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Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

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Presentation on theme: "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – , India

2 OC-SBT051-U01-01 Introduction Programmes and Courses SEP – SBT051 – Unit 01

3 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.3 Credits Academic Inputs by Arun Punaji More. M.Sc. (Microbiology) Experience: 11 Years

4 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.4 How to Use This Resource Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of minutes during Face-To-Face counseling. Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about minutes. Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student. Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam. Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course. Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam.

5 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives After studying this module, you should be able to: Describe designs of various types of fermentor vessels. Discuss basic designs of various types of fermentor vessels. Describe uses of different types of fermenter for different fermentation processes.

6 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.6 Introduction Do you know Microorganisms can multiply very fast. The growth rate of some bacteria is as low as 15 minutes. How it happens? Most of the Microorganisms are useful for human beings. Microorganisms can synthesize wide range of substances useful to all of us. Even eukaryotic substances such as hormones, immunological substances can be synthesized by cloning genes for the corresponding product into the microorganisms. Let us see how to produce such useful Microorganisms in a large scale.

7 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.7 Fermenter To produce useful substances for human beings on large scale or on industrial scale one need a system that support massive growth of microorganism and provide them optimum conditions for their growth. This system is called fermenter or fermenter vessels. Thus it is important to design and use good fermenter which gives maximum productivity and yield of fermentation products This is the prime important step in successful fermentation technology. For this purpose various fermenters are available. Fermenters are also called as Bioreactors. So lets see various types of these fermenters.

8 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.8 Types Of Fermentors Types of Fermentors or Bioreactors Agitated sparged or stirred tank fermentor. Air lift fermentor. Bubble column fermentor. Fluidised bed fermentor. Packed bed fermentor. Trickled bed fermentor. Membrane fermentor. Photo-fermentor of photo-bioreactor.

9 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.9 Agitated Sparged Fermentor - 1 This is most commonly used fermentor. This has a mechanically agitated vessel using flat-blade turbine agitator. At the bottom of the vessel is fitted circular sparged ring which forced air into the fermentation broth. Useful for high viscosity culture such filamentous bacteria. Requires high input power for mixing nutrients and oxygen. Suitable for high value, high volume fermentation processes. These are Capital intensive fermentors.

10 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.10 Agitated Sparged Fermentor - 2 The maximum cell-density obtainable in this stirred tank fermenter is often approximately at and around 10 6 cells per cm 3. E. motor Baffle Impeller blades spargers

11 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.11 Air-Lift Fermentor - 1 In this type of fermentor, in main vessel a doubled walled hollow pipe of half size of the main vessel is fitted at center region of the main vessel. Air is forced through this hollow pipe from the bottom. This air current lift culture fluid vertically through this hollow pipe. When the culture fluid reaches the top of the hollow tube, it comes down through the gap between the pipe and main vessel and again it is lifted by the the current of pressured air.

12 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.12 Air-Lift Fermentor - 2 Note the absence of any moving part. Simple construction. Suitable for low viscosity cultures.

13 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.13 Air-Lift Fermentor - 3 The column of fluid create pressure at the bottom of hollow tube from where air enter, help increase the dissolved oxygen concentration in the culture fluid. Thus the current of pressurized air create vertical movement of the culture fluid causing mixing nutrients and air into the culture fluid. Therefore the air lift fermentor does not requires stirrers. This fermentor, thus, saves electric power required for stirrer system.

14 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.14 Air-Lift Fermentor - 4 Uses of Air-Lift Fermentor Usually used to grow animal and plant cells sensitive to shearing effects of stirrer system of the air sparged fermentors. They are also used for the production of large amount of biomass as a single cell proteins.

15 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.15 Bubble Column Fermentor Features Simple. Gas and heat transfer is more efficient. Foaming is major problem.

16 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.16 Fluidised Bed Fermentor Features Consist of no moving parts. Simple to construct. Low cost fermentor. Used for low viscosity cultures. Heat transfer is efficient.

17 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.17 Packed Bed Fermentor - 1 This fermentor consist of huge column packed with inert materials such as sands, polyethylene and wood shavings. Cells and medium is fed on the top the column and allow to adhere to the inert material support and grow forming the thin film on all over the inert materials. Then fresh medium is added with a pre- decided rate from the top of the column and the fermented product containing medium is collected from the bottom.

18 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.18 Packed Bed Fermentor - 2 Uses Used for the sewage treatment process. For vinegar production. For enzymatic conversion of penicillin to 6-amino penicillanic acid. Simple construction. Low cost fermentor.

19 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.19 Trickled Bed Fermentor Simple construction. Very low cost. Suitable for low viscosity cultures. Provides large surface to volume ratio.

20 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.20 Membrane Fermentors Consist of semi permeable membrane which retain the cells with heavy density and at the same time allow the fermented medium to pass through.

21 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.21 Photo Fermentors - 1 This type fermentor is used to cultivate photosynthetic organisms which require light and carbon dioxide for their growth. e.g. production of algal proteins. Photo-fermentor or photo-bioreactors are used to produce:- Healthy foods, Chemical intermediates, Pharmaceuticals, Hydrogen gas, as clean fuel.

22 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.22 Photo Fermentors - 2 Diagram of Photo Fermentor Fluorescent lamp Impeller

23 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.23 Photo Fermentors - 3 In well illuminated photo-fermentor cells growth rate is proportional to light energy supplied per unit volume of photo-bioreactor.

24 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.24 What we Learn………. Growth rate of some bacteria is as low as 15 minutes. Fermenter or fermenter vessels are used to produce useful substances for human beings on large scale or on industrial scale one need Fermenters are also called as Bioreactors. Various types of these fermenters are: Agitated sparged or stirred tank fermentor. Air lift fermentor. Bubble column fermentor. Fluidised bed fermentor. Packed bed fermentor. Trickled bed fermentor. Membrane fermentor. Photo-fermentor of photo-bioreactor

25 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.25 Critical Thinking Questions Why productivity and yield can not be increased after some upper limit in stirred tank fermenter?

26 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.26 Hints for Critical Thinking Questions Productivity and yield in stirred tank fermenter is ultimately controlled by the genotypes of the fermenting microorganisms and maximum limit of cells population that can be grown in stirred tank fermenter vessel.

27 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.27 Study Tips Book Title:Principles of Fermentation Technology. Author: P. F. Stanbury, A. Whitaker and S. J. Hall. Publication: Elsevier Science Ltd. Book Title: Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology. Editors: E.M.T. El-Mansi, C.F.A. Bryce, A.L. Demain, A.R. Allman. Taylor and Francis group. Publication: Taylor and Francis group.

28 End of the Presentation Thank You !


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