FALLACIES Daniel Antes Hannah Moss Tyler Thomas & Emotional Argument
Attacking the Character Ad Hominem Argument: Attacking the opponent while ignoring what he or she has to say or distracting the audience from his or her point Try a thoughtful response in place of attacking your opponent Popular amongst candidates, political parties and interest groups during elections while campaigning
Attacking the Character http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnOhH7F0QBA
Attributing False Causes Post Hoc Reasoning: Fallacy of false causation C Q C C 1. Usually found in the arguments of writers who are determined to prove the existence of various conspiracies 2.Amass impressive amounts of questionable evidence 3.Logic should always recognize the distinction between causes and what might simply be coincidences 4.Found in more subtle forms in essays on abstract social problems ats uietly reep hildren onspiracies uestionable uases oincidences
Attributing Guilt by Association When people or ideas are negatively associated with other people or ideas not necessarily related to them This occurs often in politics For example: a candidate with a certain faith will be blamed for actions of everyone with that same faith although nothing specific is argued, therefore that candidate is negatively associated just through hints http://www.sultanknish.blogspot.com http://www.crystalgraphics.com http://www.crystalgraphics.com http://www.nydailynews.com
Begging the Question When an author begins with a premise that is acceptable only to those who will agree with the conclusion that is subsequently reached Circular reasoning This leads the author to beg the question he or she sets out to answer
Begging the Question http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J2wj4Lk07RE
Equivocating Uses vague or ambiguous language to mislead the audience Usually using one word multiple times in different senses when found within arguments Commonly abused terms are: Right Society Freedom Law Justice Real Marely is a nobody. But since nobody is perfect, Marely must be perfect!
Ignoring the Question Used when wanting to avoid a question Majority of the time the question will be acknowledged but ignored and the person will proceed to change the subject Example) When someone responds Im glad you asked that question and changes the subject. As well as attempting to turn it around on you with Well what about you or Never mind that Technique is commonly used between: Partners or friends Politicians (known to exploit this technique when campaigning)
Jumping to Conclusions The conclusion in the question has not been supported by an adequate amount of evidence Be skeptical of arguments that appear heavy on opinion but weak on evidence Some examples are: Just because one green apple is sour doesnt mean all green apples are. Just because you fail one test doesnt mean youll fail the next one.
Opposing a Straw Man Commonly exaggerates the views of others Responds only to the extreme view that does not represent the argument of the other person Bill and Jill are arguing about cleaning out their closets: Jill: "We should clean out the closets. They are getting a bit messy." Bill: "Why, we just went through those closets last year. Do we have to clean them out everyday?" Jill: "I never said anything about cleaning them out every day. You just want too keep all your junk forever, which is just ridiculous." http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/straw-man.html
Presenting a False Dilemma A writer or speaker only presents a choice between two alternatives All other possibilities are overlooked It is implied that there are no other possibilities other than those proposed. Think of a parent with a young child. In order to make the child comply with what he or she is being told, the parent will usually present a false dilemma. Either you finish all of your vegetables, Charlie, or you dont get dessert. If you dont pick a book to read you will have to just go to bed now.
Emotional Argument Caption: In Germany, 180,000 children are abused every year. Please contact your local youth welfare office if you have the slightest suspicion – Child Health Foundation http://adsoftheworld.com/media/print/child_health_foundation_the_scream