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INTEGUMENTARY. PEDIATRIC DIFFERENCES IN THE SKIN Skin is thinner, more susceptible to irritants and infection Ratio of skin surface area to body volume.

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Presentation on theme: "INTEGUMENTARY. PEDIATRIC DIFFERENCES IN THE SKIN Skin is thinner, more susceptible to irritants and infection Ratio of skin surface area to body volume."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTEGUMENTARY

2 PEDIATRIC DIFFERENCES IN THE SKIN Skin is thinner, more susceptible to irritants and infection Ratio of skin surface area to body volume is greater, allowing greater absorption More susceptible to bacterial invasion Less ability to regulate temperature

3 COMMON PEDIATRIC SKIN DISEASES/DISORDERS Impetigo Cellulitis Candidiasis Pediculosis Scabies Dermatitis Tinea

4 IMPETIGIO

5 IMPETIGO Most common bacterial skin infection of childhood Highly contagious Caused by Staph aureus or Strep

6 CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Lesions appear around mouth and nose Small vesicles filled with Honey-colored fluid serous fluid Vesicles rupture rapidly become crusted and mildly pruritic Lesions resolve in days with antibiotic treatment

7 NURSING MANAGEMENT OF LESIONS Gently wash lesions 3 times a day with warm, soapy washcloth, crusts carefully removed Apply topical antibiotic as ordered Administer oral antibiotics as ordered Severe infections may need to be treated with IV antibiotics

8 NURSING CARE FOR A CHILD WITH IMPETIGO Child can spread impetigo by touching another part of the skin after scratching infected areas Wash the childs hands frequently with antibacterial soap Distract child from touching lesions

9 PARENTAL EDUCATION Good hand washing to prevent spread Cut childs nails short, wash hands often with anti-bacterial soap Do not share towels, utensils with infected child May return to school or daycare 24 hours after antibiotics started Finish full course of antibiotics (usually 10 days)

10 CANDIDIASIS

11 Superficial fungal infection of the oral mucous membranes (thursh) May also present in diaper area (diaper dermatitis)

12 ETIOLOGY Neonate can be acquired during delivery if mother has infection Older infant Immunosupression during antibiotic therapy exposure to mothers infected breasts unclean bottles and pacifiers

13 ORAL THRUSH White, curd-like plaques on tongue, gums, buccal mucosa (not easily removed)

14 DIAPER DERMATITIS Diaper area lesions are bright red Sharp Border Satellite lesions

15 MANAGEMENT Nystatin oral suspension applied to mucous membranes with gloved finger after feeding Diaper area treated by applying topical Nystatin cream with every diaper change

16 PARENTAL EDUCATION Good hand washing Thoroughly wash pacifier, bottles Breasts should be treated with Nystatin cream if breast feeding Watch for spread to GI tract: fever, refusal to eat

17

18 PEDICULOSIS CAPITIS

19 PEDICULOSIS CAPITIS (HEAD LICE) Lice infection transmitted by direct contact with infected persons or indirect contact with contaminated objects Lice can live on a human host consuming scalp blood and lay eggs Lice can live off of human for 48 hours without blood Nits (eggs) capable of hatching for 10 days

20 CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Nits are visible on hair shafts close to scalp usually behind ears and at nape of neck, difficult to remove Once hatch crawling causes intense pruritis (itchy scalp)

21 MANAGEMENT -THREE GOALS 1. Kill the active lice using pediculicide OTC products (Kwell, Nix, Rid) Kwell is neurotoxic for infants RID is safe and effective, must treat hair again 1 to 2 weeks after initial treatment NIX kills head lice and eggs with 1 treatment, may have residual activity for 10 days

22 MANAGEMENT - THREE GOALS 2.Remove nits Inspect childs hair with fine- toothed comb Comb nits out when hair is wet (apply ½ vinegar ½ water mixture prior to combing)

23 MANAGEMENT-THREE GOALS 3.Prevent spread or recurrence Treat environmental objects Examine and treat family members Vacuum carpets Check child for reinfestation 7 to 10 days after treatment Wash all bedding, hats in hot water and high dryer setting Notify school if reoccurs

24 ATOPIC DERMATITIS

25 ATOPIC DERMATITIS (ECZEMA) Chronic superficial inflammatory skin disorder Affects infants and young children Children usually also have allergies 75% of children with atopic dermatitis and allergies will develop asthma

26 INFANT erythematous areas of oozing and crusting on cheeks, forehead, scalp, flexor surfaces of arms and legs Papulovesicular rash and scaly red plaques become excoriated

27 CHILD Skin appears scaly with dry skin Can be irritated and itchy by sweating, contact with irritating fabrics, emotional upset

28 MANAGEMENT- CONTROL PRURITUS Bathe with lukewarm water, mild, non-perfumed soap Applying moisturizer while skin is wet to hydrate skin, Avoid drying agents to skin Anti-inflammatory corticosteroids creams for inflamed areas Topical immunosuppresants may be used for longer periods of time than topical steroids Identification and avoidance of triggers Fingernails clean and short

29 TINEA

30 COMMON TYPES OF TINEA INFECTION Tinea capitis (scalp) Tinea cruris (groin, buttocks, and scrotum) Tinea corporis (trunk, face, extremities) Tinea pedis (feet)

31 TINEA CAPITIS Erythema papular rash of scalp Patches of alopecia Treated with topical and oral antifungals

32 TINEA CORPORIS Single circular 1 scaly plaques Erythema to pale pink/white Topical antifungals, continue to treat one week after rash gone

33 TINEA CRUIS Warm moist environment promotes fungal growth Common in adolescent male Topical antifungal Loose clothing

34 TINEA PEDIS Sweaty feet promotes growth Barefoot in common wet areas (pools,lockeroom) Topical antifungal Fresh socks, toss old shoes

35 NURSING CONSIDERATIONS ALL TINEA INFECTIONS All members of the family and household pets should be assessed for fungal lesions Person-to-person transmission is cause Treat all asymptomatic family members for recurrence Good hygiene helps in prevention Dont share towels, clothing, hats, etc

36 CELLULITIS

37 Bacterial infection of skin Acute inflammation of dermis and connective tissue Infected area will be edematous, erythematous, very tender, warm-hot May have discharge Enlarged lymph nodes Usually associated with elevated WBC

38 TREATMENT Culture will assist in identification of organism Requires aggressive antibiotics May progress into abscess or bacteremia-watch for increasing WBC, may need blood cultures

39 NURSING CARE Warm compresses to the affected area four times daily Elevation of the affected limb if possible Bed rest Administer PO or IV antibiotics Monitor WBC, fever, spread of infection in tissue

40 SCABIES

41 Mite infection-burrow under skin Spread by skin to skin contact Female mite burrows under skin and lays egg Hatch in 3-5 days and cause severe intense itching Secondary infections (impetigo, cellulitis) common

42 CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Intense, severe pruritis esp. at night Papular-vesicluar rash mainly in wrists, fingers, elbows, axilla and groin May see a faint burrow pattern

43 MANAGEMENT Elimite- prescription Application applies neck to toe and must remain on for 8-12 hours Family members even if asymptomatic and day time contacts should be treated Wash all bedding, clothing in hot water similar to that for pediculosis

44 PRACTICE QUESTIONS!

45 The MD has recommended frequent baths for hydration for a child with eczema. Following each bath, the nurse should: a.Apply a light coating of emollient to the childs skin while still wet b. Dry the skin thoroughly and apply baby powder c. Dry the skin thoroughly and leave it exposed to air d.Apply a dilute solution of 1 part hydrogen peroxide mixed with 9 parts normal saline

46 Which procedure, performed by parents of an infant with eczema would lead the nurse to realize that additional health teaching is necessary? a.Frequent colloid baths b.Topical steroid to affected areas c.Avoidance of wool clothing d.Application of alcohol to crusted area

47 A preschooler has head lice and must have her head shampooed with a pediculicide that must remain on the scalp and hair for several minutes. How could the nurse best gain this childs cooperation during the necessary treatment? a.Offer the child a reward for good behavior b.Inform the child that her parents will be notified if she fails to cooperate c.Allow the child to apply the shampoos d.Make a game of the treatment Beauty Parlor

48 The nurse is providing home care instructions for a family with a toddler diagnosed with lice, the nurse includes which of the following instructions in the teaching plan? (select all that apply) a.Immerse combs and brushes in boiling water for 30-minutes b.Vacuum floor and furniture c.Have mother use a bright light and magnifying glass to examine the childs head after lice shampoo d.Launder the childs bedding and clothing in hot water with detergent and dry in a hot dryer for 20 minutes e.Shave the childs head and throw out the hair

49 Permethrin 5% (Elimite) is prescribed for a 10-year-old child diagnosed with scabies. What instructions should the nurse provide for the mother? a.Apply the lotion liberally from neck to toe b.Wrap the child in a clean sheet after treatment c.Leave the lotion on for 10 minutes then rinse d.Apply the lotion only to the childs scalp

50 The nurse is caring for a child with cellulitis of the foot. The nurse anticipates the physician ordering: 1. Cold packs BID 2. Application of topical antibiotics 3. WBC and culture of infected site 4. Ace wrap foot and ankle

51 A adolescent female has been diagnosed with recurrent tinea capitis. The nurse should discuss the impotence of not sharing her friends: 1. Hats 2. Bathing suits 3. Shirts 4. Socks


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