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English Language Arts & Reading 1 English Language Arts Module 2: Balanced Literacy
English Language Arts & Reading 2 ELA Module 2: Generalist EC-6 Educator Standards Standard I. Oral Language: Teachers of young students understand the importance of oral language, know the developmental processes of oral language, and provide a variety of instructional opportunities for young students to develop listening and speaking skills. Standard II. Phonological and Phonemic Awareness: Teachers of young students understand the components of phonological and phonemic awareness and utilize a variety of approaches to help young students develop this awareness and its relationship to written language. Standard III. Alphabetic Principle: Teachers of young students understand the importance of the alphabetic principle to reading English, know the elements of the alphabetic principle, and provide instruction that helps students understand that printed words consist of graphic representations that relate to the sounds of spoken language in conventional and intentional ways.
English Language Arts & Reading 3 ELA Module 2: Generalist EC-6 Educator Standards Standard V. Word Analysis and Decoding: Teachers of young students understand the importance of word analysis and decoding to reading and provide many opportunities for students to improve word analysis and decoding abilities. Standard VI. Reading Fluency: Teachers of young students understand the importance of fluency to reading comprehension and provide many opportunities for students to improve reading fluency. Standard VII. Reading Comprehension: Teachers of young students understand the importance of reading for understanding, know the components of comprehension, and teach young students strategies for improving comprehension. Standard X. Assessment and Instruction of Developing Literacy: Teachers understand the basic principles of assessment and use a variety of literacy assessment practices to plan and implement literacy instruction for young students.
English Language Arts & Reading 4 ELA Module 2: Grades 4-8 Educator Standards Standard I. Oral Language: Teachers of students in grades 4-8 understand the importance of oral language, know the developmental processes of oral language, and provide a variety of instructional opportunities for young students to develop listening and speaking skills. Standard III. Word Analysis Skills and Reading Fluency: Teachers understand the importance of word analysis skills (including decoding, blending, structural analysis, sight word vocabulary) and reading fluency and provide many opportunities for students to practice and improve their word analysis skills and reading fluency. Standard IV. Reading Comprehension: Teachers understand the importance of reading for understanding, know the components of comprehension, and teach students strategies for improving their comprehension. Standard VIII. Assessment of Developing Literacy: Teachers understand the basic principals of assessment and use a variety of literacy assessment practices to plan and implement instruction.
English Language Arts & Reading 5 ELA Module 2: Grades 8-12 Educator Standards Standard I. English language arts teachers in grades 8-12 know how to design and implement instruction that is appropriate for each student, that reflects knowledge of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), that integrates all components of the English language arts (i.e., reading, writing, listening/speaking, viewing/representing), and that is based on continuous assessment. Standard II. English language arts teachers in grades 8-12 understand the processes of reading and teach students to apply these processes. Standard VIII. English language arts teachers in grades 8-12 understand oral communication and provide students with opportunities to develop listening and speaking skills.
English Language Arts & Reading 6 Components of Balanced Literacy Oral Language Phonemic and Phonological Awareness Alphabetic Principle (*Region 4 includes this one, many publications only refer to the other 5 components) Word Study/Literacy Development Reading Fluency Comprehension
English Language Arts & Reading 7 Oral Language
8 Listening Comprehension Listening and speaking go hand in hand. Good listening skills will produce good speakers.
9 Listening Students develop important reading comprehension strategies through listening comprehension. Students develop good oral language skills through activities to promote listening comprehension.
10 Listening Comprehension Development Instructional Strategies for Listening Development Reading aloud books, both narrative and expository. Combining listening comprehension activities with expressive oral language activities.
11 Differences in Quantity of Words Heard In a typical hour, the average child will probably hear 616 wordsWelfare 1,251 words Working Class 2,153 wordsProfessional
12 Quantity and Quality Differences Quantity of words heard in a typical hour Hart,B. & Risley, T. (1995) Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young America Children. Baltimore: Paul H.Brookes. 5 affirmations 11 prohibitions 12 affirmations 7 prohibitions 32 affirmations 5 prohibitions 616 words 1,251 words 2,153 words Welfare Working Professional Quality of words heard in a typical hour
13 Importance of Adult-Child Conversations Talking to adults is childrens best source of exposure to new vocabulary and ideas. Starting Out Right, As a teacher, they are listening to every word you say! MODEL, MODEL, MODEL.
14 Why is Home Literacy an Important Factor? Home literacy is a determining variable in the acquisition of school literacy. Snow, 1983
15 Why is Home Literacy an Important Factor? Early readers typically come from homes in which storybook reading is a frequent event. Clark, 1984; Durkin, 1974/1975
16 Oral Language Development Childs Current Oral Language Development Model extended language Use questions and prompts Recast and expand ideas Request clarification Promote questions and conversation Provide feedback Optimal Oral Language Development Scaffolding to Promote Development Click to climb the scaffold
17 Oral Language Development Instructional Strategies to develop Oral Language 1. Circle time experiences 2. Read-aloud sessions 3. Center time 4. Small group or one-to-one instruction
18 Circle Time Experiences Sharing time Show and tell News of the day Content-area discussions to build vocabulary Finger-plays Songs, chants, poems, nursery rhymes
19 Read-Aloud Sessions Improve vocabulary Build word knowledge Strengthen extended discourse Provide opportunities to explore the sounds, rhythms, and patterns of spoken language
20 Read-Aloud Sessions Choose books for read-alouds on a variety of topics. Use appropriate before-reading strategies. Build background knowledge. Pre-teach new words and concepts. Things to Remember Before Reading Aloud
21 Read-Aloud Sessions Spend time on traditional tales and nursery rhymes. Be animated. Pause for discussion. Dont always show the illustrations; allow the children to develop visualization skills. Things to Remember During Reading Aloud
22 Read-Aloud Sessions Use appropriate after-reading strategies. Discuss both simple (explicit) and complicated (implicit) questions. Repeat – read favorite books. Engage in story retelling. Things to Remember After Reading Aloud
23 Questions & Responses Simple Explicit Who? What? When? Where? Responses Recall facts, events, and names Focus on information in the text Rephrase text that has just been read Ask Questions After Reading Complex Implicit How? Why? What if? Responses Move away from what can be seen on the page Analyze and elaborate information Focus on thinking about what has been read and prior knowledge (making inferences) Make connections
24 Repeated Readings Repeated story readings give children the opportunities to deal with text on a variety of levels. Morrow, 1988
25 Repeated Readings After subsequent readings of the same text, childrens comments and questions increase. Martinez & Rose, 1985 They discuss more aspects of the text and in greater depth. Snow, 1983; Snow & Goldfield, 1983
26 Steps to Successful Story Retells Teacher reads story aloud. Teacher models story retell with props. Children retell with teacher support. Children retell independently.
27 Ten Ways to Retell a Story Oral response Puppets Dramatization Pretend-read to a stuffed animal Roll-paper movie Flannel-board Tell it to an adult Tell it on a tape Draw and tell Pretend-read with a friend
28 Modes of Assessment for Oral Language Observe children Monitor daily activities Keep anecdotal records Collect samples of work Use checklists Conduct progress monitoring assessments
29 Assessment Requires using formal and informal assessments to Determine what children know; Determine what could be understood by the child with more practice and experience; Plan and guide instruction for each child; Provide information for teacher reflection about instructional practices; and Provide information for modification of curriculum, instructional activities, and classroom routines as needed.
30 Summary Oral Language is the first step in Reading. Connection between Listening and Speaking Children must learn how to listen and to speak in order to be able to read. VARIATIONS do occur.
English Language Arts & Reading 31 Phonemic & Phonological Awareness
32 Phonemic & Phonological Awareness PHONICS the SOUNDS that LETTERS make; used to sound out / DECODE what words say
33 Phonological Awareness The term refers to a general appreciation of the sounds of speech as distinct from their meaning. When that insight includes an understanding that words can be divided into a sequence of phonemes, this finer-grained sensitivity is termed phonemic awareness. Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998, p. 51
34 Phonemic Awareness The ability to HEAR the separate sequence of sounds in spoken words (involves auditory processing only).
35 Phonemic Awareness The inability to process language phonologically. Liberman, Shankweiler, & Liberman, 1989 The most common barrier to learning word reading skills…
36 Phonemic Awareness Teach by blending and segmentation at the phoneme or sound break. These are 2 critical skills that must be taught. This is an auditory task. How do you teach it?
37 Phonemes Phonemes – smallest unit of sound in spoken language. The ability to hear and manipulate phonemes plays a crucial role in the acquisition of beginning reading skills. The sound units (phonemes) are not inherently obvious and must be directly taught. Although there are 26 letters in the English language, there are approximately 40 phonemes, or sound units, in the English language.
38 Phonemic Awareness 1.Isolate the sound Example: The first sound in map is /mmmm/. 1.Blending – put together Example: /mmm/ – / aaaa/ – /pppp/ is map. 2.Segmenting – pull apart Example: The sounds in map are /mmm/ – /aaa/ – /pppp/ Critical Skills
39 Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness is an auditory skill Once children can understand the sound, then teachers can introduce the letters and manipulate them to form sounds and words.
40 Phonemic Awareness Other ways to teach phonemic awareness Identify whether pairs of similar words are the same or different Identify whether words rhyme Identify whether words begin or end with the same sound
41 Building Phonemic Awareness Rhyme – usually the first experience with language cat hat mat fat Alliteration – attention on initial phonemes seven silly songs Syllables – segmenting words by sounds Education Ed/u/ca/tion Counting syllables – clap or tap
42 Building Phonemic Awareness Onset – Initial consonant or consonant cluster of a one-syllable word. top /t/op shell /sh/ell Rime – The vowel and consonant following the onset. top t/op/ shell sh/ell/
43 Word Families it add, s, m, h, f en add d, k, b, m, t Activity – Make Word Families it m s
44 Phonemic Skills 6. Claps words in sentences. 7. Claps syllables in words. 8. Can identify initial, end then middle sound. 9. Blends phonemes in 1 syllable word. 10. Segments phonemes in 1 syllable word. Typical Development Pattern 1. Distinguishes between which words sound the same and which are different. 2. Identifies rhyming words. 3. Produces a rhyming word. 4. Can produce onset plus rhymes. 5. Orally blends phonemes. Remember that all patterns have exceptions and variations may occur.
45 Assessing Phonemic Awareness Assessment is used to drive and develop instruction. Assess to find their readiness level.
46 Phonemic Awareness Test of Phonological Awareness (TOPA) Torgeson, & Bryant (1993) Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test Lindamood, H., & Lindamood, P. C. (1979) Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation (K-1) Rosner-Simon Auditory Analysis Test (Grade 2+) Texas Primary Reading Inventory (TPRI) (K-2) Tejas Lee (Spanish Version) Formal Assessments
47 Phonics Woodcock Reading Mastery Test or Woodcock- Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Revised Diagnostic Assessments of Reading (DAR) Roswell & Chall (1992) Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Essential Skills Brigance, (1980) Others… Formal Assessments
48 Summary 2nd stage in reading Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Use Informal / Formal Assessments to develop a plan.
English Language Arts & Reading 49 Alphabetic Principle
50 Alphabetic Principle The ability to recognize that letters represent sounds and that words are read in a L to R order. Development 1. Letter Recognition 2. Letter-Sound Correspondence 3. Sounding Out Words 4. Words into Sentences
51 Teaching Alphabetic Principle 1st step – Letter Recognition Knowing the names of the letters of the alphabet. Knowing the sounds of the letters of the recognized letters of the alphabet. Knowing that the same letter can be presented in upper or lower case form.
52 Teaching Alphabetic Principle 2 nd step – Letter-Sound Correspondence Is explicit and systematic. Presents initial instruction of the common sounds associated with individual letters. Progresses to blending sounds together to read words.
53 Guidelines Teach more frequently-used letters and sounds. Establish a logical order of introductions (the order will vary according to curriculum adoptions and reading theorists). Begin with a productive sequence that permits student to make and read words as quickly as possible. Logical order of introduction. Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondences
54 Guidelines Begin with continuous sounds. mmmm, ssss Add stop (clipped) sounds. d, p, t Introduce a few letter-sound correspondences at a time. By teaching 11 letter-sound correspondences, students can read over 100 words. Provide plenty of practice. Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondences
55 Teaching Alphabetic Principle 3rd Step – Sounding Out Words Students say each sound in a word and sustain that sound as they progress to the next. Students put those sounds together to make a whole word. This must be taught explicitly. Students sound out the letter-sound correspondences (silently) and then say the whole word.
56 Teaching Alphabetic Principle Sounding out practice – direct instruction Start with short VC (vowel-consonant) and CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) which have 2 or 3- letters in the words. Also, in which the letters represent their most common sounds in longer words (4 or 5-phoneme words). KISS - Keep It Sweet and Simple.
57 Teaching Alphabetic Principle Sounding Out Words Introduce words that do not contain consonant blends (e.g., / st /, / tr /, / pl /) until students are proficient with consonant – vowel – consonant words. Begin with continuous sounds in early exercises to facilitate blending. Stop sounds may be used in final positions of words. Try to introduce words in context, or words that students are familiar with.
58 Teaching Alphabetic Principle 4th Step – Words to Sentences Use words from developed word lists before integrating into passages. Connect words to text. Introduce texts that are decodable. Allow opportunities to practice text to develop accuracy and fluency. Use sight words in text along with sounding out strategies.
59 Successful Readers Rely primarily on letter-sound correspondences in words rather than context or pictures to identity familiar and unfamiliar words. Have reliable strategies to decode words. During the alphabetic phase, students must have plenty of practice phonologically decoding the same words to become familiar with spelling patterns, so these words become automatic.
60 Remember Pronunciations of certain letter sounds in English and Spanish may vary from speaker to speaker depending upon the speakers region or country of origin. Small mirrors can be used to help students who are having difficulty pronouncing sounds. The combination of instruction in phonological awareness and letter-sounds appears to be the most favorable for successful early reading. Haskell, Foorman, & Swank, 1992
61 Summary Alphabetic Principle is the understanding that all letters in the English language represent sounds and that words are read in a L to R order. The Alphabetic Principle is crucial to the development of later reading success and is part of the development of reading.
English Language Arts & Reading 62 Word Study / Literacy Development
63 Understandings about Reading Words Students should come to understand Some letters can represent more than one sound Different letters can represent the same sound Sounds can be represented by a single letter or combination of letters
64 Instructional Word Study Strategies How do you teach word analysis? Identify and blend together all of the letter-sound correspondences in words Recognize high frequency and irregular words Use common spelling patterns
65 Instructional Word Study Strategies Use structural clues such as compound words, base words, and inflections Use knowledge of word order and context to support pronunciation and confirm word meaning **District curriculum will help discern common patterns and order of word introduction.
66 Instructional Word Study Strategies Decoding Word Sorting Irregular Words Word Walls Letter Combinations Spelling Patterns Syllable Patterns
67 Word Study Strategies Decoding is the process of converting printed words into their spoken forms by using knowledge of letter- sound correspondences and word structures. The goal of decoding instruction is to provide students with word study strategies for reading words. Decoding
68 Word Study Strategies Select words that Consist of previously taught letters Progress from short VC and CVC words to longer words Are frequently used in texts Represent familiar vocabulary Decoding
69 Word Study Strategies Blend individual sounds without stopping between them Follow sounding out of a word with its fast pronunciation Move from orally sounding out words to silently sounding out words Decoding
70 Word Study Strategies Students begin decoding regular words when they 1. Know the sounds that letters make Phonemic Awareness 2. Know a few letter-sound correspondences Alphabetic Principle Students say the sounds for all the letters from left to right and blend the sounds together to pronounce and read regular words. Decoding
71 Word Study Strategies Decoding requires knowledge of the structures of the language Phonemic Graphophonemic Syllabic Morphemic Decoding
72 Concepts Revisited Phonemic Awareness – The ability to hear and manipulate the sounds in spoken words, and the understanding that spoken words and syllables are made up of sequences of speech sounds Yopp, 1992 Graphophonemic Awareness – making the connection between letters (graphemes) and sounds Syllable – the break in a word Morphemes – the smallest unit of meaning Review
73 Word Study Strategies Provide opportunities to make, sort, and read words that consist of letter-sound correspondences they have learned in English or Spanish Teachers can model and scaffold learning during lessons to help all students successfully apply newly acquired letter-sound knowledge Word Sorting
74 Word Study Strategies During these lessons, students focus on individual phonemes in words and blending sounds together to read words Sorting words during the lesson encourages students to look carefully at the way words look and sound Word Sorting
75 Word Study Strategies Consist of some letters that do not represent their most common sounds Can often be partially decoded to determine the correct pronunciation Tend to be high frequency words Sometimes referred to as sight words Irregular Words
76 Word Study Strategies Teach the most frequently occurring irregular words Introduce irregular words before students encounter them in stories Limit the number introduced in a single lesson Irregular Words
77 Word Study Strategies Introduce and group words by different categories on a wall / board / chart Help students learn to read and spell important words Word Walls
78 Word Study Strategies Select words from reading programs, high-frequency word lists, etc. Add a limited number of words gradually Display in a highly visible, accessible place Word Walls
79 Word Study Strategies Categorize words in a variety of ways Alphabet (ABC order) # of letters in words CV, CVC, etc Incorporate a variety of word wall activities Encourage use of the word wall during independent reading and writing Provide many opportunities for practice Word Walls
80 Word Study Strategies Letter combinations are groups of consecutive letters that represent a particular sound or sounds in words The most common combinations are usually taught first Letter Combinations
81 Word Study Strategies Consonant blends – the combined sounds of two or three consonants that can occur in words. Consonant digraph – a combination of consonants that represent one unique sound. Letter Combinations
82 Word Study Strategies Vowel combinations or pairs – two adjacent vowels in the same syllable representing a single speech sound. P / EA / CE – the / EA / makes one long e sound. Letter Combinations
83 Word Study Strategies Spelling patterns are letter sequences that frequently occur in a certain position in words. Spelling patterns are also known as phonograms. Words that contain the same phonogram form word families. (/ ack / back, jack, lack, knack) Spelling Patterns
84 Word Study Strategies Decoding by analogy to known words. Students ask What words do I know that look the same? What words do I know that end (or begin) with the same letters? Spelling Patterns
85 Word Study Strategies A syllable is a word or part of a word that is made with one opening of the mouth Every syllable has one vowel sound Syllable Patterns
86 Word Study Strategies Help students make generalizations about words they can already pronounce Provide a strategy for pronouncing and reading unfamiliar words based upon their orthography or the way they are spelled Syllable Patterns
87 Word Study Strategies Closed Syllable (CVC) Consonant / Vowel / Consonant Ends in at least one consonant, the vowel is short. Open Syllable (CV) Consonant / Vowel Ends in one vowel, the vowel is long. Syllable Patterns – Six Types
88 Word Study Strategies Vowel – Consonant - e (VCe or CVCe) Ends in one vowel, one consonant, and a final e. The final e is silent and the vowel is long. Vowel + r Syllable Has an r after the vowel, the vowel makes an unexpected sound. Syllable Patterns – Six Types
89 Word Study Strategies Vowel Pair Syllable Has two adjacent vowels. Each vowel pair syllable must be learned individually. Final Stable Syllable Has a final consonant - l - e combination or a non- phonetic but reliable unit such as -tion / shun /. The accent usually falls on the preceding syllable. Syllable Patterns – Six Types
90 Word Study Strategies Compound words – two words that are put together to make a new word carport doorway daycare
91 Word Study Strategies Inflectional endings English: -s, -es, -ing, -ed Spanish: -mente, -ito, -s, -es
92 Word Study Strategies Base words Un / friend / ly How many more can you think of?
93 Word Study Strategies Suffixes and prefixes English: re-, un-, con-, -ness, -ful
94 Word Study Strategies Syntax and Context Used to Support word identification. Confirm word meaning. Student asks Does that sound right here? Does that make sense?
95 Summary Word Study and Literacy Development is essential in the developing of Reading. There are many Word Study instructional strategies that can be used to enhance word analysis skills.
English Language Arts & Reading 96 Reading Fluency
97 What is Fluency? Fluency is a combination of reading speed, accuracy and prosody Automaticity = comprehension
98 Fluency & Automaticity Automaticity is a precursor to effective fluency implies a quick and accurate level of recognition, such as the ability to quickly and accurately associate sounds with letters in order to read words is achieved through many opportunities for practice on a regular basis **its like driving a car-you do it automatically.
99 Why is Fluency Important? Fluent readers are able to focus their attention on understanding the text and are therefore better able to interpret the text, make connections and analyze materials. NAEP, 1995
100 Why is Fluency Important? Non-fluent readers must focus their energies on decoding and accessing the meaning of individual words, thus leaving little attention free for comprehension. Samuels and Laberge, 1974
101 Fluency and Comprehension Fluent word recognition is the key to good reading comprehension. Fluency is related to listening and reading comprehension, vocabulary development, and motivation to read.
102 Assess Fluency Rates and Levels Informal and Formal assessments can be used to determine a childs fluency rate so that appropriate instruction can be developed and designed.
103 Fluency Progress If the goal is to improve fluency - then students MUST chose books and passages at their Independent Level so they can practice. Fluency should be assessed weekly for those readers who are struggling. Monitor Fluency Progress.
104 Instructional Fluency Strategies 1. lots of independent reading at their independent reading level – SSR 2. repeated readings 3. taped assisted reading 4. echo reading 5. shared reading 6. choral reading 7. partner reading 8. readers theater
105 Summary The understanding that Fluency is connected with Reading. Without Fluency there would be little comprehension. Fluency Rate - how many words are read per minute. Fluency Levels - the levels at which a child reads. Independent Level is the level to develop fluency.
English Language Arts & Reading 106 Comprehension
107 What is Comprehension? Understanding what you have read Learning from what you read and applying information It is more than just asking questions to assess student understanding
108 How Do We Instruct for Comprehension? Commonly, the instructional procedures for developing comprehension are to simply have students read material and answer questions.... However, reading and answering is TESTING comprehension not TEACHING comprehension. Bell, N. (1991) Visualizing and verbalizing for language comprehension and thinking. Paso Robles, CA: Academy of Reading Publications.
109 Assessment Drives Instruction Determining what students know and dont know informs your instruction. Reading Inventories such as the TPRI and the TeJas Lee can be used as a diagnostic tool to help drive your instruction. There is a comprehension section of the TPRI which we will examine later.
110 Teaching Comprehension Strategies You must EXPLICITY teach comprehension strategies TEACH What a given comprehension strategy is, why its important and when to use it Which comprehension strategies work best in certain instances How to apply different strategies to different types of texts and reading situations Expository and Narrative texts
111 Comprehension Strategies 1. Teacher Read Alouds 2. Different Types of Texts 3. Before Reading 4. During Reading 5. After Reading 6. Graphic Organizers 7. Questioning Strategies
112 Comprehension Strategies Read Alouds Comprehension strategies can be demonstrated and modeled during teacher read alouds. All students, regardless of age and level of reading, need daily opportunities to hear good narratives and interesting expository books read aloud.
113 Different Types of Texts Narrative Texts Tell stories Follow a familiar story structure Include short stories, folktales, myths, fables, autobiographies, biographies, fantasies, historical fiction, mysteries, science fiction, plays Expository Texts Informative Present information in different ways Provide a framework for comprehension of content- area textbooks Include informational books, content-area textbooks, newspapers, magazines, brochures, catalogues
114 Improving Comprehension Asking questions Having meaningful discussions Using graphic organizers Can help students develop and extend meaning and make connections to personal experiences before, during, and after reading
115 Instructional Comprehension Strategies The teacher teaches students how to monitor their understanding and comprehension by implementing Before Reading Strategies During Reading Strategies After Reading Strategies
116 Instructional Comprehension Strategies Before Reading Strategies Prepare and make connections and predictions by activating prior knowledge Use K-W-L chart
117 K-W-L Charts Used with expository texts What I KnowWhat I Want to KnowWhat I Learned What are some ways you use K-W-L Charts with your students?
118 Instructional Comprehension Strategies During Reading Monitor understanding and correct any difficulties Use Fix Up Strategies – these are strategies that students can learn to use to monitor their understanding Example – Get the Gist
119 Instructional Comprehension Strategies Get the Gist To identify the main idea / gist of the paragraph. Read 1 paragraph at a time. Determine the main idea by. Naming the who or what? The most important thing that happened to the who or what? Put it together in 10 words or less. Tell a partner. Write it down. Create a summary - Do this for each paragraph. Repeat with next paragraph - 5 paragraphs.
120 Instructional Comprehension Strategies During Reading – Asking Questions Each group is to develop 1 question (broad) to be used as a fix up strategy. Post all the questions. Students are to refer to these questions as they read to monitor their understanding. Sample question – Does this make sense? You have just developed a reading center!
121 Instructional Comprehension Strategies Before Reading Questions 1. What does the title tell me about the story? 2. Do I know anything about this topic already? 3. Are there any pictures? What can the pictures tell me? 4. What is my goal for reading this passage? What do I want to learn?
122 Instructional Comprehension Strategies During Reading Questions 1. Does this sentence make sense? Does this paragraph make sense so far? 2. What have I learned? 3. Do I still have questions? Write down the questions in the margin, or on sticky notes and place beside the area that is confusing, or the area that you may still have questions about.
123 Instructional Comprehension Strategies After Reading Questions 1. Did I learn any new words? Write them down in my dictionary. 2. What was this mainly about? Can I summarize this and get the gist? 3. What was the most important thing that I learned? Did I reach my goal? 4. Is there anything else I want to learn about?
124 Instructional Comprehension Strategies During Reading Other instructional strategies to use during reading Think – pair - share Turn to your neighbor Response cards Pinch cards Partner reading Choral reading Echo Reading
125 Instructional Comprehension Strategies After Reading Provide summary of what was read and make connections. This helps students Identify what was most important. Make inferences. Remember what they read. Put all your get the gists together to make a complete summary. Fill in the L of the K-W-L chart.
126 Instructional Comprehension Strategies Graphic Organizers Helps those visual learners connect to information Activates prior knowledge Helps students remember important elements Guides students to think about a passage in an organized manner
127 Instructional Comprehension Strategies Graphic Organizers Some different types of graphic organizers include 1. Webs 2. K-W-L Charts 3. Maps (e.g., brainstorming, story, concept, semantic) 4. Venn diagrams 5. Timelines
128 Putting It All Together Did they understand what they read? Use questioning strategies to monitor comprehension understanding during the reading. Students can monitor their understanding by using the QAR question strategies.
129 Instructional Comprehension Strategies Be Critical Thinkers and teach students to ask relevant questions. Introduce QAR – this is a questioning technique that transfers the control of questioning from the teacher to the students.
130 Instructional Comprehension Strategies QAR - Question Answer Response Level 1 questions – the answers are right there in the passage. Level 2 questions – the answers are found in different parts of the text. Level 3 questions – the answer is mostly in the passage and partly in the readers mind.
131 Questions & Responses Simple Explicit Who? What? When? Where? Responses Recall facts, events, and names. Focus on information in the text. Rephrase text that has just been read. Ask questions before, during, and after reading Complex Implicit How? Why? What if? Responses Move away from what can be seen on the page. Analyze and elaborate information. Focus on thinking about what has been read and prior knowledge (making inferences). Make connections.
132 Assessment Drives Instruction Did they understand what they read? If not, go back and determine what they need to work on Explicit / Implicit Questions Fluency Word Recognition Alphabetic Principle
133 Summary Comprehension is the goal in reading. Comprehension is NOT just answering questions. Effective comprehension instruction helps students understand what they read to become strategic, metacognitive readers.
English Language Arts & Reading 134 Conclusion
135 Balanced Literacy Components 1. Oral Development 2. Phonological Awareness 3. Alphabetic Principle 4. Word Study/Literature Development 5. Fluency 6. Comprehension