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1 LCA Overview in an European Framework Applications, Challenges & Barriers Alternative Water Sources Pedro P. Nieto +34 983 546504 +34 983 546504 +34.

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Presentation on theme: "1 LCA Overview in an European Framework Applications, Challenges & Barriers Alternative Water Sources Pedro P. Nieto +34 983 546504 +34 983 546504 +34."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 LCA Overview in an European Framework Applications, Challenges & Barriers Alternative Water Sources Pedro P. Nieto CARTIF FOUNDATION Boecillo Technology Park Boecillo (VALLADOLID) – ESPAÑA

2 2 WATER SCARCITY PROBLEM Traditional water sources are limited Growing population and demand Decreasing quantity and quality of fresh water (overexploitation) 1/3 population suffer drought and water shortage – Stress and competition for water resources Unbalanced – Unsustainable AQUAREC/Hochstrat et al, 2006 How to balance this? Demand management: Water saving –Increasing efficiency –Water pricing –Information campaigns –Water restrictions –Reducing leakage Supply management: Increasing storage (reservoirs, groundwater recharge) ––Water transfers- Alternative water sources

3 3 AVAILABLE WATER SOURCES Traditional Water Sources Lakes Rivers Groundwater Sources EEA, 2009 Gleick, 1999 Water Uses Drinking Irrigation Industrial Energy prod. Domestic Alternative Water Sources Saline Water (Seawater and Brackish Water) Rainwater / Stormwater Reused Water (Wastewater Effluent and Greywater Other (Air-conditioner condensate, filter reject water, cooling-tower blowdown…)

4 4 Seawater and Brackish Water I Seawater 96.5% world water Salinity (> 30 g/L) Pollutants Salts Colloidal Hydrocarbons and oil Biological (algae, microorg.) Boron Availability is site specific Brackish water Water from estuaries, groundwater fossil aquifers, contact between seawater and fresh water. Human activities Less salty than seawater (0.5 – 30 g/L) Pollutants (Natural and anthrop) Salts, F -, Radionuclides Nutrients (fertilizers) Pesticides Arsenic (Mining) Endocrine disruptors (Pharmaceutical) Availability is site specific

5 5 Membranes Rapid development. Surpassing thermal processes Several membranes technologies for different water quality and uses RO: Drinking water production. Ion 1. Higher Pressure NF: Not drinking uses. - Mildly brackish waters. Coupled with RO reduce operation costs. Ion 2 dissolved OM ED (Electrodialysis) Brackish waters Need to treat concentrate before disposal. Sea disposal, treatment. ZLD (zero liquid discharge) RO+Therm evap+Cryst+ brine concentration+spray dryers. Unaffordable Seawater and Brackish Water II Appropriate technology it could be a safe and high quality source of water for several uses, including drinking and potable uses Desalination: Remove salt from saline waters to produce fresh water. Limits in water standards include: TDS, Cl -, Na, B Thermal processes – Distillation First technologies developed for desalination Configuration Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) Multi-Stage Flash Distillation (MSF) Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Mainly used in Middle East countries. Economically unfeasible. Not sustainable. Easy access to fossil fuel resources Poor quality of water sources (High T, salinity, fouling potential) Thermal processes Membranes Coagulation/Flocculation Filtration Disinfection Membranes Pre-treatmentPost-treatment Blending Water Alk, pH, Hardness Disinfectants Treatment

6 6 Rainwater / Stormwater Water collected from natural precipitation (rain, storms, snowmelt…) Pollutants. Wide number and range. Dependant on collection systems and air quality. (roofs, runoff from parking lots, roads, recreational areas…) Eriksson et al list of priority pollutants. Main pollutants and other micropollutants which represent a risk even at very low concentrations. Organic matter. Nutrients Metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu) PAHs (pyrene, benzopyrene..) Other xenobiotics In spite of these contaminants rainwater is usually of better quality than untreated sewage and has better public acceptance. Availability. Seasonal and influenced by climate changes (flooding and shortage periods) Mainly for non potable water use Irrigation. Garden watering. Domestic uses (toilet flushing, car washing) Fire fighting Direct use or treatment when stored

7 7 Reused Water - Greywater I Reused water. WWTP effluent Treated water from WWTP. Anthropogenic source Reported advantages of its Use Decrease discharge of WW into water bodies Reduce demand of fresh water Pollutants Pathogens Disinfection by-products Nutrients. Nitrogen Negative public response to use this source (yuck factor) Availability. Increases as population and economic growth. Constant supply. Greywater Urban WW from all domestic uses (baths, showers, washing machine, dishwasher…) but streams from toilets (kitchen WW) Low level of contaminant pathogens Biodegradable (ratio BOD/COD) Deficient in nutrients (N and P) Depends on kitchen WW and detergents used (P-free) Neutral pH Availability. Source-Use. Estimation l/p/d

8 8 Reused Water – Greywater II Typical treatment flow-diagram Pre-treatment. Screening/ Filters. Remove Particles Oil and Fats Post-treatment (Disinfection) Treatment ( Guidelines F.Li et al ) Physical Sand filters Soil filtration Membrane filtration (UF) Only effective at very low organic load. Generally do not reach Water quality standards. Chemical Coagulation Activated Carbon Ion exchange AOPs (photocatalytic oxidation) Removes efficiently SS, OM surfactants in low strength WW Biological Anaerobic (not suitable) RBC (Rot Biol. Contact.) SBR MBR Constructed Wetland (Environ friendly and cost effective) Equalization Storage Sedimentation Screening Chemical Treatment Biological Treatment DisinfectationReuse Filtration (Mb, sand) Low High

9 9 Conclusions Conventional approach water demand and supply is unsustainable Increasing water efficiency (processes and supply systems) Adapting water treatment and use to quality required (stop potable water supply for non potable uses) Upgrading and developing alternative sources In most cases water availability is not the problem. Water quality. Stricter quality standards Develop technologies: technical and economical feasibility CARTIF FOUNDATION CARTIF FOUNDATION Boecillo Technology Park Boecillo (VALLADOLID) – ESPAÑA Thank you


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