21. Natural Disasters A disaster that is caused by a natural force Examples: Forest Fires, Floods, Avalanches, and Volcanoes
3A. Forest FiresCan start naturally when there is a lightning strike or humans can start fires with their carelessness with camp fires, cigarettes or other small firesHarmful ImpactForest fires impact all the organisms living in the forest by taking away homes, killing organisms and polluting water sourcesAfter a forest fire, rain will carry more soil, ash and soot into rivers and streams. The streams will fill up with fine matter in a process called siltation.
4BenefitsTrees and other plants in the forest are essential to the ecosystem. They hold soil in place which prevents erosion. The plants balance the Earth’s atmosphere by keeping the oxygen and carbon dioxide in balance through photosynthesisSmall fires clean out the underbrush in a forest which helps encourage new growth.Humans set small controlled fires to clean out the underbrush so if a forest fire starts there will not be as much material that will enable a fire to become out of control.
5B. FloodsThe overflow of water that covers land that is usually dry. The ground becomes saturated and can no longer absorb any more waterThey are usually predictable.Not only are terrestrial organisms impacted by the floods, but also aquatic organisms. Many organisms lose their homes and food sources, but some organisms get stranded out of their habitat such as trout or smaller aquatic organism.
6FloodsHarmfulWater loosens soil and rock causing erosion and this can lead to landslides or mudslides.BenefitsFlood waters carry nutrient rich soil to other ecosystems.Humans often use dams to flood ecosystems or to control the flooding of ecosystems.
7C. AvalanchesThe sudden movement of snow or ice down the side of a mountain.HarmfulAny organism in the path of an avalanche can be suffocated and die. It destroys homes and food sourcesAvalanches erode the land making deep gorges in the landscape.
8AvalanchesBenefitsAvalanches bring down fresh water from the top of a mountain. Often there are lakes or streams at the bottom of a mountain that are formed from avalanchesHuman will purposely trigger an avalanche to minimize the impact it will have on an ecosystem if the snow is allowed to build up.
9D. VolcanoesWhen one tectonic plate is subducted under another volcanoes are created.Lava is released as well as ash exploding into the air.All organisms in the ecosystem are affected not only if they are in the path of the lava or their food source is destroyed by the lava, but also because the ash is released into the air, pollutes the water and settles over the entire ecosystem.
10Volcano Harmful impact They pump greenhouse gases into the air and can cause the temperature of the entire Earth to drop.The ash pollutes the water causing siltation.The lava erodes the land as it carves a path through the ecosystem.BenefitOn the other hand, the lava will eventually cool and create new rock and soil.Humans try to control the flow of lava to minimize the impact to the ecosystem.
112. DeforestationThe cutting down and clearing away of trees and forestsHarmfulImpacts forest organisms such as owls and oak trees. The trees are killed and hauled away to be used for human needs. Owls homes are lost as well as homes for their food sources.Loss of trees decreases the world ecosystem by decreasing amount of oxygen produced and carbon dioxide being recycled.
12Deforestation Harmful Logging is one of the major contributors of deforestation. Logging is the business of cutting down trees for manufacturing productsSlash and burn is the practice used to clear land for farming.When trees are cut down, erosion becomes a problem. Trees and plants roots hold soil in place, without the roots soil will be eroded by both wind and water.Water sources are polluted by the gasoline and exhaust from machinery used to cut down the trees.Soil is washed into water causing siltation.
13Deforestation Solutions Rules and Regulations about the amount of trees that can be cut down.Restoration of Environment by replanting trees after cutting them down. Rotation of sections of forest that are cut down.Recycling paper leads to the need for less trees being cut down.
143. Global WarmingAn apparent gradual rise in the temperature of the earth’s atmosphere caused by the greenhouse effect.The greenhouse effect is the warming of the atmosphere around the earth caused by gases such as carbon dioxide that collect in the atmosphere and prevent the sun’s heat from escaping.
15Global Warming Harmful Causes glaciers to melt sending large quantities of fresh water into the ocean which leads to desalinization of the ocean.As the glaciers melt, they start to move carving huge valleys through the landscape causing massive erosion.The ice caps are shrinking leading to organisms such as the polar bears and penguins losing their habitats and food sources.
16Global Warming Solutions Use alternative fuel sources so less carbon monoxide is pumped into the air as well as sulfur dioxide.Recycle so that there will be less loss of natural resources such as trees that help clean our air.Plant treesConserve Energy
174. Depletion of Natural Resources Natural Resources are materials found in nature that human use such as forests, water, minerals and fossil fuels.Problem- Humans are using Earth’s Natural Resources faster than they can be replaced.HarmfulDeforestationWater PollutionPollution due to use of Fossil FuelsStrip Mining
18Depletion of Natural Resources Fossil Fuels- coal, oil or natural gas formed from the remains of prehistoric plants and animals.Humans are using fossil fuels faster than they can be replaced.Fossil fuels contribute to global warming and pollution.Strip Mining- is the destruction of the landscape in order to dig out minerals such as coal for human use. Ex: TennesseePlants are ripped from the ground and organisms lose their habitats.
19Depletion of Natural Resources SolutionsUse alternative fuel sources so less carbon monoxide is pumped into the air as well as sulfur dioxide.Recycle so that there will be less loss of natural resources such as trees that help clean our air.Plant treesConserve WaterConserve Energy
205. PollutionWhen harmful materials that damage or contaminate the air, water and soil are released into the environment.Such as: chemicals, gasoline exhaust and industrial wasteOrganisms from around the world are impacted.
21PollutionPollution- (Pol-lu-tion) the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment: air pollution, water pollution, land pollution.
22AIRThe summary: Air is what we breathe. Simple, right? Pretty much. And, if we put bad things in the air, we breath it in. Animals breathe it in.Caused by:-Factory chemicals disposed into the air-Burning Gasoline-Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, Sulfur oxides, Hydro carbons-Nuclear processes
23ChernobylThe Chernobyl incident in 1986 was because of a bad reactor design that was operated with badly trained workers. 28 people along with two workers died of nuclear poisoning. This probably killed many plants and animals and caused the rest to migrate out of the area into other places, therefore causing them to confuse the food chain in that area. Like squirrels. Squirrels need good air to breath, and if they see their families die, then they’ll move somewhere else, where there is already squirrels. So, the squirrel population will grow, and eat all the nuts.
24Correcting Air pollution Air filtering systems are used everywhere. And factories are regulated to the amount of bad chemicals they can release in a day, but some things aren’t resolved and should be. Gasoline ran cars should be replaced with electric, hydro, or air powered vehicles, or carpooling with friends to an event.
25WATERThe summary: Water is very important to every living thing. So, if we pollute all our water, we will die. Again, simple things.Caused by:-Throwing things into the water-Oil spills-Disposal of waste.-Disposal of chemicals.-Putting chemicals down the wrong drain.
26CamelfordThe water incident happened in Camelford, Cornwall, England on a hot July day in A temporary driver for South West Water accidently dumped 20 tons of aluminum sulfate into the wrong tank at the treatment plant. This made the water bad to drink. Residents complained about the water causing skin irritations and strange taste. Some even complained about their hair turning blue. This probably killed many pets that drank the water also. Like for one example, cats. Cats might catch mice, and if they die the mice population will grow. Mostly only living things that got water out of the tap got sick.
27Correcting Water pollution Water filtering systems are usually put on faucets so if water gets polluted we don’t have to hassle. But, if we don’t put strange liquids down the wrong drain, the things wont happen as often. Also, if big companies are not sure how dumping what they need to get rid of into oceans, they should consult a scientist on how to safely dispose the product.
28LANDLand is what we walk upon. Land connects with both air and water. If we litter, the litter can go into the water. If we drop something, it can release bad fumes that go into the air. Landfills should not exist, because they will just keep getting bigger and bigger.Caused by:-Littering-Throwing things into the trash-Not recycling-Not picking up after ones self
30Correcting Land Pollution RECYCLE. That’s the answer to most of the land pollution. If we keep setting things aside, it will build up over time. Look at this bottle. Throw it away? Look at this
316. ConstructionConstruction occurs when humans build a structure or a road.HarmfulConstruction reduces or eliminates vegetation, destroying organisms and their habitats. (Deforestation)Waste made during construction leaches back into the ecosystem through the soil and water.Soil is moved during construction which leads to erosion by wind and water.Water is polluted by construction materials and exhaust from machinery used in construction
32ConstructionRoad kill occurs because even though the ecosystem has been altered by construction, animals still follow migrator patterns. Ex: Deer, possum, etc..SolutionsLaws and Regulations about how and where construction can occur.Proper designs and planningMinor alterations to get rid of unneeded structures could be significant.Avoid construction on wetland and endangered species habitats.Disturb as little vegetation around the construction sight as possible.Control erosion and sediment during and after construction.
337. Farming The growing of crops and raising of animals for food Problem- Humans impact the environment through the clearing of land and the using of chemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers.HarmfulClearing of land leads to erosion (ex: Dust Bowl)Overgrazing of animals leads to erosion. Plants roots hold soil in place.Water pollution- fertilizers seep into the water and cause over growth of algae. When the algae uses all the oxygen in the water, killing aquatic life such as fish like minnow.
34Farming We put waste, fertilizers and pesticides in fields The pollution gets into ground water and streamsCows drink the water and get sick.We eat the cows and the waste and toxins goes into us
35FarmingPesticides- kill insects on crops, but can leach into the ground and cause groundwater contamination. (leads to boil water orders for humans)SolutionsCrop rotation- gives soil a chance to restNo-till farming reduces erosionPlant cover crops- fast growing plants with many shallow rootsStrip cropping- planting two crops in same fields to prevent erosion
36FarmingWindbreaks- planting trees and shrubs along the side of a field to prevent wind from blowing soil awayContour planting- planting crops that follow the shape of the land instead of straight rows.Rotating animals in different fields before overgrazing can occur.Use of organic fertilizers and pesticides to limit impact of water and organisms in ecosystem.Contour plantingImproper planting leads to erosion
378. Dams A barrier built across a stream or river to hold back water Humans have been building dams for centuriesHarmfulFish – not able to cross the barrierUpstream fish – not able to spawn – population will decreaseTowns and forests destroyed and floodedSediment and silt being blocked holds back nutrients – reduces land fertility
38Dams Loss of forests lead to erosion Disrupts movement of water – less oxygen for aquatic life in the riverDams prevent the flow of plants and nutrients to primary consumers and beyondSlower water flow increases the water temperatureStretches below the dam are usually completely de-watered, changing the ecosystemBorder vegetation – changes in what will grow
39Solutions to building Dams Reform dams to more closely resemble the natural habitatCarefully remove dams through proper removal techniques to restore the original habitat and restore the original water flowProblems with removing DamsVery costlyFloods towns and new habitats that have formed since the dam was builtVery difficult to completely restore to original conditionsThe toxic sediment has been built up behind the wall of the dams which would damage downstream water quality
409. Channelization of Rivers The modification of a natural river channel; may include deepening, widening, or straightening. Including the use of DamsPurposes: to reduce flooding and to reroute water to urban areas, improving drainage, and maintenance of navigation.
41Channelization Harmful A loss of wetlands. The channelization makes the rivers become straight. When it is straight it makes the water flow more rapid.Can cause flooding downstream from the channelized area.A channelized riverThe natural path of a river
42Channelization Ecosystems such as Mono Lake become dry salty deserts Organisms must find new water sourcesanimals can’t swim down the river because the dam blocks their way out.Dams disturb the algae, the fish that eat algae, and salmon or other fish that eat fish.
4310. Coastal Stabilization Shore erosion control practices using hardened structures that armor and stabilize the shoreline landward of the structure from further erosion.Examples: Bulkheads, concrete sea walls, rip-rap, jetties, groins, breakwaters, stone reinforcement
44Coastal Stabilization BenefitsHelps control loss of land due to wave erosionThe coastline retains its shapeReduces floodingHarmfulAnimals like the sea turtle cannot get over the structure to lay their eggsAnimals get crushed or trapped in the structure
4511. Reintroduction of Species the deliberate release of animals from captivity into the wild. It usually involves species that are endangered or extinct in the wild. In some cases, reintroduction involves a species that had been wiped out in a particular ecosystem, but survived elsewhere in the wild.Humans attempt to undo the harm we have done to an ecosystem
46Reintroduction of Species BenefitsHelps to balance ecosystemOrganisms won’t go extinctHarmfulCould unbalance ecosystemInterferes with human activitiesExamples: Wolves being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. (started in 1881)wolves needed to balance Elk population. Elk population out of control, eating all saplings reducing aspen tree populationFarmers upset that wolves will invade farms and kill livestock