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Images from as early as the 13 th century exist, proving that people who were blind/visually impaired have been traveling with dogs and canes for a long,

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Presentation on theme: "Images from as early as the 13 th century exist, proving that people who were blind/visually impaired have been traveling with dogs and canes for a long,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Images from as early as the 13 th century exist, proving that people who were blind/visually impaired have been traveling with dogs and canes for a long, long time.

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6 Jacob Birrer (Germany) 1840

7 People Germans pre-dated everyone in the dog guide business (WW I). Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe (1800s) - Founder of Perkins School f/t Blind Sir Francis Campbell (1800s)- Perkins who was blind. Informally taught O&M. Emigrated to England and founded the Royal Normal College and Academy of Music for the Blind. W. Hanks Levy (1800s)- Originator of Touch Technique, but was out of step

8 The Seeing Eye First formal mobility training in the U.S (Dorothy Harrison Eustis, Morris Frank)

9 More people Dr. Richard Hoover – Former Maryland School for the Blind, part of initial War Blind Valley Forge Army Hospital, originator of the in-step Touch Valley Forge Army Hospital (Battle of the Bulge, Dec Jan blind soldiers arrived in one day.) People say blind people in this country do a good job of getting around. I dont think they do a good job. I think they do a hell of a poor job. Warren Bledsoe – Son of John Bledsoe ( John studied under Michael Anagnos, who taught Anne Sullivan, & was superintendent of Maryland School for the Blind), also part of initial War Blind Valley Forge, perfected Hoovers techniques, used the blindfold to train trainers. Russ Williams – Lost his vision after the Normandy invasion, Valley Forge and Avon, instructor at Valley Forge, chief of the the Hines V.A., and father to several techniques we use today, including: Guide Technique, Hines Break, Protective Techniques, use of sound clues, projecting a line of direction, use of Touch Technique all the time (was previously prohibited indoors), diagonal to Touch Technique in the stairwell.

10 Places Valley Forge Army Hospital – site of original War Blind Program. Housed veterans of the European Theatre of war (Hoover, Bledsoe, Williams were all instructors here.) Dibble Army Hospital - same as Valley Forge, served veterans from the Pacific Theatre. Avon Army Hospital - abandoned the cane and taught use of facial vision. Hines V.A. - 1st V. A. Program. Started when Army let go of the War Blind Program.


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