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Climate Change and Water Resources in Lebanon Nadim Farajalla, PhD Director Department of Land, Water and Environment SETS.

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Presentation on theme: "Climate Change and Water Resources in Lebanon Nadim Farajalla, PhD Director Department of Land, Water and Environment SETS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate Change and Water Resources in Lebanon Nadim Farajalla, PhD Director Department of Land, Water and Environment SETS

2 Climate Change in Lebanon

3 Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources reduction of about 20% in precipitation (rainfall and snowfall)

4 reduction in snow cover Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources

5 increase in severe storms and their frequency Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources

6 increase in evapotranspiration Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources Coast Inland

7 increase in the occurrence and frequency of droughts Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources

8 increase in forest fires leading to: decrease in ground cover increase in erosion decrease in infiltration decrease in groundwater recharge Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources

9 reduction in surface and ground water quality higher temperatures reduce dissolved oxygen levels reduced assimilative capacity; reduced stream flow and lake levels less dilution of pollutants; increased frequency and intensity of rainfall more pollution and sedimentation due to increased runoff Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources

10 sea water rise intrusion into coastal aquifers sewage and stormwater sea outfalls/networks in coastal areas. Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources

11 There are no comprehensive development plans to adapt to the anticipated climate changes – Lebanon set a goal at COP 15 to increase renewable energy contribution to 12% of total. Lebanon has issued its first national communication and has nearly completed the second Lebanon has participated in the National Economic and Environmental Development Studies project There have been some individual efforts by some ministries but these do not construe a national plan (e.g. Ministry of Energy and Waters ten-year plan) Current Status

12 Recommended Adaptation Measures Improve water resources management on national and local levels This requires the development of a national water management plan/strategy which is based on three main components: Water demand management Water storage strategy Alternative water sources NB – Issue of tariffs, economic incentives, etc. will not be discussed

13 Water Demand Management Agriculture: Irrigation: Improved conveyance and application efficiencies, e.g. reduce leaks, move from sprinkler and drip methods New management techniques, e.g. deficit irrigation Control use of groundwater Crop production: Proper crop selection (i.e. stop growing crops that demand a lot of water and select crops that are tolerant to drought or low precipitation) Develop rainfed agriculture Shift crop growing areas to regions that have more rainfall or available water

14 Water Demand Management Domestic: Reduce leakage in water distribution networks Reduce illegal tapping into the distribution network Promote the use of water saving devices in homes and establishments, e.g. dual flush toilets, automated and/or timed water faucets, low head showers, etc. Recycle wastewater: greywater and blackwater recycling at the individual and collective dwelling levels Strictly limit and control access to groundwater

15 Water Storage Strategy Reservoirs Hill lakes Groundwater recharge Dams

16 Alternative Water Sources Use of treated sewage effluent Desalinization Water harvesting

17 Thank You for further information Nadim Farajalla mobile: office: fax: Skype:


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