Presentation on theme: " Images from as early as the 13 th century exist, proving that people who were blind/visually impaired have been traveling with dogs and canes for a."— Presentation transcript:
Images from as early as the 13 th century exist, proving that people who were blind/visually impaired have been traveling with dogs and canes for a long, long time.
Jacob Birrer (Germany) 1840
People Germans pre-dated everyone in the dog guide business (WW I). John Metcalf (18 th century) – Road builder who traveled with a cane “up to his hat Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe (1800’s) - Founder of Perkins School f/t Blind Sir Francis Campbell (1800’s)- Perkins who was blind. Informally taught O&M. Emigrated to England and founded the Royal Normal College and Academy of Music for the Blind. His cane “had brains, could almost talk, and ought to vote”. His daughter-in-law, upon viewing the war blind program, said the program “resembled the work of her husband’s father”. W. Hanks Levy (1800’s)- Originator of Touch Technique, but was “out of step”. Dorothy Harrison Eustis – Co-founder of The Seeing Eye
Dorothy Harrison Eustis
Morris Frank First formal mobility training in the U.S (Dorothy Harrison Eustis, Morris Frank)
More people Dr. Richard Hoover – Former Maryland School for the Blind, part of initial War Blind Valley Forge Army Hospital, originator of the in-step Touch Valley Forge Army Hospital (Battle of the Bulge, Dec Jan blind soldiers arrived in one day.) “People say blind people in this country do a good job of getting around. I don’t think they do a good job. I think they do a hell of a poor job.” Warren Bledsoe – Son of John Bledsoe (John studied under Michael Anagnos, who taught Anne Sullivan, & was superintendent of Maryland School for the Blind), also part of initial War Blind Valley Forge, perfected Hoover’s techniques, used the blindfold to train trainers. Russ Williams – Lost his vision after the Normandy invasion, Valley Forge and Avon, instructor at Valley Forge, chief of the the Hines V.A., and “father” to several techniques we use today, including: Guide Technique, Hines Break, Protective Techniques, use of sound clues, projecting a line of direction, use of Touch Technique all the time (was previously prohibited indoors), diagonal to Touch Technique in the stairwell. Father Thomas Carroll – Catholic Guild for the Blind, Avon. Hosted the Gloucester Conference (We’ll talk about that later).
Places Valley Forge Army Hospital – site of original War Blind Program. Housed veterans of the European Theatre of war (Hoover, Bledsoe, Williams were all instructors here.) Dibble Army Hospital - same as Valley Forge, served veterans from the Pacific Theatre. Avon Army Hospital - abandoned the cane and taught use of “facial vision.” Hines V.A. - 1st V. A. Program. Started when Army “let go” of the War Blind Program.
Russ Williams on recruitment of O&M personnel: “The formula is rather simple: someone who really gets a sincere pleasure out of the growth of someone else and who jus seems to have good standards – good level-headedness about him. There are certain guiding factors which are followed by people who have respect for other people. These are not the people who seem to live to depreciate other people and seem to get a real satisfaction out of it…I don’t think the center should be made up of people who are very far out in any direction.” (1965)