Presentation on theme: "Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Replacing F-gases with ammonia or why ammonia was never replaced by synthetic refrigerants…"— Presentation transcript:
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Replacing F-gases with ammonia or why ammonia was never replaced by synthetic refrigerants…
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Facts about ammonia Ammonia occurs naturally in the enviroment, e.g. human beings produce about 6 kg/year, a cow 1.000 kg/year Ammonia is one of the first refrigerants, used since 1872 It is the most efficient refrigerant available
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Ammonia in refrigeration systems Ammonia is not consumed, but recirculated in the refrigeration system It can be estimated today about 5% of the available ammonia is stored in refrigeration systems Only about 0,5% of the produced ammonia is used for refrigeration systems The price of ammonia is only fraction of the price for common synthetic refrigerants Trading ammonia is not big business Lobby work for ammonia is not very attractive…
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Ammonia drawback Flammable, although only at a certain concentration (15 to 28%) Explosive, although nearly impossible due to required concentration and very high ignition temperature (651°C) Toxic, but smell will prevent harmful influence as long as persons can run away (smell of ammonia is regognized at 20 ppm, but becomes life threatning > 1.000 ppm)
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Is ammonia safe? Accidents, particularly lethal accidents, do not occur more frequently than with synthetic refrigerants. Ammonia has a good safety record! Accidents occur mainly during maintenance work within the close vicinity of the machinery room when safety regulations were disregarded However, due to the characteristic smell of ammonia, information about a leak will travel around the world fast When used by trained personnel and according to regulations ammonia is at least as safe as any synthetic refrigerant!
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Leak tight systems Unpleasant and penetrating smell will ensure ammonia leaks are not tolerated Leakage rates of most synthetic refrigerants until today were determined to be more than 20%, because it is difficult (or nearly impossible) to detect synthetic refrigerants Leak tight systems are a general requirement, (e.g. according to the F-gas regulation), not just a requirement for ammonia systems!
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Ammonia - requirements Safety analysis Leak tight installation - welded steel pipe is the best choice. Installation according to technical standards Leak detection and proper ventilation Proper training of the staff required This is not different from any refrigeration system using synthetic refrigerants, installed correctly!
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Safe ammonia applications For more than 130 years ammonia is used in industrial refrigeration systems, e.g. for food, chemical, pharmaceutical industry Ammonia is particularly suitable for heat recovery and heat pumps In recent years numerous ammonia systems for public buildings have been installed, e.g. for airports, hospitals, exhibition centers, govermental buildings, banks, universities, sport facilities, distric cooling, space craft and space station, to name just a few…
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels London Heathrow, Terminal 5
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Zürich airport, Switzerland
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Homerton hospital, London
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Roche DeeWhy, Australia
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels East railway station, Berlin
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Design buildings with ammonia chillers O 2 sport arena Berlin, Germany Treptowers Berlin, Germany
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Curling rink, Aberdeen
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels EVO heat pump, Germany
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels International Space Station (ISS)
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Why was ammonia always used? The specific enthalpy is 6 – 7 times higher than common synthetric refrigerants making it the most efficient refrigerant available Wherever energy efficiency is important ammonia remains to be first choice - provided legislation will not prevent its use!
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Legislation concerning ammonia? EN378 is a harmonised regulation that specifies all requirements to produce and install ammonia refrigeration systems Unfortunatelly operation of refrigeration system is still the responsibility of each member state and regulations differ widely For example it is fairly easy to take advantage of efficient ammonia systems in UK, but it is nearly impossible to do so in France…
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels Ammonia - outlook Ammonia will gain - and has already gained importance - not only for industrial applications, but also in other sectors, when energy consumption is of increasing concern! The full potential of ammonia has not been fully used until today!
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels About eurammon Our objectives: Providing a platform to share information about natural refrigerants. Increase awareness and acceptance of natural refrigerants. Promote natural refrigerants as environment-friendly, energy-efficient, future-proof, cost-effective and safe solution. Support sustainability in refrigeration technology.
Atmosphere 2009 in Brussels eurammon … is a joint initiative of companies, institutions and individuals who advocate an increased use of natural refrigerants. … delivers specific project experience for users and planners of refrigeration projects. … contributes to the development of progressive solutions in refrigeration as a partner to business and politics. … is committed to sustainable solutions at international level. … has a worldwide network with around 70 members from nearly 30 countries.
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