2Corporate vs. Retail Banking Small number of customersNarrow client baseLarge value transactionsLarge number of transactionsInter-bank transactionsLarger sum of moneyInter-bank marketsFunds for business undertakingsLow cost of processingBank has Lower spreadsMobilitation of deposits for individualsLending to small business and retail local marketsLarge volume and low value transactionsLiabilities are mostly related to various types of deposits accountsLoan portfolio is dominated by the consumer loansHigh processing costHigher interest spread
3High level of customer relationship Concept of a personal bankerClose attention and quick service to customersEach customer has unique requirementsCustom solutions and total service approachModerate level of customer relationshipsRange of options with high technology componentValue differentiation comes from customer serviceDedicated, highly professional employees at junior and middle management level value differentiationProduct needs to be well defined, easily serviceable and potentially profitable.
4Transformation in retail banking In the past, customers were happy with moderate-yield, low-risk and low-cost savings depositsNew generation prefers to invest to build wealth,demand very high levels of convenience,expect better working technology,Require information and advice that can be acted upon, andPrefer wide range of alternative productsThey are highly individualistic and require customized solutions to what they perceive to be unique needs
5Role of information Technology It contributed to major upheaval in wholesale banking though its impact on retail bank is increasing.Technology based delivery channels such as ATMs did not differentiate retail banks.Corporate clients are more familiar with automation than retail customers in India.Internet banking has not taken root in India though it is growing. It still represents a small % of banking transactions.
6Why move to retail banking? Downfall in the demand of creditSlackness in the economic activitiesTo attract rich middle class with consumer finance and housing finance productsIncrease lending business to growing number of entrepreneurs and startups
7Elements of Leadership: Franklin D. Roosevelt as illustrated by Prof. David Gergen (MS Thesis: Leadership perspectives (2003) by Rajnish Jain)Second class mind but first class temperament (Justice Holmes, 1933)A contagious confidence in the futureCapacity to relax, reflect, rechargeExtraordinary Emotional IntelligenceWorld-class communicator (Through the press, mass media and through symbolism (knew how to avoid over-exposure)Consesual leadership styleSkill in building coalitions (voters, members of congress and international allies)Set moral objectives and followed pragmatic meansHis strengths were his weaknesses (devious, secretive, manipulative and ruthless)Magnet for a strong teamAn Indispensable partner and co-leader: Eleanor
8Roosevelt’s Rules of Leadership Embrace “the strenuous life”Learn to be fearlessKeep learning about lifeRide ahead of black careIn your ambition, focus on the job at handExercise power to the hiltSpeak softly, carry a big stickChoose and use your team wiselyKnow right from wrongCharisma (and publicity) helpFace the future with indomitable optimismServe Others
9Roosevelt quotesStrenuous life: I wish to preach, not the doctrine of ignoble ease, but the doctrine of the strenuous life, the life of toil and effort, of labor and strife; to preach that highest form of success which comes, not to the man who desires mere easy peace, but to the man who does not shrink from danger, from hardship, or from bitter toil, and who out of these wins the splendid ultimate triumph.Being Fearless: There were all kinds of things of which I was afraid at first, ranging from grizzly bears to ‘mean’ horses and gun-fighters; but by acting as if I was not afraid I gradually ceased to be afraid. Most men can have the same experience if they choose. They will first learn to bear themselves well in trials which they anticipate and which they school themselves in advance to meet. After a while the habit will grow on them, and they will behave well in sudden and unexpected emergencies which come upon them unawares.Learning: As soon as any man has ceased to be able to learn, his usefulness as a teacher is at an end. When he himself can’t learn, he has reached the stage where other people can’t learn from him.Indomitable optimism: Life brings sorrows and joys alike. It is what a man does with them---not what they do to him---that is the true test of his mettle.Serve others: The Man in the Arena---It is not the critic who counts; not the man who points out how strong man stumbles, or where the doer of deeds could have done better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs, and comes short again and again, because there is no effort without error or shortcoming; who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions; who spends himself in a worthy cause; who at the best knows in the end the triumph of high achievement, and who at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat.
10Principles of Officership DutyLoyaltyHonorCompetenceSubordinationService to countryTeamworkLeadership---West Point model of leadership
11West Point Training and Leadership Model BEKnowDoEducateTrainInspireDevelop
12Leadership As Calibration Larry Summers, President, Harvard University Rule #1: The world is an uncertain place, and one must be quite uncertain as to how world events will play out. (proper decision- making requires recognizing the probabilistic elements and recognizing multiple uncertainties.)Rule #2: Make decisions with a long-term horizon but with the awareness that you need to get through the short term.Rule #3: Decide when you need to decide. Don’t decide because someone else wants you to. Always preserve the ability to make choices later.Rule #4: Make sure you hear the voice contrary to the one you are inclined to favor. If somebody suggests doing “x”, he likes to ask “ what are the best reasons not to do X?”Rule #5: With any people the more people employed to proffer insight and solutions, the better.From Leadership, Winter a summary of Harvard University Leadership Roundtable, Spring 2002.
13Managing vs. Leading Plan Vision Organize Align Control Motivate ValuesDirectionWhat Leaders Do based on Jim Fisher, Dean, Rotman School of Management, U of TorontoInvolvement
14Key elements of persuasion Credibility that assuresEmpathy that bondsExplanations that informLogic that convincesWords and ideas that inspire--- David Gergen as quoted by Rajnish Jain in his MS Thesis (2003)
15Participative Decision-making Autocratic DecisionConsultationJoint DecisionDelegationHigh influence by othersNo influence by othersSource: Rajnish Jain 2003 from Yuki
16How U.S. Banks Stack Up in 2004 Citigroup $1.19 trillion J.P. Morgan-Bank One $1.1 trillionBank-America-FleetBoston $966.4 billionWells Fargo $369.6 billionWachovia $364.3 billionWashington Mutual $241.9 billionU.S. Bancorp $194.9 billionNational City Corp. $123.4 billionSunTrust Banks $120.9 billionBank of New York $99.6 billioncompiled by American Banker --Assets as of 6/30/03
17LeadershipA prince….ought to choose the fox and the lion; because the lion cannot defend himself against traps and the fox cannot defend himself against wolves. Therefore, it is necessary to be a fox to discover the traps and a lion to terrify the wolves. Those who rely simply on the lion do not understand this. -- Machiavelli, The Prince (1513)
18Guidelines for transformational leadership (Yuki 2002) Articulate a clear and appealing visionExplain how the vision can be achivedAct confidently and optimisticallyExpress confidence in followersUse dramatic, symbolic actions to emphasize key valuesLead by exampleEmpower people to achieve the vision
19Crucibles of Leadership (Bennis and Thomas 2002) Adaptive CapacityHardiness (transcend adversity)First Class NoticerLearningProactively seizing opportunitiesCreativityEngaging Others by Creating Shared MeaningEncourage dissentEmpathyObsessive communicationVoicePurposeSelf-awareness, self-confidenceEQIntegrityAmbitionCompetenceMoral compassFrom interviews of extra-ordinary achievers under 35 (geeks) and over 70 (geezers)
20EQ Vs. IQ90% of the difference in the profiles of star performers with aver average ones in senior leadership positions was attributable emotional intelligence rather than cognitive abilities. -- Daniel Goleman based on research at nearly 200 large, global companies.Woodrow Wilson is the only US president who has had a ph.d.
21Spiritual LeadershipWorldview—underlying beliefs by which a leader views and brings forth into the world.Authenticity— genuineness based on a principle-oriented approach.Mastery—pursuit of mastery of self and others.Service—action based on an other-focused approach.
22Authenticity1. Communication—defined as the leader’s ability to effectively exchange information, objectives, and vision with followers.2. Connection—defined as a bond between leader and followers based on the leader’s ability to affiliate at the followers’ level.3. Consistency—defined as a leader’s ability to retain constancy in words, deeds, and actions with minimal variation.4. Conviction—defined as the leader’s firmly held belief in the vision.
23Authenticity5. Courage—defined as the leader’s ability to stay true to the vision and course of action regardless of sacrifice, difficulty, or uncertainty.6. Equality—defined as equal opportunity and treatment among followers in relation to the vision.7. Exemplar—defined as the leader’s ability to be an ideal example of those principles fundamental to his worldview.Values—defined as the core qualities demonstrated by the leader.Vision—defined as the leader’s future ideal for self and followers.
24Soulful Leadership Model - Kathleen Fleming Dissertation 2004
25Soulful Leadership Model Kathleen Fleming Dissertation 2004