Presentation on theme: "English Language Arts Module 2: Balanced Literacy"— Presentation transcript:
1English Language Arts Module 2: Balanced Literacy English Language Arts & Reading
2ELA Module 2: Generalist EC-6 Educator Standards Standard I. Oral Language: Teachers of young students understand the importance of oral language, know the developmental processes of oral language, and provide a variety of instructional opportunities for young students to develop listening and speaking skills.Standard II. Phonological and Phonemic Awareness: Teachers of young students understand the components of phonological and phonemic awareness and utilize a variety of approaches to help young students develop this awareness and its relationship to written language.Standard III. Alphabetic Principle: Teachers of young students understand the importance of the alphabetic principle to reading English, know the elements of the alphabetic principle, and provide instruction that helps students understand that printed words consist of graphic representations that relate to the sounds of spoken language in conventional and intentional ways.English Language Arts & Reading
3ELA Module 2: Generalist EC-6 Educator Standards Standard V. Word Analysis and Decoding: Teachers of young students understand the importance of word analysis and decoding to reading and provide many opportunities for students to improve word analysis and decoding abilities.Standard VI. Reading Fluency: Teachers of young students understand the importance of fluency to reading comprehension and provide many opportunities for students to improve reading fluency.Standard VII. Reading Comprehension: Teachers of young students understand the importance of reading for understanding, know the components of comprehension, and teach young students strategies for improving comprehension.Standard X. Assessment and Instruction of Developing Literacy: Teachers understand the basic principles of assessment and use a variety of literacy assessment practices to plan and implement literacy instruction for young students.English Language Arts & Reading
4ELA Module 2: Grades 4-8 Educator Standards Standard I. Oral Language: Teachers of students in grades 4-8 understand the importance of oral language, know the developmental processes of oral language, and provide a variety of instructional opportunities for young students to develop listening and speaking skills.Standard III. Word Analysis Skills and Reading Fluency: Teachers understand the importance of word analysis skills (including decoding, blending, structural analysis, sight word vocabulary) and reading fluency and provide many opportunities for students to practice and improve their word analysis skills and reading fluency.Standard IV. Reading Comprehension: Teachers understand the importance of reading for understanding, know the components of comprehension, and teach students strategies for improving their comprehension.Standard VIII. Assessment of Developing Literacy: Teachers understand the basic principals of assessment and use a variety of literacy assessment practices to plan and implement instruction.English Language Arts & Reading
5ELA Module 2: Grades 8-12 Educator Standards Standard I. English language arts teachers in grades 8-12 know how to design and implement instruction that is appropriate for each student, that reflects knowledge of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), that integrates all components of the English language arts (i.e., reading, writing, listening/speaking, viewing/representing), and that is based on continuous assessment.Standard II. English language arts teachers in grades 8-12 understand the processes of reading and teach students to apply these processes.Standard VIII. English language arts teachers in grades understand oral communication and provide students with opportunities to develop listening and speaking skills.English Language Arts & Reading
6Components of Balanced Literacy Oral LanguagePhonemic and Phonological AwarenessAlphabetic Principle (*Region 4 includes this one, many publications only refer to the other 5 components)Word Study/Literacy DevelopmentReading FluencyComprehensionEnglish Language Arts & Reading
8Listening Comprehension Listening and speaking go hand in hand.Good listening skills will produce good speakers.
9ListeningStudents develop important reading comprehension strategies through listening comprehension.Students develop good oral language skills through activities to promote listening comprehension.
10Listening Comprehension Development Instructional Strategies for Listening DevelopmentReading aloud books, both narrative and expository.Combining listening comprehension activities with expressive oral language activities.
11Differences in Quantity of Words Heard In a typical hour, the average child will probably hear616 words Welfare1,251 words Working Class2,153 words Professional
12Quantity and Quality Differences Quantity of words heard in a typical hourQuality of words heard in a typical hour5 affirmations11 prohibitions12 affirmations7 prohibitions32 affirmations5 prohibitionsWelfareWorkingProfessional616 words1,251 words2,153 wordsHart,B. & Risley, T. (1995) Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young America Children. Baltimore: Paul H .Brookes.
13Importance of Adult-Child Conversations Talking to adults is children’s best source of exposure to new vocabulary and ideas.Starting Out Right, 1999.As a teacher, they are listening to every word you say!MODEL, MODEL, MODEL.
14Why is Home Literacy an Important Factor? Home literacy is a determining variable in the acquisition of school literacy.Snow, 1983
15Why is Home Literacy an Important Factor? Early readers typically come from homes in which storybook reading is a frequent event.Clark, 1984; Durkin, 1974/1975
16Oral Language Development Optimal Oral Language DevelopmentScaffolding to Promote DevelopmentClick to climb the scaffoldProvide feedbackChild’s Current Oral Language DevelopmentPromote questions and conversationRequest clarificationRecast and expand ideasUse questions and promptsModel extended language
17Oral Language Development Instructional Strategies to develop Oral LanguageCircle time experiencesRead-aloud sessionsCenter timeSmall group or one-to-one instruction
18Circle Time Experiences Sharing timeShow and tellNews of the dayContent-area discussions to build vocabularyFinger-playsSongs, chants, poems, nursery rhymes
19Read-Aloud Sessions Improve vocabulary Build word knowledge Strengthen extended discourseProvide opportunities to explore the sounds, rhythms, and patterns of spoken language
20Things to Remember Before Reading Aloud Read-Aloud SessionsThings to Remember Before Reading AloudChoose books for read-alouds on a variety of topics.Use appropriate before-reading strategies.Build background knowledge.Pre-teach new words and concepts.
21Things to Remember During Reading Aloud Read-Aloud SessionsThings to Remember During Reading AloudSpend time on traditional tales and nursery rhymes.Be animated.Pause for discussion.Don’t always show the illustrations; allow the children to develop visualization skills.
22Things to Remember After Reading Aloud Read-Aloud SessionsThings to Remember After Reading AloudUse appropriate after-reading strategies.Discuss both simple (explicit) and complicated (implicit) questions.Repeat – read favorite books.Engage in story retelling.
23Ask Questions After Reading Questions & ResponsesAsk Questions After ReadingSimpleExplicitWho? What? When? Where?ResponsesRecall facts, events, and namesFocus on information in the textRephrase text that has just been readComplexImplicitHow? Why? What if?ResponsesMove away from what can be seen on the pageAnalyze and elaborate informationFocus on thinking about what has been read and prior knowledge (making inferences)Make connections
24Repeated ReadingsRepeated story readings give children the opportunities to deal with text on a variety of levels.Morrow, 1988
25Repeated ReadingsAfter subsequent readings of the same text, children’s comments and questions increase.Martinez & Rose, 1985They discuss more aspects of the text and in greater depth.Snow, 1983; Snow & Goldfield, 1983
26Steps to Successful Story Retells Children retell independently.Children retell with teacher support.Teacher models story retell with props.Teacher reads story aloud.
27Ten Ways to Retell a Story Oral responsePuppetsDramatizationPretend-read to a stuffed animalRoll-paper movieFlannel-boardTell it to an adultTell it on a tapeDraw and tellPretend-read with a friend
28Modes of Assessment for Oral Language Observe childrenMonitor daily activitiesKeep anecdotal recordsCollect samples of workUse checklistsConduct progress monitoring assessments
29Assessment Requires using formal and informal assessments to Determine what children know;Determine what could be understood by the child with more practice and experience;Plan and guide instruction for each child;Provide information for teacher reflection about instructional practices; andProvide information for modification of curriculum, instructional activities, and classroom routines as needed.
30Summary Oral Language is the first step in Reading. Connection between Listening and SpeakingChildren must learn how to listen and to speak in order to be able to read.VARIATIONS do occur.
31Phonemic & Phonological Awareness English Language Arts & Reading
32Phonemic & Phonological Awareness PHONICSthe SOUNDS that LETTERS make; used to sound out / DECODE what words say
33Phonological Awareness “The term refers to a general appreciation of the sounds of speech as distinct from their meaning. When that insight includes an understanding that words can be divided into a sequence of phonemes, this finer-grained sensitivity is termed phonemic awareness.”Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998, p. 51
34Phonemic AwarenessThe ability to HEAR the separate sequence of sounds in spoken words (involves auditory processing only).
35The most common barrier to learning word reading skills… Phonemic AwarenessThe most common barrier to learning word reading skills…The inability to process language phonologically.Liberman, Shankweiler, & Liberman, 1989
36Phonemic Awareness How do you teach it? Teach by blending and segmentation at the phoneme or sound break.These are 2 critical skills that must be taught.This is an auditory task.
37Phonemes Phonemes – smallest unit of sound in spoken language. The ability to hear and manipulate phonemes plays a crucial role in the acquisition of beginning reading skills.The sound units (phonemes) are not inherently obvious and must be directly taught.Although there are 26 letters in the English language, there are approximately 40 phonemes, or sound units, in the English language.
38Phonemic Awareness Critical Skills Isolate the sound Example: The first sound in map is /mmmm/.Blending – put together Example: /mmm/ – / aaaa/ – /pppp/ is map.Segmenting – pull apart Example: The sounds in map are /mmm/ – /aaa/ – /pppp/
39Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness is an auditory skill Once children can understand the sound, then teachers can introduce the letters and manipulate them to form sounds and words.
40Phonemic Awareness Other ways to teach phonemic awareness Identify whether pairs of similar words are the same or differentIdentify whether words rhymeIdentify whether words begin or end with the same sound
41Building Phonemic Awareness Rhyme – usually the first experience with languagecat hat mat fatAlliteration – attention on initial phonemesseven silly songsSyllables – segmenting words by soundsEducation Ed/u/ca/tionCounting syllables – clap or tap
42Building Phonemic Awareness Onset – Initial consonant or consonant cluster of a one-syllable word.top /t/op shell /sh/ellRime – The vowel and consonant following the onset.top t/op/ shell sh/ell/
43Word Families it add, s, m, h, f en add d, k, b, m, t Activity – Make Word Familiesitms
44Phonemic Skills Typical Development Pattern Claps words in sentences. Distinguishes between which words sound the same and which are different.Identifies rhyming words.Produces a rhyming word.Can produce onset plus rhymes.Orally blends phonemes.Claps words in sentences.Claps syllables in words.Can identify initial, end then middle sound.Blends phonemes in 1 syllable word.Segments phonemes in 1 syllable word.Remember that all patterns have exceptions and variations may occur.
45Assessing Phonemic Awareness Assessment is used to drive and develop instruction.Assess to find their ‘readiness level’.
46Phonemic Awareness Formal Assessments Test of Phonological Awareness (TOPA) Torgeson, & Bryant (1993)Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test Lindamood, H., & Lindamood, P. C. (1979)Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation (K-1)Rosner-Simon Auditory Analysis Test (Grade 2+)Texas Primary Reading Inventory (TPRI) (K-2)Tejas Lee (Spanish Version)
47Phonics Formal Assessments Woodcock Reading Mastery Test or Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-RevisedDiagnostic Assessments of Reading (DAR)Roswell & Chall (1992)Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Essential Skills Brigance, (1980)Others…
48Summary 2nd stage in reading Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Use Informal / Formal Assessments to develop a plan.
49Alphabetic PrincipleEnglish Language Arts & Reading
50Alphabetic PrincipleThe ability to recognize that letters represent sounds and that words are read in a L to R order.DevelopmentLetter RecognitionLetter-Sound CorrespondenceSounding Out WordsWords into Sentences
51Teaching Alphabetic Principle 1st step – Letter RecognitionKnowing the names of the letters of the alphabet.Knowing the sounds of the letters of the recognized letters of the alphabet.Knowing that the same letter can be presented in upper or lower case form.
52Teaching Alphabetic Principle 2nd step – Letter-Sound CorrespondenceIs explicit and systematic.Presents initial instruction of the common sounds associated with individual letters.Progresses to blending sounds together to read words.
53Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondences GuidelinesTeaching Letter-Sound CorrespondencesTeach more frequently-used letters and sounds.Establish a logical order of introductions (the order will vary according to curriculum adoptions and reading theorists).Begin with a productive sequence that permits student to make and read words as quickly as possible.Logical order of introduction.
54Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondences GuidelinesTeaching Letter-Sound CorrespondencesBegin with continuous sounds.mmmm, ssssAdd stop (clipped) sounds.d, p, tIntroduce a few letter-sound correspondences at a time.By teaching 11 letter-sound correspondences, students can read over 100 words.Provide plenty of practice.
55Teaching Alphabetic Principle 3rd Step – Sounding Out WordsStudents say each sound in a word and sustain that sound as they progress to the next.Students put those sounds together to make a whole word. This must be taught explicitly.Students sound out the letter-sound correspondences (silently) and then say the whole word.
56Teaching Alphabetic Principle Sounding out practice – direct instructionStart with short VC (vowel-consonant) and CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) which have 2 or 3-letters in the words. Also, in which the letters represent their most common sounds in longer words (4 or 5-phoneme words).KISS - Keep It Sweet and Simple.
57Teaching Alphabetic Principle Sounding Out WordsIntroduce words that do not contain consonant blends (e.g., / st /, / tr /, / pl /) until students are proficient with consonant – vowel – consonant words.Begin with continuous sounds in early exercises to facilitate blending. Stop sounds may be used in final positions of words.Try to introduce words in context, or words that students are familiar with.
58Teaching Alphabetic Principle 4th Step – Words to SentencesUse words from developed word lists before integrating into passages.Connect words to text.Introduce texts that are decodable.Allow opportunities to practice text to develop accuracy and fluency.Use sight words in text along with sounding out strategies.
59Successful ReadersRely primarily on letter-sound correspondences in words rather than context or pictures to identity familiar and unfamiliar words.Have reliable strategies to decode words.During the alphabetic phase, students must have plenty of practice phonologically decoding the same words to become familiar with spelling patterns, so these words become automatic.
60RememberPronunciations of certain letter sounds in English and Spanish may vary from speaker to speaker depending upon the speaker’s region or country of origin.Small mirrors can be used to help students who are having difficulty pronouncing sounds.The combination of instruction in phonological awareness and letter-sounds appears to be the most favorable for successful early reading.Haskell, Foorman, & Swank, 1992
61SummaryAlphabetic Principle is the understanding that all letters in the English language represent sounds and that words are read in a L to R order.The Alphabetic Principle is crucial to the development of later reading success and is part of the development of reading.
62Word Study / Literacy Development English Language Arts & Reading
63Understandings about Reading Words Students should come to understandSome letters can represent more than one soundDifferent letters can represent the same soundSounds can be represented by a single letter or combination of letters
64Instructional Word Study Strategies How do you teach word analysis?Identify and blend together all of the letter-sound correspondences in wordsRecognize high frequency and irregular wordsUse common spelling patterns
65Instructional Word Study Strategies Use structural clues such as compound words, base words, and inflectionsUse knowledge of word order and context to support pronunciation and confirm word meaning**District curriculum will help discern common patterns and order of word introduction.
66Instructional Word Study Strategies DecodingWord SortingIrregular WordsWord WallsLetter CombinationsSpelling PatternsSyllable Patterns
67Word Study Strategies Decoding Decoding is the process of converting printed words into their spoken forms by using knowledge of letter-sound correspondences and word structures.The goal of decoding instruction is to provide students with word study strategies for reading words.
68Word Study Strategies Decoding Select words that Consist of previously taught lettersProgress from short VC and CVC words to longer wordsAre frequently used in textsRepresent familiar vocabulary
69Word Study Strategies Decoding Blend individual sounds without stopping between themFollow sounding out of a word with its “fast” pronunciationMove from orally sounding out words to silently “sounding out” words
70Word Study Strategies Decoding Students begin decoding regular words when they1. Know the sounds that letters makePhonemic Awareness2. Know a few letter-sound correspondencesAlphabetic PrincipleStudents say the sounds for all the letters from left to right and blend the sounds together to pronounce and read regular words.
71Word Study Strategies Decoding Decoding requires knowledge of the structures of the languagePhonemicGraphophonemicSyllabicMorphemic
72Concepts Revisited Review Phonemic Awareness – The ability to hear and manipulate the sounds in spoken words, and the understanding that spoken words and syllables are made up of sequences of speech soundsYopp, 1992Graphophonemic Awareness – making the connection between letters (graphemes) and soundsSyllable – the break in a wordMorphemes – the smallest unit of meaning
73Word Study Strategies Word Sorting Provide opportunities to make, sort, and read words that consist of letter-sound correspondences they have learned in English or SpanishTeachers can model and scaffold learning during lessons to help all students successfully apply newly acquired letter-sound knowledge
74Word Study Strategies Word Sorting During these lessons, students focus on individual phonemes in words and blending sounds together to read wordsSorting words during the lesson encourages students to look carefully at the way words look and sound
75Word Study Strategies Irregular Words Consist of some letters that do not represent their most common soundsCan often be partially decoded to determine the correct pronunciationTend to be high frequency wordsSometimes referred to as sight words
76Word Study Strategies Irregular Words Teach the most frequently occurring irregular wordsIntroduce irregular words before students encounter them in storiesLimit the number introduced in a single lesson
77Word Study Strategies Word Walls Introduce and group words by different categories on a wall / board / chartHelp students learn to read and spell important words
78Word Study Strategies Word Walls Select words from reading programs, high-frequency word lists, etc.Add a limited number of words graduallyDisplay in a highly visible, accessible place
79Word Study Strategies Word Walls Categorize words in a variety of ways Alphabet (ABC order)# of letters in wordsCV, CVC, etcIncorporate a variety of word wall activitiesEncourage use of the word wall during independent reading and writingProvide many opportunities for practice
80Word Study Strategies Letter Combinations Letter combinations are groups of consecutive letters that represent a particular sound or sounds in wordsThe most common combinations are usually taught first
81Word Study Strategies Letter Combinations Consonant blends – the combined sounds of two or three consonants that can occur in words.Consonant digraph – a combination of consonants that represent one unique sound.
82Word Study Strategies Letter Combinations Vowel combinations or pairs – two adjacent vowels in the same syllable representing a single speech sound.P / EA / CE – the / EA / makes one long e sound.
83Word Study Strategies Spelling Patterns Spelling patterns are letter sequences that frequently occur in a certain position in words.Spelling patterns are also known as phonograms.Words that contain the same phonogram form word families.(/ ack / back, jack, lack, knack)
84Word Study Strategies Spelling Patterns Decoding by analogy to known words.Students ask“What words do I know that look the same?”“What words do I know that end (or begin) with the same letters?”
85Word Study Strategies Syllable Patterns A syllable is a word or part of a word that is made with one opening of the mouthEvery syllable has one vowel sound
86Word Study Strategies Syllable Patterns Help students make generalizations about words they can already pronounceProvide a strategy for pronouncing and reading unfamiliar words based upon their orthography or the way they are spelled
87Syllable Patterns – Six Types Word Study StrategiesSyllable Patterns – Six TypesClosed Syllable (CVC) Consonant / Vowel / ConsonantEnds in at least one consonant, the vowel is short.Open Syllable (CV) Consonant / VowelEnds in one vowel, the vowel is long.
88Syllable Patterns – Six Types Word Study StrategiesSyllable Patterns – Six TypesVowel – Consonant - e (VCe or CVCe) Ends in one vowel, one consonant, and a final e. The final e is silent and the vowel is long.Vowel + r Syllable Has an r after the vowel, the vowel makes an unexpected sound.
89Syllable Patterns – Six Types Word Study StrategiesSyllable Patterns – Six TypesVowel Pair Syllable Has two adjacent vowels. Each vowel pair syllable must be learned individually.Final Stable Syllable Has a final consonant - l - e combination or a non-phonetic but reliable unit such as -tion / shun /. The accent usually falls on the preceding syllable.
90Word Study StrategiesCompound words – two words that are put together to make a new wordcarportdoorwaydaycare
97What is Fluency?Fluency is a combination of reading speed, accuracy and prosodyAutomaticity = comprehension
98Fluency & Automaticity is a precursor to effective fluencyimplies a quick and accurate level of recognition, such as the ability to quickly and accurately associate sounds with letters in order to read wordsis achieved through many opportunities for practice on a regular basis**it’s like driving a car-you do it automatically.
99Why is Fluency Important? Fluent readers are able to focus their attention on understanding the text and are therefore better able to interpret the text, make connections and analyze materials.NAEP, 1995
100Why is Fluency Important? Non-fluent readers must focus their energies on decoding and accessing the meaning of individual words, thus leaving little attention free for comprehension.Samuels and Laberge, 1974
101Fluency and Comprehension Fluent word recognition is the key to good reading comprehension.Fluency is related to listening and reading comprehension, vocabulary development, and motivation to read.
102Assess Fluency Rates and Levels Informal and Formal assessments can be used to determine a child’s fluency rate so that appropriate instruction can be developed and designed.
103Fluency ProgressIf the goal is to improve fluency -then students MUST chose books and passages at their Independent Level so they can practice.Fluency should be assessed weekly for those readers who are struggling.Monitor Fluency Progress.
104Instructional Fluency Strategies lots of independent reading at their independent reading level – SSRrepeated readingstaped assisted readingecho readingshared readingchoral readingpartner readingreaders’ theater
105Summary The understanding that Fluency is connected with Reading. Without Fluency there would be little comprehension.Fluency Rate - how many words are read per minute.Fluency Levels - the levels at which a child reads.Independent Level is the level to develop fluency.
107What is Comprehension? Understanding what you have read Learning from what you read and applying informationIt is more than just asking questions to assess student understanding
108How Do We Instruct for Comprehension? “Commonly, the instructional procedures for developing comprehension are to simply have students read material and answer questions However, reading and answering is TESTING comprehension not TEACHING comprehension.”Bell, N. (1991) Visualizing and verbalizing for language comprehension and thinking. Paso Robles, CA: Academy of Reading Publications.
109Assessment Drives Instruction Determining what students know and don’t know informs your instruction.Reading Inventories such as the TPRI and the TeJas Lee can be used as a diagnostic tool to help drive your instruction.There is a comprehension section of the TPRI which we will examine later.
110Teaching Comprehension Strategies You must EXPLICITY teach comprehension strategiesTEACHWhat a given comprehension strategy is, why it’s important and when to use itWhich comprehension strategies work best in certain instancesHow to apply different strategies to different types of texts and reading situationsExpository and Narrative texts
112Comprehension Strategies Read AloudsComprehension strategies can be demonstrated and modeled during teacher read alouds.All students, regardless of age and level of reading, need daily opportunities to hear good narratives and interesting expository books read aloud.
113Different Types of Texts Narrative TextsTell storiesFollow a familiar story structureInclude short stories, folktales, myths, fables, autobiographies, biographies, fantasies, historical fiction, mysteries, science fiction, playsExpository TextsInformativePresent information in different waysProvide a framework for comprehension of content-area textbooksInclude informational books, content-area textbooks, newspapers, magazines, brochures, catalogues
114Improving Comprehension Asking questionsHaving meaningful discussionsUsing graphic organizersCan help students develop and extend meaning and make connections to personal experiences before, during, and after reading
115Instructional Comprehension Strategies The teacher teaches students how to monitor their understanding and comprehension by implementingBefore Reading StrategiesDuring Reading StrategiesAfter Reading Strategies
116Instructional Comprehension Strategies Before Reading StrategiesPrepare and make connections and predictions by activating prior knowledgeUse K-W-L chart
117K-W-L Charts Used with expository texts What I Know What I Want to KnowWhat I LearnedWhat are some ways you use K-W-L Charts with your students?
118Instructional Comprehension Strategies During ReadingMonitor understanding and correct any difficultiesUse Fix Up Strategies – these are strategies that students can learn to use to monitor their understandingExample – Get the Gist
119Instructional Comprehension Strategies Get the GistTo identify the main idea / gist of the paragraph.Read 1 paragraph at a time.Determine the main idea by.Naming the who or what?The most important thing that happened to the who or what?Put it together in 10 words or less.Tell a partner.Write it down.Create a summary - Do this for each paragraph.Repeat with next paragraph - 5 paragraphs.
120Instructional Comprehension Strategies During Reading – Asking QuestionsEach group is to develop 1 question (broad) to be used as a fix up strategy. Post all the questions. Students are to refer to these questions as they read to monitor their understanding.Sample question – Does this make sense?You have just developed a reading center!
121Instructional Comprehension Strategies Before Reading QuestionsWhat does the title tell me about the story?Do I know anything about this topic already?Are there any pictures? What can the pictures tell me?What is my goal for reading this passage?What do I want to learn?
122Instructional Comprehension Strategies During Reading QuestionsDoes this sentence make sense? Does this paragraph make sense so far?What have I learned?Do I still have questions?Write down the questions in the margin, or on sticky notes and place beside the area that is confusing, or the area that you may still have questions about.
123Instructional Comprehension Strategies After Reading QuestionsDid I learn any new words?Write them down in my dictionary.What was this mainly about? Can I summarize this and get the gist?What was the most important thing that I learned?Did I reach my goal?Is there anything else I want to learn about?
124Instructional Comprehension Strategies During ReadingOther instructional strategies to use during readingThink – pair - shareTurn to your neighborResponse cardsPinch cardsPartner readingChoral readingEcho Reading
125Instructional Comprehension Strategies After ReadingProvide summary of what was read and make connections. This helps studentsIdentify what was most important.Make inferences.Remember what they read.Put all your “get the gists” together to make a complete summary.Fill in the L of the K-W-L chart.
126Instructional Comprehension Strategies Graphic OrganizersHelps those visual learners connect to informationActivates prior knowledgeHelps students remember important elementsGuides students to think about a passage in an organized manner
127Instructional Comprehension Strategies Graphic OrganizersSome different types of graphic organizers includeWebsK-W-L ChartsMaps (e.g., brainstorming, story, concept, semantic)Venn diagramsTimelines
128Putting It All Together Did they understand what they read?Use questioning strategies to monitor comprehension understanding during the reading.Students can monitor their understanding by using the QAR question strategies.
129Instructional Comprehension Strategies Be Critical Thinkers and teach students to ask relevant questions.Introduce QAR – this is a questioning technique that transfers the control of questioning from the teacher to the students.
130Instructional Comprehension Strategies QAR - Question Answer ResponseLevel 1 questions – the answers are right there in the passage.Level 2 questions – the answers are found in different parts of the text.Level 3 questions – the answer is mostly in the passage and partly in the reader’s mind.
131Ask questions before, during, and after reading Questions & ResponsesAsk questions before, during, and after readingSimpleExplicitWho? What? When? Where?ResponsesRecall facts, events, and names.Focus on information in the text.Rephrase text that has just been read.ComplexImplicitHow? Why? What if?ResponsesMove away from what can be seen on the page.Analyze and elaborate information.Focus on thinking about what has been read and prior knowledge (making inferences).Make connections.
132Assessment Drives Instruction Did they understand what they read?If not, go back and determine what they need to work onExplicit / Implicit QuestionsFluencyWord RecognitionAlphabetic Principle
133Summary Comprehension is the goal in reading. Comprehension is NOT just answering questions.Effective comprehension instruction helps students understand what they read to become strategic, metacognitive readers.