3“Architectural Nexus” is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems (AIA/CES). Credits(s) earned on completion of this program will be reported to AIA/CES for AIA member. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request.This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product.Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
4Learning Objectives:Understand how LEED is developing with recent changes proposed in LEED v4Understand how LEED v4 restructures creditsReview new LEED categoriesUnderstand how the new Materials and Resources credits impact industry standards
5GBCI CreditThis presentation is pre-approved for one hour of LEED-specific continuing education by the Green Building Certification Institute.Everyone will need to self report at gbci.org under 'my credentials.‘Leave your at the sign-in table for certificates.
6How many of you are familiar with LEED? LEED-AP’s or GA’s?Worked on a LEED project?
7When will projects be allowed to register for LEED v4? A: RIGHT NOW! (Since November 2013 at Greenbuild)When will registration for v2009 end?A: June 1, 2015.When will LEED credential exams be updated?A: LEEDv4 exams start June 30, 2014B. LEED 2009 (v3) exams sunset June 15, 2014
8Focus is maturing from building focus to human health focus and a wholistic view of integrating building systems.Changing focus from “doing less bad” to “doing more good.” – better than being outside! Better for the environment.Building Industry is ready to focus on more innovative concepts.
9T24 to be net zero:2020 residential2030 non residentialImage Credit: Natural Capital
104 Rating Systems BD+C (10 categories) ID+C (3 categories) EB:O+M (6 categories)NC (2 categories)110 points totalA. 4 rating systems, with 21 market sectors. 5th system - LEED-ND coming Summer 2014New: Data CentersWarehouses/distribution centersHospitality(E) schools and retailMid-rise residentialLEED for Homes is 2008 version, its own unique rating system.This presentation is focused on BD+C40-49 pointsCERTIFIED50-59 pointsSILVER50-59 pointsGOLDpointsPLATINUM
11Credit Categories - NEW - CHANGES - CHANGES - CHANGES - MAJOR CHANGES Integrative process – newSustainable sites – separated into location & transportation/sustainable sitesInnovation – no changesRegional priority – no changesAll changes in LEEDv4 are focused on improved performance.Focus on reporting performance, not yet guaranteeing performance (Living Building Challenge).Lots of small credit adjustments and we’ll give you some examples – and talk about what will most impact your work.- NO CHANGES- NO CHANGES
12Question #1What is one of the new categories in LEED v4?
14ENCOURAGES EARLY ANALYSIS OF ENERGY AND WATER SYSTEMS TO INFORM DESIGN v2009DIDN’T EXISTv4IPc1NEW CREDITENCOURAGES EARLY ANALYSIS OF ENERGY AND WATER SYSTEMS TO INFORM DESIGNLEED has always fostered an integrated approach to design. Now projects can be rewarded for documenting that process.IPD, charrettesInvolves entire project team to analyze opportunities early in design, before many choices have been made that could eliminate cost-effective options or concepts that if introduced down the line could not be achieved.All engineers, designers, owner, Cx agent, contractor if possible, other specialty team members –“Simple Box” energy model – energy, lighting, envelope; water budget
15CHANGES IN SUSTAINABLE SITES LOCATION & TRANSPORTATION v4SUSTAINABLE SITES v4SUSTAINABLE SITES v2009Sustainable Sites has been reassembled to include a new credit rating category.The two types of site credits have been separated to provide a little more intuitiveness.SS category can now focus on project-specific site issues.162610
16Location & Transportation This new category focuses on the relationship between the project and the community where it is located.Credits are largely taken from the sustainable sites category of LEED2009.Services the Project provides, Services the community provides.
17ENCOURAGES EARLY ANALYSIS OF ENERGY AND WATER SYSTEMS TO INFORM DESIGN v2009DIDN’T EXISTv4LTc1NEW CREDITENCOURAGES EARLY ANALYSIS OF ENERGY AND WATER SYSTEMS TO INFORM DESIGNNew credit example:Outgrowth of “Site Selection” credit.Intent is to avoid inappropriate sites, reduce vehicle use, encourage physical activity. (walkability)Encourages projects to be located where community-level best practices have been established.
18v2009SSc4.1v4LTC5CREDIT RENAMED FROM “ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION – PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ACCESS”MULTIPLE THRESHOLDS TO REWARD VARYING TRANSIT SERVICE LEVELS.25miRevised Credit Example:Minimum trip counts for buses, transit, rideshare stops on both weekdays and weekends.,More points for more trips.Pedestrian pathway instead of “as the bird flies”.RADIUS = .25miWALKABLE DISTANCE = .25mi
19v2009Sc4.3v4LTc8Credit renamed from “alternative transportation – low emitting and fuel efficient vehicles”The familiar preferred parking requirement plus:An additional 2% of parking spaces must have refueling stations-electric vehicle charging or liquid, gas, or battery facilities
21NEW RENAMED / REORGANIZED Focus is on the project site and how it benefits the immediate ecosystem.RENAMED / REORGANIZED
22ENCOURAGES EARLY ANALYSIS OF SITE CONDITIONS TO INFORM DESIGN v2009DIDN’T EXISTv4SSc1NEW CREDITENCOURAGES EARLY ANALYSIS OF SITE CONDITIONS TO INFORM DESIGNNew credit example:Typography, hydrology, climate, vegetation, soils, human use, human health effectsExamples: rainwater collection opportunities (hydrology)temperature ranges, solar exposure (climate)
23v2009SSc7.1v4SSc4v2009SSc7.2COMBINATION OF “HEAT ISLAND EFFECT – NONROOF” AND “HEAT ISLAND EFFECT – ROOF”UPDATEDRevised credit example: Combined; higher shading and solar reflective index thresholds.Why are heat islands important? (next slide).Details:Raised the minimum solar reflective index values + 3 year aged SRI values (low slope 78 > 82, aged 64; high slope 29 > 39, aged 32)Changed paving materials metric to solar reflectance (sr)Increased threshold for parking spaces under cover – 50% > 75%COMPARE TO T : low slope aged 75; high slope aged 16.
24SACRAMENTONeil—Importance of reducing heat islands - design day temperatures to include heat island effect
25INCLUDED EXTERIOR SIGNAGE REQUIREMENTS ADDED EXEMPTIONS v2009SSc8v4SSc6INCLUDED THE BUG RATING METHODOLOGY AS A PRESCRIPTIVE WAY TO MEET THE EXTERIOR LIGHTING REQUIREMENTSADDED LIGHTING ZONE 0INCLUDED EXTERIOR SIGNAGE REQUIREMENTSADDED EXEMPTIONSPrescriptive per-fixture method: BUG = backlight, uplight and glarePerformance Calculation = photometrics– similar to LEED2009Intent: Reduce glare, light trespass, and skyglow, improve nightime visibilityEffect:Worst offender: gas station – forget headlightsLarge Energy Impact
30No irrigation beyond 2-yr. maximum establishment period, OR 30% minimum irrigation water reduction for peak watering month.Building Water Use20% minimum indoor water reduction.New fixtures: Watersense labeledAppliance and Process Water UseStandards for Appliances – ENERGY STAR, CEEStandards for Processes:No once-through potable water cooling for appliances that reject heatCooling Towers and Evap. Condensers: Equip with additional meters and alarms to reduce water useFirst time a pre req in waterPermanent water meters for potable water – manual or automatedShare 5 years of data with USGBC
31Templates now combine matching prerequisites and credits
32+1 point: Increase treatment OR use 20% recycled non-potable water Conduct a one-time potable water analysis in cooling towers and evaporative condensers to measure concentrations of 4 minerals + conductivity1 point: Limit cooling tower cycles to avoid exceeding maximum concentration levels.+1 point: Increase treatment OR use 20% recycled non-potable waterPermanent Water Meters for Two or More Subsystems:IrrigationIndoor plumbing fixturesDomestic hot waterLarge boilersReclaimed waterOther process water
33Question #3Why is it important to distinguish between potable and non-potable water use?More than 50% of fresh water in CA goes to irrigation
36Addition of exterior closures in OPR and BOD documents Reference Guides:ASHRAE Guidance and ASHRAE Guideline for HVAC&R SystemsNIBS Guideline for exterior closuresAddition of exterior closures in OPR and BOD documentsCan be reviewed by member of design or construction teamCreation of Facilities Maintenance Plan
37Must meet before counting Renewable Energy Option 1: Energy Simulation ASHRAEMore efficient BaselineMust meet before counting Renewable EnergyOption 1: Energy Simulation5% NC, 3% MR, 2% CSRetail must include process load equipmentOption 2: Prescriptive Compliance: ASHRAE 50%Energy Design GuideOption 3: Prescriptive Compliance: Advanced Buildings’“Core Performance” GuideLess then 100,000 SFNot HealthcareData Centers must be 5% over baseline by energy cost and IT equipment costIncludes cooling units for computer and data rooms and critical equipment2% of 5% energy savings through building power cooling infrastructureInclude process loads from unregulated load and IT equipment load
38Path 1: is similar to LEED 2009 Meters for five yearsShare with USGBCPath 1: is similar to LEED 2009Path 2: Additional point by developing monitoring-based procedures and identify measurement points to evaluate performance of systemsAND/ OR (2pts)Option 2: Envelope CommissioningData Centers that select Path 2 Option 1 must:Review of OPR and BOD before 50% CD’sBack check review comments andReview at 95%Larger projects review at start of DD’s, before 50% CDs,and at 100%
40Whole building monitoring of energy sources and Monitoring of energy use 10% of buildingMakes energy generation more efficient, grid reliability, reduces greenhouse gassesParticipate in DR program w real time fully automated if Initiated by external DR programmer1 yr 10% peak energy demandPlan for meeting commitment and scope of work for Cx to test systemOR if DR not available (1pt)Install infrastructure for future programPlans for commitment and CxContact utility about future participation
42Must be for offsets for projects within US 50% and 100% reduction Addition of carbon offsets for scope or 2 emissions on a metric ton of carbon dioxide Green-e Climate or equivalent certifiedMust be for offsets for projects within US50% and 100% reductionCONFIRM ACCURACY
43Question #4What is the biggest change in Energy & Atmosphere when compared to LEED 2009?
44Materials &ResourcesCategory with the most changes – LEEDv4 introduces entirely new approaches to these credits.Elephant in the room, main source of LEEDv4 controversy.
45NEWThe big change center around the “building product disclosure and optimization” credits, or “Product transparency” credits:Vs LEED2009 single-attribute credits we are used to – recycled content, rapidly renewable, regional, certified wood.Example: “This product is sustainable because it has recycled content.”What if it also has unhealthy ingredients in it?Where did old MR credits go? Embedded within these new credits, with some changes.Let’s
46Option 1: Divert 50% and three material streams (1 point) New:Now can Include wood waste converted to fuel (bio-fuel) in the calculationsWaste-to-energy systems may be considered waste diversion if listed directives are followedOption 1: Divert 50% and three material streams (1 point)Option 2: Divert 75% and four material streams (2 points)Option 3: Reduction of total waste material (2 points)Do not generate more than 2.5 pounds of construction waste per square foot of the building's floor area.Option 3:Why? 2.5 pounds per bldg. s.f. assumed normal in early LEED – not so!
47Chico Gateway Museum: 114.72 tons generated = 229,440 pounds 9,698 s.f.23.68 psf generated! (68% diverted)Fausel Professional Building: tons generated =316,480 pounds18,637 s.f.16.98 psf generated! (82% diverted)NRF Production Support Complex: tons generated =606,800 pounds89,964 s.f.6.74 psf generated! (65.5% diverted)Products: Packaging, minimizing wasteGateway: Small project, normal amount of siteworkFausel: Medium project, significant amount of siteworkPSC: Large project, small amount of siteworkHow to help:Packaging – reusable, recyclable
48BUILDING PRODUCT DISCLOSURE AND OPTIMIZATION CREDITS: ALPHABET SOUP LCAs EPDs HPDs C2CAthena Impact EstimatorLots of new acronyms, can be overwhelming.-Let’s provide some definitions.
49Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) ALPHABET SOUPLife Cycle Assessment (LCA)Environmental Product Declaration (EPD):Environmental Report of product performance based on Life Cycle AssessmentLots of acronyms. Let’s look first at Lifecycle Impact Reduction: LCAs – cradle to grave or cradle to cradleLifecycle Impacts can be reduced by: Use of historic or abandoned buildingsReuse and salvage of building materialsShorter transportation distances (“REGIONAL MATERIALS”)Whole building LCA – 10% better design case than base caseEPDs: Certified 3rd party report of the environmental impacts from extraction, manufacturing, use, and disposal or reuse of a product. Manufacturers will be asked to provide these to designers and contractors.Provides designers reliable data to make informed product choices about embodied carbon, energy, and water.Example: Reduces individual designer research such as gypsum board – recycled vs manufactured close by – which is better?Example: Bamboo – transportation distance?I see this change to LEEDv4 making my life easier as a specifier – helps centralize the information I am looking for to evaluate products.Image: Edge Environment
50Step 1: Disclosure of impacts Step 2: Optimization of impacts PRODUCT TRANSPARENCYStep 1: Disclosure of impactsStep 2: Optimization of impactsLEEDv4 new/reorganized material credits have a first point for the simple disclosure of life cycle costs and chemicals of concern, and climate change potential,and additional points for optimization of those materials – using materials that have a smaller life cycle cost, contain fewer or no chemicals of concern, and/or “less bad” or “good” climate change potential.- Image: GreenScreen
51Products sourced within 100 miles are valued at 200% of their cost Option 1: Environmental Product Declaration - DisclosureUse at least 20 different products from at least 5 different manufacturers that meet one of the disclosure criteriaOption 2: Multi-Attribute Optimization - Optimization50% of products by cost reduce:Global warming potentialDepletion of the ozone layerAcidification of land and water sourcesEutrophication (nitrogen, phosphate)Formulation of tropospheric ozoneDepletion of nonrenewable energy resourcesIntent: To encourage adaptive reuse and optimize the environmental performance of products and materials.One point for disclosure – products that have LCA’s.Another point for optimization - choosing products that have improved environmental impact than industry average.Example: closed-loop recycling program.Here you see the old “Regional Materials” credit tightened and within another credit.Products sourced within 100 miles are valued at 200% of their cost
52Mechanical engineers: Your architect is going to be requiring these for the insulation you specify around your ducts or below your rooftop HVAC units….Plumbing engineers: For your piping….. (PVC?)
53Health Product Declaration (HPD): ALPHABET SOUPHealth Product Declaration (HPD):“An impartial tool for the accurate reporting of product contents and each ingredient’s relationship to the bigger picture of human and ecological health.”-The HPD CollaborativeHPDs provide a disclosure of the potential chemicals of concern in products by comparing product ingredients to a wide variety of “hazard” lists published by government authorities and scientific associations. It is ONE OF THE STANDARDS to meet the credit requirements for meeting the material ingredient credit we’ll look at next.
54“RED LIST”The subject is complex – we are not chemists. How do we choose healthy materials?Chemistry was my worst subject…
55Option 1 – Material Ingredient Reporting (1 point) Use at least 20 different products from at least 5 different manufacturers that use any of the following programs to demonstrate the chemical inventory of the product to at least 0.1% (1000 ppm):Manufacturer InventoryHealth Product DeclarationCradle to CradleUSGBC approved programOption 2 – Material Ingredient Optimization (1 point)Use products that document their material ingredient optimization using the paths below for at least 25%, by cost, of the total value of permanently installed products in the project:GreenScreen v1.2 Benchmark.Cradle to Cradle Certified (if Platinum can use 150% of cost)International Alternative Compliance Path – REACH OptimizationOption 3 – Product Manufacturer Supply Chain OptimizationIntent: To encourage the use of products and materials for which chemical content information is available and that have environmentally, economically, and socially preferable life-cycle impacts.The material ingredient, or “product transparency” reports are similar to a nutrition label at the grocery store.Center of controversy over LEEDv4: Health and materials: Battle between USGBC and some chemical manufacturers (American Chemistry Council) who tried to ban LEED because they don’t want the public to know what is in their products:Convinced some state governors.Federal Standards now: LEED or Green GlobesWhy should you care? – Right to know what chemicals are in our buildings that we spend 90 of our lives in, like what food we put in our bodies.Building health is important to everyone:-”My child has asthma….”-”My mother has sick building syndrome and is in a hospital that is making her worse instead of better….”
56PRODUCT TRANSPARENCY INITIATIVES HDR Perkins + Will Architectural NexusU.S. Chamber of Commerce: July 2013: “Skanska announced our resignation from the U.S. Chamber of Commerce to protest the Chamber’s backing of a chemical industry-led initiative (amendment in 2013 Senate Bill 761) to effectively ban the future use of LEED for government buildings. “Patty: Describe Nexus commitment and initiative – to creating healthy buildings.Neil: Describe Glumac commitmentInformation = Impact
57Question #5What is the difference between an environmental product declaration and a health product declaration?
60v2009EQc1v4EQc2EQc5Credit got consolidated since many credits in v2009 addressed indoor air quality.ADDED ADDITIONAL OPTION FOR MATHEMATICAL MODELING, ADDITIONAL SENSORS, AND MIXED MODE SYSTEMS
61NO SUBSTANTATIVE CHANGES EQc3.1v4EQc3NO SUBSTANTATIVE CHANGESv2009EQc3.2v4EQc4EQc3: Credit renamed from “Construction Indoor Air Quality Management Plan – During Construction”EQc4: Credit renamed from “Construction Indoor Air Quality Management Plan – Before Occupancy”ADDED A MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE LIMIT FOR FLUSH-OUTSEXPANDED THE LIST OF CONTAMINANTS FOR WHICH TO TEST UNDER OPTION 2CLARIFIED THAT FURNITURE MUST BE INSTALLED
62v2009EQc6.2v4EQc5EQc7.1EQc7.2UPDATED REFERENCE STANDARD TO ASHRAE
63ADDED AN OPTION THAT ADDRESSES LIGHTING QUALITY v2009DIDN’T EXISTv4EQc6NEW CREDITINCORPORATE CONTROLS REQUIREMENTS FROM “CONTROLLABILITY OF SYSTEMS – LIGHTING” CREDITADDED AN OPTION THAT ADDRESSES LIGHTING QUALITYOption 2 (NEW): Introduces Lighting QualityLists out 6-10 strategies to increasing or improving lighting quality of a project, and allows project teams to select 4 of those strategies to prove compliance.
64CREDIT RENAMED FROM “DAYLIGHT AND VIEWS – DAYLIGHT” EQc8.1v4EQc7CREDIT RENAMED FROM “DAYLIGHT AND VIEWS – DAYLIGHT”REMOVED PRESCRIPTIVE OPTIONADDED OPTION FOR SPATIAL DAYLIGHT AUTONOMYCHANGED UNITS FROM FOOTCANDLES TO LUXADDED A TIMING REQUIREMENT TO MEASUREMENT OPTIONIf the sun is out, lights should not be on.Integrated design process
65NEW CREDIT (EXCEPT IN SCHOOLS & HEALTHCARE) v2009DIDN’T EXISTv4EQc9NEW CREDIT (EXCEPT IN SCHOOLS & HEALTHCARE)ADDED REQUIREMENT FOR ROOM NOISE LEVELS, SPEECH PRIVACY AND SOUND ISOLATION, REVERBERATION TIME, AND PAGING, MASKING, AND SOUND REINFORCEMENT SYSTEMSHARMONIZED ANSI AND ASHRAE STANDARDSNew credit that now addresses acoustics in all projects, not just Schools and Healthcare.
66Question #6As an MEP engineer, why should I care about daylighting?
67Useful Tools: General: USGBC www.usgbc.org LEEDUser www.leeduser.com Life Cycle Assessments and Environmental Product Declarations:Athena Impact EstimatorCradle to CradleHealth Product Declarations and Material Ingredient Inventory:Health Product Declaration CollaborativeThe Pharos ProjectLiving Futures Institute DeclareGreenScreenEnergy:ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guides https://www.ashrae.org/standards-research--technology/advanced-energy-design-guides
68Questions?This conclude The American Institute of Architects and GBCI Continuing Education Systems Course
69Contacts: Patty Karapinar, firstname.lastname@example.org Neil Steiner,