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Water management Mohamed Wahby Hussien Alexandria University - Faculty of science Microbiology/Environmental sciences Bibliotheca Alexandrina – LYM – April.

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Presentation on theme: "Water management Mohamed Wahby Hussien Alexandria University - Faculty of science Microbiology/Environmental sciences Bibliotheca Alexandrina – LYM – April."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water management Mohamed Wahby Hussien Alexandria University - Faculty of science Microbiology/Environmental sciences Bibliotheca Alexandrina – LYM – April 15, 2012

2 Contents Water chemical and physical properties Water cycle Water importance Water uses Water availability The driving forces and pressures on our water resources Egypt … a crisis we dont see

3 Contents Water chemical and physical properties Water cycle Water importance Water uses Water availability The driving forces and pressures on our water resources Egypt … a crisis we dont see

4 Chemical composition

5 Solvent Water is called the "universal solvent" because it dissolves all substances

6 Water pH

7 Three states Water is unique in that it is the only natural substance that is found in all three physical states liquid, solid, and gas

8 Phase changes in water

9 Difference between vapour and steam Water vapour is the gas formed when water evaporates and becomes a gas it is invisible

10 Difference between vapour and steam Steam is a collection of small water droplets formed when water vapour condense in the air and it is visible as a cloud.

11 Contents Water chemical and physical properties Water cycle Water importance Water uses Water availability The driving forces and pressures on our water resources Egypt … a crisis we dont see

12 Water cycle

13 Contents Water chemical and physical properties Water cycle Water importance Water uses Water availability The driving forces and pressures on our water resources Egypt … a crisis we dont see

14 Water importance

15

16 Contents Water chemical and physical properties Water cycle Water importance Water uses Water availability The driving forces and pressures on our water resources Egypt … a crisis we dont see

17 Water uses

18

19 Contents Water chemical and physical properties Water cycle Water importance Water uses Water availability The driving forces and pressures on our water resources Egypt … a crisis we dont see

20 Water distribution in nature

21 Contents Water chemical and physical properties Water cycle Water importance Water uses Water availability The driving forces and pressures on our water resources Egypt … a crisis we dont see

22 The driving forces and pressures on our water resources Population growth, particularly in water-short regions Major demographic changes as people move from rural to urban environments Higher demands for food security and socio-economic well-being Pollution from industrial, municipal and agricultural sources.

23 Contents Water chemical and physical properties Water cycle Water importance Water uses Water availability The driving forces and pressures on our water resources Egypt … a crisis we dont see

24 Egypt challenges Arid About 98% of its fresh water resources from outside its international borders Increasing population (86 million, 2025) 1 more country is added to the Nile basin.

25 Nile basin

26

27 I. Water supplies(10 9 m 3 /yr) Nile water * Groundwater: In the Delta and New Valley In the desert0.5 Reuse of agricultural drainage water Treated sewage water Management and saving wasted water?1.0? Total II. Water demands(10 9 m 3 /yr) Agriculture Households Industry Navigation Total * After the Gungli Canal Based on Abdel-Dayem (1994) and El-Kassas (1998).

28 Future challenges for water management in Egypt, Dia Al-Quesy, 2008 Distribution of water uses in Egypt, 2008 Agricultural56.4 (BCM) Industrial5.1 (BCM) Municipal9 (BCM)

29 FAO Water Report 29 (2005) Irrigation techniques Total: ha in 2000

30 Water quantity per capita (m3) Water Issue in Egypt: Resources, Pollution and Protection Endeavors Hussein I. Abdel-Shafy 1 and Raouf O. Aly 2

31 Water quantity per capita (m3) UN – bottom line Water Issue in Egypt: Resources, Pollution and Protection Endeavors Hussein I. Abdel-Shafy 1 and Raouf O. Aly 2

32 Future challenges

33

34

35 Almost two in every three people who need safe drinking water survive on less than $2 a day and one in three on less than $1 a day.

36 Facts

37 2.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation

38 Improved sanitation facilities are estimated to result in an average reduction in cases of diarrhea of more than 33%

39 Washing hands with soap has been found to reduce diarrhea by more than 40%

40 What you can do? Turn off the water while shaving Scrape dishes instead of rinsing them Purchase a high-efficiency washing machine and wash only full loads Water your lawn only in the early morning or evening to avoid losing water to evaporation Constant repair and check ups

41 Know the value of what you are using

42 Thank you


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