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Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

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Presentation on theme: "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – , India

2 OC-SBT051-U01-02 Introduction Programmes and Courses SEP – SBT051 – Unit 01

3 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.3 Credits Academic Inputs by Arun Punaji More. M.Sc. (Microbiology) Experience: 11 Years

4 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.4 How to Use This Resource Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of minutes during Face-To-Face counseling. Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about minutes. Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student. Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam. Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course. Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam.

5 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives After studying this module, you should be able to: Describe the procedure of inoculum development. Discuss various parameters in inoculum development.

6 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.6 Introduction Productivity and yield of fermentation product depends upon number of factors that control fermentation processes directly or indirectly. It is science as well as art to extract maximum productivity and yield from a given fermentation process. A successful fermentation always start with a good fermenting strain and culture of such strain in appropriate density and healthy state. Therefore successful fermentation process start with a excellent inoculum developed to obtain maximum possible productivity and yield.

7 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.7 Inoculum Development - 1 Inoculum development involves a series of steps To obtain seed culture in appropriate proportion and Healthy state that give maximum productivity and yield. Inoculum development should satisfy following criteria: Inoculum culture should be sufficiently in large volume so as to minimize the lag phage and Therefore reduce the total fermentation time.

8 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.8 Inoculum Development - 2 Other Criteria: Inoculum culture should be in healthy and actively growing state. Inoculum culture must be free from contamination. Inoculum culture should be stable phenotypically as well as genetically throughout the entire fermentation process.

9 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.9 Inoculum Development - 3 Inoculum development for bacterial culture:- Lyophilized Stock culture Agar slope culture Incubated for 4 days at optimum condition. Seed culture first stage seed culture to Increase load of microorganisms Per mL volume of medium. Seed culture 2 nd stage Production seed culture Adjustment of final volume

10 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.10 Inoculum Development - 4 Steps in inoculum development:- 1. Transfer of preserved culture To flasks for growth. 2.Pooling of culture from three Flasks to one big flask. 3. Transfer of pooled culture to Seed fermenter.

11 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.11 Inoculum Development - 5 Inoculum development for bacterial culture:- For bacterial fermentation the size of inoculum is optimized at 3% to 10% of the total volume of production fermentation medium. Time of transfer of this inoculum also determine the total time of fermentation time. Usually the inoculum at its log phase of growth is transferred aseptically to production fermentation vessel. Composition of inoculum medium and production medium is usually kept identical to minimize the lag period of the inoculum culture in the fermetation process.

12 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.12 Inoculum development - 6 Inoculum development for mycelial culture:- Since most of mycelial fungi and streptomycetes are capable of producing spore asexually. Therefore spores are used to prepare inoculum culture in fermentation involving these kind of microorganisms. Thus the first stage in preparation of inoculum of spore suspension is production of large amount of spores on a suitable medium in lab.

13 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.13 Production of Spores Following three techniques are used to produce spores in laboratory. Production of spores on solidified medium Production of spores on solid media Production of spores on submerged culture

14 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.14 Production of Spores - 1 Production of spores on solidified medium:- Large surface area of agar is provided as in the case of roll-bottle technique described by Parker(1950) for the production of spores of Penicillium chrysogenum (penicillin fermentation). In this technique medium containing 3% agar is sterilized in 1 dm 3 cylindrical bottle which is thereafter cooled by rotating the bottle so as to solidify the agar uniformly on the internal entire surface of the bottle giving 300 cm 3 area. On this agar surface then the spores are inoculated and incubated at 24 o C for 6 to 7 days. Most suitable for number of actinomycetes spore production.

15 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.15 Production of Spores - 2 Production of spores on solid media:- Cereal grains such as barley, hard wheat bran, ground maize and rice are widely used as solid media for the production of spores of number of filamentous microorganisms. These types of media are suitable and widely used to produce spores of Penicillium, Cephalosporium and Aspergillus. Most suitable for number of actinomycetes spore production since their spores cannot be produced in submerged culture.

16 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.16 Production of Spores - 3 Production of spores on submerged culture:- This technique is more suitable for large scale production of spores because, this technique is easy to operate aseptically. Spores of Penicillium notatum, griseofulvin producing Penicillium patulum.

17 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.17 Inoculum Development - 7 Inoculum development for mycelial culture:- For fermentation by mycelial microorganisms, fermentation time, yield and productivity of fermentation depends upon the morphological forms of these organisms. E.g. mycelial form is desirable for the optimum production of streptomycin by Streptomyces griseus.

18 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.18 Inoculum Development - 8 Inoculum development for mycelial culture:- For mycelial microorganisms, morphological forms depend upon the concentration of spores in inoculum culture. composition of inoculum culture. High concentration of spores i.e. 10.0x10 5 dm -3 in inoculum culture give rise to mycelial form of growth in production medium. Low concentration of spore i.e. 2.0x10 5 dm -3 give rise to pellets formation in production medium. Chemically defined medium give rise to pellets form of growth in production medium.

19 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.19 What we Learn………. Successful fermentation process start with a excellent inoculum developed to obtain maximum possible productivity and yield. Inoculum development involves a series of steps To obtain seed culture in appropriate proportion and Healthy state that give maximum productivity and yield. Inoculum culture should be sufficiently in large volume so as to minimize the lag phage and therefore reduce the total fermentation time. Inoculum culture should be in healthy and actively growing state, must be free from contamination and should be stable phenotypically as well as genetically throughout the entire fermentation process 3 techniques are used to produce spores in laboratory.

20 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.20 Critical Thinking Questions Q1. How stage and size of inoculum effect the overall cost of fermentation process?

21 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.21 Hints for Critical Thinking Questions Right stage and size of inoculum increases fermentation products yield.

22 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.22 Study Tips Book Title:Principles of Fermentation Technology. Author: P. F. Stanbury, A. Whitaker and S. J. Hall. Publication: Elsevier Science Ltd. Book Title: Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology. Editors: E.M.T. El-Mansi, C.F.A. Bryce, A.L. Demain, A.R. Allman. Taylor and Francis group. Publication: Taylor and Francis group.

23 End of the Presentation Thank You !


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