intervention plans. Functional behavioral assessments are conducted to build and serve as the backbone of these plans. Two checklists can be used to validate the completeness and accuracy of functional behavioral assessments and behavior intervention plans (see Appendices 7 & 8, respectively).
62Organizational Features Common VisionORGANIZATION MEMBERSCommon ExperienceCommon Language
68Reviewing Strive for Five Be respectful.Be safe.Work peacefully.Strive for excellence.Follow directions.McCormick Elem. MD 2003
69Identifying School-wide Expectations 11 minutesSelect different spokespersonReview/develop positively stated school-wide expectations (1 p. 6-7)3-5 positively statedMutually exclusiveComprehensiveContextually appropriatePresent 2-3 “big ideas” from your team (1 min. reports)
70Expectations & behavioral skills are taught & recognized in natural context
71MATRIX Expectations SETTING All Settings Hallways Playgrounds CafeteriaLibrary/Computer LabAssemblyBusRespect OurselvesBe on task.Give your best effort.Be prepared.Walk.Have a plan.Eat all your food.Select healthy foods.Study, read, compute.Sit in one spot.Watch for your stop.Respect OthersBe kind.Hands/feet to self.Help/share with others.Use normal voice volume.Walk to right.Play safe.Include others.Share equipment.Practice good table mannersWhisper.Return books.Listen/watch.Use appropriate applause.Use a quiet voice.Stay in your seat.Respect PropertyRecycle.Clean up after self.Pick up litter.Maintain physical space.Use equipment properly.Put litter in garbage can.Replace trays & utensils.Clean up eating area.Push in chairs.Treat books carefully.Pick up.Treat chairs appropriately.Wipe your feet.Sit appropriately.TEACHINGMATRIXExpectations
72MATRIX Expectations SETTING All Settings Hallways Playgrounds CafeteriaLibrary/Computer LabAssemblyBusRespect OurselvesBe on task.Give your best effort.Be prepared.Walk.Have a plan.Eat all your food.Select healthy foods.Study, read, compute.Sit in one spot.Watch for your stop.Respect OthersBe kind.Hands/feet to self.Help/share with others.Use normal voice volume.Walk to right.Play safe.Include others.Share equipment.Practice good table mannersWhisper.Return books.Listen/watch.Use appropriate applause.Use a quiet voice.Stay in your seat.Respect PropertyRecycle.Clean up after self.Pick up litter.Maintain physical space.Use equipment properly.Put litter in garbage can.Replace trays & utensils.Clean up eating area.Push in chairs.Treat books carefully.Pick up.Treat chairs appropriately.Wipe your feet.Sit appropriately.TEACHINGMATRIXExpectations
73Teaching Matrix Activity Teaching Matrix ActivityClassroomLunchroomBusHallwayAssemblyRespect OthersUse inside voiceEat your own foodStay in your seatStay to rightArrive on time to speakerRespect Environment & PropertyRecycle paperReturn traysKeep feet on floorPut trash in cansTake litter with youRespect YourselfDo your bestWash your handsBe at stop on timeUse your wordsListen to speakerRespect LearningHave materials readyEat balanced dietGo directly from bus to classGo directly to classDiscuss topic in class w/ others
74Expected behaviors are visible Sirrine Elementary June 8, 2004 SC
75RAH – at Adams City High School (Respect – Achievement – Honor) ClassroomHallway/CommonsCafeteriaBathroomsRespectBe on time; attend regularly; follow class rulesKeep location neat, keep to the right, use appropriate lang., monitor noise level, allow others to passPut trash in cans, push in your chair, be courteous to all staff and studentsKeep area clean, put trash in cans, be mindful of others’ personal space, flush toiletAchievementDo your best on all assignments and assessments, take notes, ask questionsKeep track of your belongings, monitor time to get to classCheck space before you leave, keep track of personal belongingsBe a good example to other students, leave the room better than you found itHonorDo your own work; tell the truthBe considerate of yours and others’ personal spaceKeep your own place in line, maintain personal boundariesReport any graffiti or vandalism
76RAH – Athletics RAH Practice Competitions Eligibility Lettering Team TravelRespectListen to coaches directions; push yourself and encourage teammates to excel.Show positive sportsmanship; Solve problems in mature manner; Positive inter-actions with refs, umps, etc.Show up on time for every practice and competition.Show up on time for every practice and competition; Compete x%.Take care of your own possessions and litter; be where you are directed to be.AchievementSet example in the classroom and in the playing field as a true achiever.Set and reach for both individual and team goals; encourage your teammates.Earn passing grades; Attend school regularly; only excused absencesDemonstrate academic excellence.Complete your assignments missed for team travel.HonorDemonstrate good sportsmanship and team spirit.Suit up in clean uniforms; Win with honor and integrity; Represent your school with good conduct.Show team pride in and out of the school. Stay out of trouble – set a good example for others.Suit up for any competitions you are not playing. Show team honor.Cheer for teammates.Remember you are acting on behalf of the school at all times and demonstrate team honor/pride.
77P Perseverance Holding to a course of action despite obstacles • Stay positive • Set goals • Learn from mistakesR Respect To show consideration, appreciation, and acceptance• Respect yourself • Respect others • Demonstrate appropriate language and behaviorI Integrity Adherence to an agreed upon code of behavior• Be responsible • Do your own work • Be trustworthy and trust othersD Discipline Managing ones self to achieve goals and meet expectations• Strive for consistency • Attend class daily; be on time • Meet deadlines; do your homeworkE Excellence Being of finest or highest quality• Do your personal best • Exceed minimum expectations • Inspire excellence in othersNEHS website, Oct. 26, 2004
78E’ Ola Pono- to live the proper way School Behavioral Standards All SettingsWalkwaysPlaygroundRecessP.E.CafeteriaRestroomsArrival/ DismissalAssemblyField TripsKuleanaBeResponsibleBe on timeBe prepared w/ necessary suppliesBe accountable for choicesRespond to/complete tasksKeep area clean & litter freePlan aheadWalk directly to destinationTake care of equipment/facilitiesPlan appropriate times for drinks/ restroom visitsHave lunch card readyBe orderly in all linesFlushTurn off waterUse restroom at designated timesUse facilities for intended purposesHave money/pass readyListen attentivelyKeep hands and feet to yourselfTurn in paperwork/$ on timeWear appropriate footwear/clothingBring home lunchHo’ihiRespectfulUse appropriate voiceListen to/follow directions of staffRespect self, others propertyBe polite/use mannersExpress appreciationAccept/respect differences in peopleUse quiet voices when classes are in sessionBe a good sportInclude others in your playUse proper table mannersEat your own foodObserve privacy of othersUse polite words and actionsListen to JPO’s supervisors and bus driverUse quiet voice and polite words on busFocus on programSit quietlyClap at appropriate timesCare for the field trip siteListen to speakersLaulimaCooperativeBe helpfulParticipate with a positive attitudeBe patient; share/ wait your turnAcknowledge othersPlay in designated areas onlyKeep movement flowingShare equipment and play spaceFollow rules/ proceduresWait patiently/ quietlyEnter/exit vehicles in an orderly fashionShare bus seatsSit properly in designated areaEnter/exit in an orderly fashionRemain seated unless asked to do otherwiseStay with your chaperone/groupMalamaBe SafeImmediately report dangerous situationsRemain in designated areasPractice healthy behaviors/universal precautionsUse appropriate footwearFollow safety rules in all areasWalk at all timesAvoid rough, dangerous playUse equipment properlyWash handsChew food well; don’t rushUse designated restroomWalkWait in designated areaRemain seated when riding the busWatch out for trafficUse crosswalk onlyBe careful when approaching or leaving the stage areaUse the buddy systemFollow school/bus rulesKing Kaumualii on Kauai
79Walkways Kuleana: Be Responsible Plan ahead Walk directly to destinationHo’ihi: Be RespectfulWalk quietly when classes are in sessionLaulima: Be CooperativeKeep movement flowingShare equipment and play spaceMalama: Be SafeWalk at all timesWalkwaysKing Kaumualii on Kauai
80Playground / Recess / P.E. Kuleana: Be ResponsibleTake care of equipment/facilitiesPlan appropriate times for drinks/restroom visitsHo’ihi: Be RespectfulBe a good sportLaulima: Be CooperativeFollow rules/ proceduresMalama: Be SafeAvoid rough, dangerous playUse equipment properlyKing Kaumualii on Kauai
81Cafeteria Kuleana: Be Responsible Have lunch card ready Be orderly in all linesHo’ihi: Be RespectfulUse proper table mannersEat your own foodLaulima: Be CooperativeWait patiently/ quietlyMalama: Be SafeWalk at all timesWash handsChew food well; don’t rushCafeteriaKing Kaumualii on Kauai
82Field Trips Kuleana: Be Responsible Turn in paperwork/$ on time Wear appropriate footwear/clothingBring home lunchHo’ihi: Be RespectfulCare for the field trip siteListen to speakersLaulima: Be CooperativeStay with your chaperone/groupMalama: Be SafeUse the buddy systemFollow school/bus rulesKing Kaumualii on Kauai
83“Cool Tool” Skill Name Getting Help (How to ask for assistance for difficulty tasks)Teaching Examples1. When you’re working on a math problem that you can’t figure out, raise your hand and wait until the teacher can help you.2. You and a friend are working together on a science experiment but you are missing a piece of lab equipment, ask the teacher for the missing equipment.3. You are reading a story but you don’t know the meaning of most of the words, ask the teacher to read and explain the word.Kid Activity1. Ask 2-3 students to give an example of a situation in which they needed help to complete a task, activity, or direction.2. Ask students to indicate or show how they could get help.3. Encourage and support appropriate discussion/responses. Minimize attention for inappropriate responses.After the Lesson(During the Day)1. Just before giving students difficult or new task, direction, or activity, ask them to tell you how they could get help if they have difficulty (precorrection).2. When you see students having difficulty with a task (e.g., off task, complaining), ask them to indicate that they need help (reminder).3. Whenever a student gets help the correct way, provide specific praise to the student.
85“Traveling Passports” Precorrecting new kids in Tigard, OregonProceduresMeet with key adultsReview expectationsGo to class
86Character EducationEasy to change moral knowledge difficult to change moral conductTo change moral conduct...Adults must model moral behaviorStudents must experience academic successStudents must be taught social skills for success
87Teaching Expectations Meet as team for 9 minutesReview/develop procedures for teaching school-wide expectations (1 p. 8-10) (5)Present 2-3 “big ideas” from your team (1 min. reports)
88Acknowledging SW Expectations: Rationale To learn, humans require regular & frequent feedback on their actionsHumans experience frequent feedback from others, self, & environmentPlanned/unplannedDesirable/undesirableW/o formal feedback to encourage desired behavior, other forms of feedback shape undesired behaviors
91McCormick Elementary School, MD The Lucky Winner Is . . .
92Cougar Traits in the Community Student Name __________________________________ Displayed the Cougar Trait of: Respect Responsibility Caring Citizenship (Circle the trait you observed) Signature _____________________________________________ If you would like to write on the back the details of what you observed feel free! Thank you for supporting our youth.
93Are “Rewards” Dangerous? “…our research team has conducted a series of reviews and analysis of (the reward) literature; our conclusion is that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our analyses indicate that the argument against the use of rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of circumstances.”Cameron, 2002Cameron & Pierce, 1994, 2002Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001
94“Good morning, class!”Teachers report that when students are greeted by an adult in morning, it takes less time to complete morning routines & get first lesson started.
96“Bus Bucks” Springfield P.S., OR Procedures Review bus citations On-going driver meetingsTeaching expectationsLink bus bucks w/ schoolsAcknowledging bus drivers
97“Super Sub Slips” Empowering subs in Cottage Grove, OR Procedures Give 5 per sub in subfolderGive 2 out immediately
98“Positive Office Referral” Balancing positive/negative adult/student contacts in OregonProceduresDevelop equivalent positive referralProcess like negative referral
99“Piece of Paper”In one month, staff recorded 15 office discipline referrals for rule violations, & 37 for contributing to safe environment
100Acknowledgements 10 minutes Review/develop what your school does to formally acknowledge positive student social behavior (1 p )Report 2-3 “big ideas” from your table discussion (1 min. reports)
101Team Managed Staff Acknowledgements Effective Practices Implementation ContinuousMonitoringAdministratorParticipationStaff Training& SupportSAY: School leadership teams and educational leaders should never implement an action plan until the people and resources are organized to support an initially successful implementation.As indicated previously, the effort must begin with agreements and commitments by a majority of the staff (>80%). However, maximizing accurate and consistent implementation of an action plan requires attention to these elements.
102“80% Rule” Apply triangle to adult behavior! Regularly acknowledge staff behaviorIndividualized intervention for nonresponders
103“Golden Plunger” Involve custodian Procedure Custodian selects one classroom/ hallway each week that is clean & orderlySticks gold-painted plunger with banner on wall
105“Staff Dinger” Reminding staff to have positive interaction Procedures Ring timer on regular, intermittent scheduleEngage in quick positive interaction
106“1 Free Period”Contributing to a safe, caring, effective school environmentProceduresGiven by PrincipalPrincipal takes over class for one hourUsed at any time
107“G.O.O.S.E.” “Get Out Of School Early” Procedures Or “arrive late” Kids/staff nominateKids/staff reward, then pick
108Relevant & Measurable Indicators Efficient Input, Storage, & Retrieval Team-basedDecision Making &PlanningEvaluationContinuousMonitoringEffectiveVisual DisplaysRegularReviewSAY: No implementation effort should be conducted without a means of assessing for progress toward action plan goals and objectives. All data mentioned previously that are used for action planning should be included in an on-going data monitoring system for measuring progress.One of the most relevant and commonly available school data-bases is office discipline referrals. To be effective, office discipline referrals must have elements that are clearly defined, have been agreed upon by all staff, and have routines for regularly review and decision making.For more information about the features of high quality office discipline referral systems, see and Appendix 9 for Office Discipline Referral Forms and Checklists.
110Tools (pbis.org) EBS Self-assessment TIC: Team Implementation ChecklistSSS: Safe Schools SurveySET: Systems School-wide Evaluation ToolPBS Implementation & Planning Self-assessmentISSET: Individual Student Systems Evaluation Tool (pilot)SWIS: School-Wide Information System (swis.org)
111Action Planning: Guidelines Agree upon decision making proceduresAlign with school/district goals.Focus on measurable outcomes.Base & adjust decisions on data & local contexts.Give priority to evidence-based programs.Invest in building sustainable implementation supports (>80%)Consider effectiveness, & efficiency, relevance, in decision making (1, 3, 5 rule)
112Action Planning (3:00) Review “big ideas” Logistics Content from todayBuild action plan (what, when, how, who)“Getting Started” (1)SW PBS (B)EBS Self-Assessment Survey (4)School dataLogisticsComplete & return TIC (2) TODAYDevelop report to staffBuild data-management (C/9) capacitySchedule next team meeting dateReport 2-3 planned activities from your team action planning (1 min.)
113PBIS Messages Measurable & justifiable outcomes On-going data-based decision makingEvidence-based practicesSystems ensuring durable, high fidelity of implementation
114To ConcludeCreate systems-based preventive continuum of behavior supportFocus on adult behaviorEstablish behavioral competenceUtilize data based decisionsGive priority to academic successInvest in evidence-based practicesTeach & acknowledge behavioral expectationsWork from a person-centered, function-based approachArrange to work smarter