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What Do You Know About Michigans Hidden Resource? All photos by Joan Schumaker Chadde, Western Upper Peninsula Center for Science, Mathematics and Environmental.

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Presentation on theme: "What Do You Know About Michigans Hidden Resource? All photos by Joan Schumaker Chadde, Western Upper Peninsula Center for Science, Mathematics and Environmental."— Presentation transcript:

1 What Do You Know About Michigans Hidden Resource? All photos by Joan Schumaker Chadde, Western Upper Peninsula Center for Science, Mathematics and Environmental Education at Michigan Technological University, unless noted otherwise. All groundwater diagrams by Lyle S. Raymond, New York State Water Resources Institute, Cornell University. All Michigan maps of groundwater contamination by Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (12/91).

2 1. What is Groundwater ? Water that fills the spaces between soil and rock particles. The % of the spaces that are filled with water = porosity

3 2. Where is groundwater? Limestone Bedrock Layered soil Groundwater is found in __ __ __ __ that have an adequate quantity and movement of water to supply wells for household, municipal, agricultural and industrial uses.

4 Geology and Aquifersin Michigan Adapted from USGS National Water Summary Michigans Water Resources (p. 27) by The Institute of Water Research Michigan State University. (1987)

5 Bedrock Aquifer Yields Source: USGS Geological Survey map by F.R. Twenter in Michigans Water Resources (p. 28) by The Institute of Water Research Michigan State University. (1987)

6 Surface Glacial Aquifer Yields Source: USGS map by F.R. Twenter. Michigans Water Resources (p. 28) by The Institute of Water Research Michigan State University. (1987)

7 Glacial stream deposit Glacial lake deposit Jim Nicholas, Center Director USGS Michigan Water Science Center U.S. Geological Survey Department of the Interior

8 3. How does it get there?

9 Groundwater recharge is influenced by: Precipitation Geology Land Use Topography Source: Jim Nicholas, Center Director USGS Michigan Water Science Center U.S. Geological Survey Department of the Interior

10 Groundwater Levels Change over Time Jim Nicholas, Director, USGS Michigan Water Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior

11 Groundwater Levels Change over Time Compare (black) with OctSepJune Jim Nicholas, Director, USGS Michigan Water Science Center U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior

12 4. How fast does it flow? (= permeability) Gravel Fast Sand Medium Silt & clay Slow Which material is better for your well? Which is better for lining a landfill?

13 How long does it take for groundwater to move? Jim Nicholas, Director, USGS Michigan Water Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior

14 5. How is groundwater connected to surface water?

15 Groundwater-Surface Water Single Resourceno boundaries Michigans Water Resources (p. 16) by The Institute of Water Research Michigan State University. (1987)

16 Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction Water is always moving Jim Nicholas, Director, USGS Michigan Water Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior

17 Groundwater-Surface Water Groundwater is part of the flow in most rivers. Many times it is the only flow. Jim Nicholas, Director, USGS Michigan Water Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior

18 Groundwatercontaminated or notflows into streams, rivers, and lakes. Jim Nicholas, Director, USGS Michigan Water Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior

19 Groundwater flows into the Great Lakes Ground water in blue Jim Nicholas, Director, USGS Michigan Water Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior

20 Drinking water for 50% of Michigan and U.S. residents (private wells and public drinking water). Irrigation Industry Recreation and tourism 6. How is groundwater used?

21 Michigan Groundwater Use in 2000 Millions of Gallons% Total Use Public water supply24734% Domestic (private) wells23933% Irrigation12817% Industry11015% Total724100% Groundwater Withdrawals for U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior

22 Groundwater use varies in Michiganwhich part of the state uses more groundwater? Why? Jim Nicholas, Director, USGS Michigan Water Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior

23 Groundwater floats your kayak in the summer

24 7. What do we call the area affected by a pumping well?

25 8. What activities can contaminate groundwater?

26 Contaminated Landfill Sites in Michigan

27 Contaminated Hazardous Waste Facilities in Michigan

28 Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Michigan

29 Pesticide Contamination Sites in Michigan

30 Oil and Gas Contamination Sites in Michigan

31 Nitrate Contamination in Michigan is linked to fertilizers and human/animal wastes. Source: Kyle Kittleson and Russ Kruska, Institute of Water Research and Center for Remote Sensing, Michigan State University. Michigans Water Resources by the Institute of Water Research, Michigan State University.

32 9. How can we protect groundwater from contamination? Photo from Bill Griffin, U.P. Engineers & Architects, Inc. This person is using a baler to obtain a sample of groundwater for water quality testing.

33 Wellhead Protection Areas – are established to prevent potential contamination from reaching the area of groundwater that flows to a city drinking water well. (Map from Bill Griffin, P.E., U.P. Engineers & Architects, Inc.)

34 Educate community residents about groundwater protection.

35 10. Can groundwater be cleaned up? Bioremediation – ever hear of oil-eating bacteria? Bacteria can actually eat contaminants! Nutrients are added to grow more bacteria. Pump and treat – the contaminated groundwater is removed..now all of that water must be cleaned! Air sparging – air is pulled through the groundwater and the contaminants move into the air. Why should we be concerned about groundwater quality in Michigan?

36 Summary of Groundwater Contamination Sites in Michigan What is put on the land surface ends up in the water. Jim Nicholas, Director, USGS Michigan Water Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior

37 Important Groundwater Facts 50% of Michigan residents USE groundwater for drinking and household needs through public or private wells. Groundwater MOVES…….and can carry contamination that occurred years ago or miles away. Groundwater IS CONNECTED to the surface water in rivers and lakes. A groundwater use will always have an effect on a surface-water body, though sometimes the effect may be too small to measure. Remember: If you dont want to drink it (like motor oil), DONT POUR IT ON THE GROUND!


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