Presentation on theme: "SWPBS: Beyond Classroom Management"— Presentation transcript:
1 SWPBS: Beyond Classroom Management Carl Cole & George SugaiOSEP Center on PBISUniversity of ConnecticutJanuary 18, 2008
2 PURPOSE: Review features & strategies of SWPBS What is SWPBS (PBIS)?What’s needed to sustain SWPBS?What have we learned?What can your team do?
3 Problem Statement“We give schools strategies & systems for developing positive, effective, achieving, & caring school & classroom environments, but implementation is not accurate, consistent, or durable. Schools need more than training.”
4 SWPBS LogicSuccessful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments that are redesigned & supported to be effective, efficient, durable, & relevant for all students(Zins & Ponte, 1990)
5 Worry “Teaching” by Getting Tough Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.”Teacher: “That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!”
7 Reactive responses are predictable…. When we experience aversive situation, we select interventions that produce immediate reliefRemove studentRemove ourselvesModify physical environmentAssign responsibility for change to student &/or others
8 When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!” Zero tolerance policiesIncreased surveillanceIncreased suspension & expulsionIn-service training by expertAlternative programming…..Predictable systems response!
9 Erroneous assumption that student… Is inherently “bad”Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives”Will be better tomorrow…….
10 But….false sense of safety/security! Fosters environments of controlTriggers & reinforces antisocial behaviorShifts accountability away from schoolDevalues child-adult relationshipWeakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming
11 Science of behavior has taught us that students…. Are NOT born with “bad behaviors”Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences……..Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback
12 SWPBS is about…. Improving classroom & school climate Decreasing reactive managementMaximizing academic achievementImproving support for students w/ EBDIntegrating academic & behavior initiatives
13 2001 Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence: Recommendations Change social context to break up antisocial networksImprove parent effectivenessIncrease academic successCreate positive school climatesTeach & encourage individual social skills & competence
14 School-based Prevention & Youth Development Programming Coordinated Social Emotional & Academic Learning Greenberg et al. (2003) American PsychologistTeach children social skills directly in real context“Foster respectful, supportive relations among students, school staff, & parents”Support & reinforce positive academic & social behavior through comprehensive systemsInvest in multiyear, multicomponent programsCombine classroom & school- & community-wide effortsPrecorrect & continue prevention efforts
15 Characteristics of Safe School Center for Study & Prevention of Youth Violence High academic expectations & performanceHigh levels of parental & community involvementEffective leadership by administrators & teachersA few clearly understood & uniformly enforced, rulesSocial skills instruction, character education & good citizenship.After school – extended day programs
16 Lessons Learned: White House Conference on School Safety Students, staff, & community must have means of communicating that is immediate, safe, & reliablePositive, respectful, predictable, & trusting student-teacher-family relationships are importantHigh rates of academic & social success are importantPositive, respectful, predictable, & trusting school environment/climate is important for all studentsMetal detectors, surveillance cameras, & security guards are insufficient deterrents
17 It’s not just about behavior! STUDENT ACHIEVEMENTGood TeachingBehavior ManagementIncreasing District & State Competency and CapacityInvesting in Outcomes, Data, Practices, and Systems
18 Supporting Social Competence & Basics: 4 PBS ElementsSupporting Social Competence &Academic AchievementOUTCOMESSupportingDecisionMakingSupportingStaff BehaviorDATASYSTEMSPRACTICESSupportingStudent Behavior
19 Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE Tertiary Prevention:SpecializedIndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk BehaviorCONTINUUM OFSCHOOL-WIDEINSTRUCTIONAL &POSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORT~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior~15%Primary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & SettingsSAY: One of the most important organizing components of PBS is the establishment of a continuum of behavior support that considers all students and emphasizes prevention. This logic of this 3-tiered approach is derived from the public health approach to disease prevention.All students and staff should be exposed formally and in an on-going manner to primary prevention interventions. Primary prevention is provided to all students and focuses on giving students the necessary pro-social skills that prevents the establishment and occurrence of problem behavior. If done systemically and comprehensively, a majority of students are likely to be affected.Some students will be unresponsive or unsupported by primary prevention, and more specialized interventions will be required. One form of assistance is called secondary prevention, and is characterized by instruction that is more specific and more engaging. These interventions can be standardized to be applied similarly and efficiently across a small number of students. The goal of secondary prevention is to reduce/prevent the likelihood of problem behavior occurrences, and to enable these students to be supported by the school-wide PBS effort.If primary prevention is in place, a small proportion of students will require highly individualized and intensive interventions. The goal or tertiary level interventions is to reduce the intensity, complexity, and impact of the problem behaviors displayed by these students by providing supports that are (a) function-based, (b) contextually appropriate and person-centered, (c) strength-based and instructionally oriented, (d) continuously evaluated and enhanced, and (e) linked to the school-wide PBS approach.~80% of Students
21 School-wide 1. Common purpose & approach to discipline 2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation
23 Classroom Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged Teaching classroom routines & cues taught & encouragedRatio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interactionActive supervisionRedirections for minor, infrequent behavior errorsFrequent precorrections for chronic errorsEffective academic instruction & curriculum
24 Individual Student Behavioral competence at school & district levels Function-based behavior support planningTeam- & data-based decision makingComprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processesTargeted social skills & self-management instructionIndividualized instructional & curricular accommodations
25 Family Continuum of positive behavior support for all families Frequent, regular positive contacts, communications, & acknowledgementsFormal & active participation & involvement as equal partnerAccess to system of integrated school & community resources
26 Sample Teaming Matrix Initiative, Committee Purpose Outcome Target GroupStaff InvolvedSIP/SIDAttendance CommitteeIncrease attendanceIncrease % of students attending dailyAll studentsEric, Ellen, MarleeGoal #2Character EducationImprove characterMarlee, J.S., EllenGoal #3Safety CommitteeImprove safetyPredictable response to threat/crisisDangerous studentsHas not metSchool Spirit CommitteeEnhance school spiritImprove moraleDiscipline CommitteeImprove behaviorDecrease office referralsBullies, antisocial students, repeat offendersEllen, Eric, Marlee, OtisDARE CommitteePrevent drug useHigh/at-risk drug usersDonEBS Work GroupImplement 3-tier modelDecrease office referrals, increase attendance, enhance academic engagement, improve gradesEric, Ellen, Marlee, Otis, Emma
27 Identify existing efforts by tier Specify outcome for each effort CONTINUUM of SWPBSTertiary PreventionFunction-based supportAuditIdentify existing efforts by tierSpecify outcome for each effortEvaluate implementation accuracy & outcome effectivenessEliminate/integrate based on outcomesEstablish decision rules (RtI)~5%~15%Secondary PreventionCheck in/outPrimary PreventionTeach SW Expectations~80% of Students
28 GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started” TeamGENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started”AgreementsData-basedAction PlanSAY: In general, the implementation of a school-wide PBS approach at the school level is built around five main implementation steps.EvaluationImplementation
29 Team-led Process Behavioral Capacity Priority & Status Representation Data-basedDecisionMakingAdministratorSAY: One of the most important steps is to establish or identify an existing group of individuals who can lead the establishment of a school-wide PBS approach. This team must be made of school staff who are respected, have effective communication skills and means, and can influence school policy, organization, and operations.An important factor in effective leadership teaming is ensuring that members of the team agree on how they will conduct business (e.g., agenda, problem solving, voting, etc.). The Conducting Leadership Team Meetings Checklist (see Appendix.1) can be used to assess for and establish agreements about how team meetings will be conducted.Communications
30 3-4 Year Commitment Top 3 School- Wide Initiatives 3-Tiered Prevention LogicAgreements &SupportsCoaching &FacilitationAdministrativeParticipationDedicatedResources& TimeSAY: Although verbal behavior is a poor predictor of change in actual behavior, securing agreements and commitments from school staff establishes an understanding and priority for the school-wide PBS effort.Agreements must focus on a long term commitment to a prevention and action-based approach to system change. Administrator presence, and resources should be established before action plan implementation. If possible, frequent and regular external coaching or facilitation (prompting/reminding) should be arranged to keep school leadership teams on task and track.The “Team Implementation Checklist” can be used as a self-assessment tool by teams or a monitoring guide for facilitators. See Appendix 3.
31 Self-Assessment Efficient Systems of Data Management Existing DisciplineDataData-basedAction PlanTeam-basedDecisionMakingMultipleSystemsEvidence-BasedPracticesSAY: Team should work from a specific action plan that specifies (a) what needs to be achieved, (b) what needs to be done, (c) who needs to do the work, (d) what resources are needed to achieve the desired outcome, (e) when the outcomes need to be achieved, (f) how progress will be monitored.Data must be collected to specify the above features of an action.A variety of data sources should be considered:The EBS Survey allows staff members to give their perception of what is in place and the degree to which it needs to be improved. (Appendix 4).2. Office discipline referrals are collected in most schools and represent an excellent source of information to determine the general effectiveness of the school-wide discipline systems. (SeeAcademic achievement data also can be used to identify which students might need behavioral supports.Other information also might be available to guide how the action plan is developed and implemented, for example, (a) attendance/tardy patterns, (b) bus citations, (c) staff/parent recommendations.The Team Implementation Checklist (Appendix 3) can be used as an implementation self-monitoring tool, especially, w/r to systems level elements of school-wide PBS.
32 Team Managed Staff Acknowledgements Effective Practices Implementation ContinuousMonitoringAdministratorParticipationStaff Training& SupportSAY: School leadership teams and educational leaders should never implement an action plan until the people and resources are organized to support an initially successful implementation.As indicated previously, the effort must begin with agreements and commitments by a majority of the staff (>80%). However, maximizing accurate and consistent implementation of an action plan requires attention to these elements.
33 Relevant & Measurable Indicators Efficient Input, Storage, & Retrieval Team-basedDecision Making &PlanningEvaluationContinuousMonitoringEffectiveVisual DisplaysRegularReviewSAY: No implementation effort should be conducted without a means of assessing for progress toward action plan goals and objectives. All data mentioned previously that are used for action planning should be included in an on-going data monitoring system for measuring progress.One of the most relevant and commonly available school data-bases is office discipline referrals. To be effective, office discipline referrals must have elements that are clearly defined, have been agreed upon by all staff, and have routines for regularly review and decision making.For more information about the features of high quality office discipline referral systems, see and Appendix 9 for Office Discipline Referral Forms and Checklists.
34 Few positive SW expectations defined, taught, & encouraged
35 MATRIX Expectations SETTING All Settings Hallways Playgrounds CafeteriaLibrary/Computer LabAssemblyBusRespect OurselvesBe on task.Give your best effort.Be prepared.Walk.Have a plan.Eat all your food.Select healthy foods.Study, read, compute.Sit in one spot.Watch for your stop.Respect OthersBe kind.Hands/feet to self.Help/share with others.Use normal voice volume.Walk to right.Play safe.Include others.Share equipment.Practice good table mannersWhisper.Return books.Listen/watch.Use appropriate applause.Use a quiet voice.Stay in your seat.Respect PropertyRecycle.Clean up after self.Pick up litter.Maintain physical space.Use equipment properly.Put litter in garbage can.Replace trays & utensils.Clean up eating area.Push in chairs.Treat books carefully.Pick up.Treat chairs appropriately.Wipe your feet.Sit appropriately.TEACHINGMATRIXExpectations
36 RAH – at Adams City High School (Respect – Achievement – Honor) ClassroomHallway/CommonsCafeteriaBathroomsRespectBe on time; attend regularly; follow class rulesKeep location neat, keep to the right, use appropriate lang., monitor noise level, allow others to passPut trash in cans, push in your chair, be courteous to all staff and studentsKeep area clean, put trash in cans, be mindful of others’ personal space, flush toiletAchievementDo your best on all assignments and assessments, take notes, ask questionsKeep track of your belongings, monitor time to get to classCheck space before you leave, keep track of personal belongingsBe a good example to other students, leave the room better than you found itHonorDo your own work; tell the truthBe considerate of yours and others’ personal spaceKeep your own place in line, maintain personal boundariesReport any graffiti or vandalism
37 RAH – Athletics RAH Practice Competitions Eligibility Lettering Team TravelRespectListen to coaches directions; push yourself and encourage teammates to excel.Show positive sportsmanship; Solve problems in mature manner; Positive inter-actions with refs, umps, etc.Show up on time for every practice and competition.Show up on time for every practice and competition; Compete x%.Take care of your own possessions and litter; be where you are directed to be.AchievementSet example in the classroom and in the playing field as a true achiever.Set and reach for both individual and team goals; encourage your teammates.Earn passing grades; Attend school regularly; only excused absencesDemonstrate academic excellence.Complete your assignments missed for team travel.HonorDemonstrate good sportsmanship and team spirit.Suit up in clean uniforms; Win with honor and integrity; Represent your school with good conduct.Show team pride in and out of the school. Stay out of trouble – set a good example for others.Suit up for any competitions you are not playing. Show team honor.Cheer for teammates.Remember you are acting on behalf of the school at all times and demonstrate team honor/pride.
38 School Behavioral Standards E’ Ola Pono- to live the proper waySchool Behavioral StandardsAll SettingsWalkwaysPlaygroundRecessP.E.CafeteriaRestroomsArrival/ DismissalAssemblyField TripsKuleanaBeResponsibleBe on timeBe prepared w/ necessary suppliesBe accountable for choicesRespond to/complete tasksKeep area clean & litter freePlan aheadWalk directly to destinationTake care of equipment/facilitiesPlan appropriate times for drinks/ restroom visitsHave lunch card readyBe orderly in all linesFlushTurn off waterUse restroom at designated timesUse facilities for intended purposesHave money/pass readyListen attentivelyKeep hands and feet to yourselfTurn in paperwork/$ on timeWear appropriate footwear/clothingBring home lunchHo’ihiRespectfulUse appropriate voiceListen to/follow directions of staffRespect self, others propertyBe polite/use mannersExpress appreciationAccept/respect differences in peopleUse quiet voices when classes are in sessionBe a good sportInclude others in your playUse proper table mannersEat your own foodObserve privacy of othersUse polite words and actionsListen to JPO’s supervisors and bus driverUse quiet voice and polite words on busFocus on programSit quietlyClap at appropriate timesCare for the field trip siteListen to speakersLaulimaCooperativeBe helpfulParticipate with a positive attitudeBe patient; share/ wait your turnAcknowledge othersPlay in designated areas onlyKeep movement flowingShare equipment and play spaceFollow rules/ proceduresWait patiently/ quietlyEnter/exit vehicles in an orderly fashionShare bus seatsSit properly in designated areaEnter/exit in an orderly fashionRemain seated unless asked to do otherwiseStay with your chaperone/groupMalamaBe SafeImmediately report dangerous situationsRemain in designated areasPractice healthy behaviors/universal precautionsUse appropriate footwearFollow safety rules in all areasWalk at all timesAvoid rough, dangerous playUse equipment properlyWash handsChew food well; don’t rushUse designated restroomWalkWait in designated areaRemain seated when riding the busWatch out for trafficUse crosswalk onlyBe careful when approaching or leaving the stage areaUse the buddy systemFollow school/bus rulesKing Kaumualii on Kauai
39 Walkways Kuleana: Be Responsible Plan ahead Walk directly to destinationHo’ihi: Be RespectfulWalk quietly when classes are in sessionLaulima: Be CooperativeKeep movement flowingShare equipment and play spaceMalama: Be SafeWalk at all timesWalkwaysKing Kaumualii on Kauai
40 Playground / Recess / P.E. Kuleana: Be ResponsibleTake care of equipment/facilitiesPlan appropriate times for drinks/restroom visitsHo’ihi: Be RespectfulBe a good sportLaulima: Be CooperativeFollow rules/ proceduresMalama: Be SafeAvoid rough, dangerous playUse equipment properlyKing Kaumualii on Kauai
41 Cafeteria Kuleana: Be Responsible Have lunch card ready Be orderly in all linesHo’ihi: Be RespectfulUse proper table mannersEat your own foodLaulima: Be CooperativeWait patiently/ quietlyMalama: Be SafeWalk at all timesWash handsChew food well; don’t rushCafeteriaKing Kaumualii on Kauai
42 Field Trips Kuleana: Be Responsible Turn in paperwork/$ on time Wear appropriate footwear/clothingBring home lunchHo’ihi: Be RespectfulCare for the field trip siteListen to speakersLaulima: Be CooperativeStay with your chaperone/groupMalama: Be SafeUse the buddy systemFollow school/bus rulesKing Kaumualii on Kauai
43 Character EducationEasy to change moral knowledge difficult to change moral conductTo change moral conduct...Adults must model moral behaviorStudents must experience academic successStudents must be taught social skills for success
45 Acknowledging SW Expectations: Rationale To learn, humans require regular & frequent feedback on their actionsHumans experience frequent feedback from others, self, & environmentPlanned/unplannedDesirable/undesirableW/o formal feedback to encourage desired behavior, other forms of feedback shape undesired behaviors
46 “Good morning, class!”Teachers report that when students are greeted by an adult in morning, it takes less time to complete morning routines & get first lesson started.
47 Reinforcement Wisdom!“Knowing” or saying “know” does NOT mean “will do”Students “do more” when “doing works”…appropriate & inappropriate!Natural consequences are varied, unpredictable, undependable,…not always preventive
48 Basics Guidelines Know basics & be conceptually grounded Work as team Use data to be strategicSelf-assess for relevant/priority outcomesFormalize communications & acknowledgementsModelInvest in local capacityEngage in smallest effort to maintain effectIntegrate rather than add on