Presentation on theme: "Antonio Machado Poeta de la Generación de 98"— Presentation transcript:
1 Antonio Machado Poeta de la Generación de 98 Los MejoresClase de literatura
2 Posibilidad de examenComparar “La primavera besaba” con “Canción de otoño en primavera”
3 retruécanos Chiasmus on the Campaign Trail Wednesday March 19, 2008 In a speech delivered on St. Patrick's Day at George Washington University, Senator Hillary Clinton uncorked a classic chiasmus--though nowadays it's more likely to be called a "sound bite":The true test is not the speeches the president delivers; it's if the president delivers on the speeches. Chiasmus (pronounced kye-AZ-muss) is the crisscross figure of speech: a verbal pattern in which the second half of an expression is balanced against the first with the parts reversed. Mrs. Clinton's remark isn't likely to bump John Kennedy's "Ask not what your country can do for you " from the top of the chiastic hit parade. Still, it shows that even while belittling the eloquence of her Democratic opponent, she herself relies on rhetoric to make the case.Of course, the oratorically gifted Barack Obama can cook up a chiasmus with microwave ease. In his widely covered speech on race relations, given the day after Mrs. Clinton's address at GWU, Senator Obama paraphrased a chiasmus even more venerable than JFK's:In the end, then, what is called for is nothing more, and nothing less, than what all the world's great religions demand--that we do unto others as we would have them do unto us. And in more than one speech he has said, "My job is not to represent Washington to you, but to represent you to Washington." Though we'd like to afford the Republicans equal time, we haven't been able to track down a single chiastic observation from Senator John McCain. Somehow he just doesn't come across as a chiasmus kind of guy. But for what it's worth, we do recall Mitt Romney's remark that "Freedom requires religion, just as religion requires freedom."And that brings to mind a cosmic chiasmus from another ex-contender, Democratic Congressman Dennis Kucinich: "The energy of the stars becomes us," he said, "and we become the energy of the stars."Please don't ask us what Kucinich had in mind. The beauty of chiasmus, you see, is that even meaningless sounds can sound meaningful if crisscrossed in just the right way.
4 ejemplos en inglés Examples: "Nice to see you, to see you, nice!" (British TV entertainer Bruce Forsyth)"You forget what you want to remember, and you remember what you want to forget." (Cormac McCarthy, The Road, Knopf, 2006)"I flee who chases me, and chase who flees me." (Ovid)
5 A book about el retruécano About "Never Let a Fool Kiss You or a Kiss Fool You""For people who get high on words, this book is better than two double bourbons!" — X. J. KennedyNever Let a Fool Kiss You or a Kiss Fool You: Chiasmus and a World of Quotations That Say What They Mean and Mean What They SayViking PenguinNever Let a Fool Kiss You or a Kiss Fool You is the first popular book ever published about chiasmus (ky-AZ-mus), the fascinating literary and rhetorical device that lies behind some of the most thought-provoking and memorable things ever said or written, including Cicero's "One should eat to live, not live to eat," "Mae West's "It's not the men in my life, it's the life in my men," and Lenny Bruce's "In the Halls of Justice, the only justice is in the halls." If you're a word, language, or quotation lover, you're going to enjoy this book.Chiasmus is probably not part of your current vocabulary—or the vocabulary of your friends and colleagues. So once you begin using the word, you'll impress people with your erudition. And maybe you'll even put a few know-it-alls in their place as you toss out a quote they've never heard before and add innocently, "As you know, that's a particularly fine example of chiasmus."A working knowledge of chiasmus can also add some special moments to your life, as you share your own chiastic creations with others—sometimes quite spontaneously. While having dinner with friends recently, someone asked me about my hopes for the book. I said, "Well, I've had a wealth of experience, so I guess I'm hoping this book will provide me with … I don't know … " and then it hit me, so I finished the thought off in the only way possible, "I guess I'd have to say … an experience of wealth." We all laughed heartily, and there were "oohs" and "aahs" from all around as people marveled at my extemporaneous chiastic reply.For more information about Never Let a Fool Kiss You or a Kiss Fool You, click on any of the "links" below: More About the Book More About the BookEven though it happens rarely, every now and then a book takes an obscure word, idea, or concept and moves it into the world of popular usage. That's what I'm trying to do with this book. Even though almost all people are familiar with the phenomenon of chiasmus, almost nobody knows about the word itself. My goal is to make chiasmus a household word, in that same way that oxymoron, also an obscure word a few decades ago, is now known by virtually all literate people.But this is not a book about the word chiasmus, it is mainly a book of quotations, all of them examples of chiasmus. The first chapter introduces the concept and describes some details about chiasmus, including the fascinating etymology of the word and how every quote in the book can be "marked with an X."The rest of the book is a collection of chiastic quotations, organized by category. Some of the quotes are "classics," like JFK's "Ask not what your country can do for you" line, but most you'll be seeing for the first time, like these quotes from the current political scene:"It is not enough to preach about family values, we must value families." — Hillary Rodham Clinton"We will lead with the power of our example, but be prepared, when necessary, to make an example of our power." — Bill Clinton"Speaker Newt Gingrich says that what is wrong with the present system is not that people abuse welfare but that welfare abuses people." — Daniel Schorr"This is about principled compromise, not compromised principle." — John Hume, Nobel laureate, on Ireland's 1998 Good Friday peace accord
6 anadiplosis anadiplosis By Richard Nordquist, About.com Guide Definition: Repetition of the last word of one line or clause to begin the next. Anadiplosis often leads to climax (see also gradatio). Note that a chiasmus includes anadiplosis, but not every anadiplosis reverses itself in the manner of a chiasmus.
7 anadiplosis: ejemplos en inglés Examples:"At six o'clock we were waiting for coffee, waiting for coffee and the charitable crumb . . .“ (Elizabeth Bishop, "A Miracle for Breakfast")"When I give I give myself.“ (Walt Whitman) "Our doubt is our passion, and our passion is our task.“ (Henry James)"All service ranks the same with God, With God, whose puppets, best and worst, Are we.“ (Robert Browning, Pippa Passes)"The years to come seemed waste of breath, waste of breath the years behind.“(William Butler Yeats, "An Irish Airman Foresees his Death,")"Aboard my ship, excellent performance is standard. Standard performance is sub-standard. Sub-standard performance is not permitted to exist.“ (Queeg in The Caine Mutiny, by Herman Wouk)"The laughter had to be gross or it would turn to sobs, and to sob would be to realize, and to realize would be to despair.“ (Howard Griffin, Black Like Me)"The land of my fathers. My fathers can have it.“ (Dylan Thomas on Wales)"I am Sam, Sam I am.“ (Dr. Seuss, Green Eggs and Ham)
8 BiografíaEspañaVivió y escribió en la misma época como estos autores/pintores:Lo típico de la poesía de Machado:EstiloMensaje: la sencillez de la madurez; del pueblo
9 He andado muchos caminos Significado: Compara los ricos y los pobres:Ricos: Pobres:ostentación sueñan, trabajan/camposno tienen prisatransporte: caravana transporte: mula viejamiran, callan, piensan-saber (no ‘viven’) danzan y jueganborrachos de sombra negra; no taberna toman: vino o aguaorgullosos, “sofisticados” humildes, buena gente, sencillosapestan la tierra tierra: descansan cuando muerenForma: octosílabo, de rima asonante en e-a en los versos pares; romance (con estrofas) (más popular).Recursos y lo que añaden al poemaparalelismo de ideas y anáfora de formaelipsisantítesis/contrasteencabalgamiento, para que parezca más como prosa
10 La primavera besaba (comp. Darío) Significado: juventud – se arrepiente de no haber disfrutado la juventudcarpe diem?????sugiere la pasión: besaba, amor, verde, campo juvenil;Forma: 4 est, 4 v, octo, rima cons ABABRecursos y lo que añaden al poemaelipsissímil: como una verde humaredapersonificación: la primavera besabaencabalgamiento:
11 Caminante, son tus huellas Significado: camino =FormaRecursos y lo que añaden al poema