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What Do You Know About Michigan’s Hidden Resource? All photos by Joan Schumaker Chadde, Western Upper Peninsula Center for Science, Mathematics and Environmental.

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Presentation on theme: "What Do You Know About Michigan’s Hidden Resource? All photos by Joan Schumaker Chadde, Western Upper Peninsula Center for Science, Mathematics and Environmental."— Presentation transcript:

1 What Do You Know About Michigan’s Hidden Resource? All photos by Joan Schumaker Chadde, Western Upper Peninsula Center for Science, Mathematics and Environmental Education, unless noted otherwise. All groundwater diagrams by Lyle S. Raymond, Center for the Environment, Cornell University. All Michigan maps of groundwater contamination by Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (09/05).

2 1. What is Groundwater? 2. Where is groundwater? 3. How does it get there? 4. How fast does it flow? (= permeability) 5. How is groundwater connected to surface water? 6. How is groundwater used? 7. What do we call the area affected by a pumping well? 8. What activities can contaminate groundwater? 9. How can we protect groundwater from contamination? 10. Can groundwater be cleaned up?

3 Water that fills the spaces between soil and rock particles. The % of the spaces that are filled with water = porosity 1. What is Groundwater?

4 Limestone Bedrock Layered soil Groundwater is found in __ __ __ __ that have an adequate quantity and movement of water to supply wells and springs. 2. Where is groundwater?

5 3. How does it get there?

6 Gravel Fast Sand Medium Silt & clay Slow Which material is better for your well? Which is better for lining a landfill? 4. How fast does it flow? (= permeability)

7 5. How is groundwater connected to surface water?

8 Groundwater is a major source of water to the Great Lakes. Ground water in blue Holtschlag, D.J., and Nicholas, J.R., 1998, Indirect ground-water discharge to the Great Lakes: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report , 25 p.

9 Drinking water for 50% of Michigan and U.S. residents (private wells and public drinking water). Irrigation Industry Recreation and tourism 6. How is groundwater used?

10 Drilling a new well Photo credits: Dr. Alex Mayer, Dept. of Geological Sciences & Engineering, Michigan Technological Institute

11 Michigan Groundwater Use in 2004 Millions of Gallons % Total Use Public water supply24737% Domestic (private) wells23936% Golf Courses 19 3% Irrigation16725% Industry _8913% Total661100% Source: Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Water Use Reporting Program (2004)

12 7. What do we call the area affected by a pumping well?

13 Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (UST) at gasoline stations are a major source of groundwater contamination. In Michigan alone, there are 19,832 leaking underground storage tanks as of September 2005! The owner of this gas station is replacing the old tank with a new double-walled tank to prevent possible groundwater contamination in the future. 8. What activities can contaminate groundwater?

14 Photo credit: USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Marquette County Concentrated animal feeding operations have the potential to contaminate groundwater with nitrates and bacteria.

15 Other sources of Groundwater Contamination: Nitrate fertilizer used on cropland and lawns Industrial releases Leaking landfills Chemical transportation spills Fuel spills Illegal waste disposal

16 Photo credit: U.P. Engineers & Architects, Inc. This person is using a baler to obtain a sample of groundwater for water quality testing. 9. How can we protect groundwater from contamination?

17 Wellhead Protection Areas – are established to prevent potential contamination from reaching the area of groundwater that flows to a city drinking water well. (Source: Breitung Township and U.P. Engineers & Architects, Inc. )

18 Educate community residents about groundwater protection.

19 Bioremediation – bacteria can actually eat the contaminants! Ever hear of oil-eating bacteria? Nutrients are added to grow more bacteria. Pump and treat – the contaminated water is removed. Now all of that water must be cleaned! Air sparging – air is pulled through the groundwater, and the contaminants move into the air. Why should we be concerned about groundwater quality in Michigan? 10. Can groundwater be cleaned up?

20 Important Groundwater Facts 50% of Michigan residents USE groundwater for drinking and household needs through public or private wells. Groundwater IS NOT an underground river, but fills the spaces between soil and rock particles. Groundwater MOVES……. Groundwater IS CONNECTED to the surface water in rivers and lakes. A groundwater use will always have an effect on a surface-water body, though the effect may be too small to measure. Remember: If you don’t want to drink it, DON’T PUT IT ON THE GROUND!

21 Equipment Used in Groundwater Monitoring Pump test Slotted PVC pipe for groundwater sampling Photo credits: Dr. Alex Mayer, Dept. of Geological Sciences & Engineering, Michigan Technological Institute

22 Equipment Used in Groundwater Monitoring Baler for getting a groundwater sample Louvered metal screen that allows Groundwater to enter, and not Earth materials. Photo credits: Dr. Alex Mayer, Dept. of Geological Sciences & Engineering, Michigan Technological Institute

23 Equipment Used in Groundwater Monitoring Measures Depth to GroundwaterSubmersible Pump for removing contaminated groundwater… Photo credits: Dr. Alex Mayer, Dept. of Geological Sciences & Engineering, Michigan Technological Institute


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