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Study Sheet for Honors Biology Chapter 7 Test ANSWERS.

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1 Study Sheet for Honors Biology Chapter 7 Test ANSWERS

2 #1 Equation for photosynthesis

3 #1

4 CHLOROPLAST DIAGRAM A. Outer membrane B. inner membrane C. granum D. thylakoid disk E. stroma


6 #3

7 DIAGRAMS Leaf Cross Section

8 Answers A=cuticle B=Upper epidermis C=Vein D=Phloem E=xylem F=Palisade layer G=spongy layer H=guard cell I=stomata

9 What is the enzyme? That is the most abundant in the world? Amylase Rubisco ATP synthase Peptidase ANSWER: rubisco

10 Leaf Structure and Function Gases enter – stoma Xylem-tubes carrying water roots, stem, leaves Phloem-food carrying tubes Cuticle-protective waxy outer layer Air space -area in spongy layer for gases Stoma-opening in leaf (usually lower) Guard cell -open and close to let gases in/out stoma Palisade layer – vertically, tightly packed cells with chloroplasts

11 Leaf Structure and Function Mesophyll = palisade layer + spongy layer Upper epidermis – transparent, thick cells to protect upper leaf Lower epidermis – transparent, thick cells to protect lower leaf Bundle sheath = cells around xylem and phloem, with chloroplasts Chloroplast = green organelles, site of photosynthesis

12 4. Chlorophyll a Absorbs: blue-violet and red Reflects: green Function: absorbs photons of light and transfer that energy to e- When light hits it: Resonates (flexible) between double and single bonds + pass to P680 or P700

13 Where do you find chlorophyll a? In chloroplasts found in thylakoid disk membrane: –In palisade layer –In Spongy layer –In bundle sheath –In guard cells

14 Difference between xylem and phloem Xylem –carries water up the roots, stems, & leaves Phloem – carries food Up and down the roots, stems, & leaves

15 5. Where are PSII and PSI? Found: in thylakoid disk of chloroplast What do they produce? PSII – high energy electron to ETC (Pq first) -H + ions to collect in thylakoid lumen -O 2 to be released out stoma PSI –high energy e- passed to NADP+

16 5. Identify the Parts of the Photosystem A B C D E F G H

17 Identify the Parts of the Photosystem

18 Identify the letters L

19 A. PSII G. H+ B. H 2 0 H. NADPH C. O 2 I. Cyt b6 D. ETC J. Pq F. NADP+ K. FNR L. Pc L

20 Describe the processes at the red circles

21 Identify the numbers 1- light hit PS 2- excited e- from P680 to primary e- acceptor 3- water split 4- excited e- down ETC to Pq to Ctyb6 to Pc 5- P700 accepts e- from Pc 6- e- to NADP+ reduced to NADPH L

22 #6 Photophosphorylation Uses sunlight to produce ATP

23 #6 Photophosphorylation CyclicNoncyclic (linear) In Out One light event (PSI, cytb6, Pc) ADP ATP 2 light events (PSII, Pq, cytb6, Pc, & PSI) Water Oxygen ADP ATP NADP+ NADPH

24 Photophosphorylation Chemiosmosis in photosynthesis in cellular respiration Uses sunlight H+ are collected in lumen of thylakoids H+ formed from splitting of water Starts with high energy glucose H+ form NADH and FADH 2 H+ passed through inner membrane of mitochondrion to intermembrane space

25 In both photophosphorylation and chemiosmosis in cellular respiration H+ pass through ATP synthase to turn it and ADP + P forms ATP

26 #8 Where does the oxygen come from that we breathe? Splitting of oxygen in LDR (linear photophosphorylation)

27 #9 What is the source of carbon for glucose? Carbon dioxide

28 #10 Carbon fixation is making an inorganic molecule (like carbon dioxide) into a useable organic molecule (like 3-PGA.

29 #10 Carbon fixing occurs in the __ Calvin cycle What happens there? (When RuBP + RuBisCo + CO 2 to form 3 PGA)

30 #11 What two high energy molecules are made at the end of linear photophosphorylation? ATP And NADPH collected in the stroma

31 #12 Where made? G3P Stroma NADPH Stroma ATP stroma

32 Where made? Oxygen Lumen of thylakoid disk RuBisCO Stroma e- excited by photons Thylakoid disk membrane

33 Where made? RuBP Stroma NADP+ stroma Water split Lumen of thylakoid

34 Color Reflected Xanthophyll Yellow Carotenoid Orange Lycopene red Chlor b Yellow-green Rhdopsin purple Canthaxanthin Orange-yellow

35 #14-15 PRODUCTS OF LIR (Calvin cycle) ADP NADP+ G3P (can join to form glucose) PRODUCTS OF LDR (linear photophosphorylation) ATP NADPH OXYGEN

36 #16 What do excited e- cause to happen as they pass through the Cytochrome- b 6? Pull H+ ions across from thylakoid lumen across the thylakoid membrane to the stroma.

37 #17 In the Calvin cycle what two molecules join with the enzyme RuBisCO? RuBP and CO 2

38 #18 What are the two fates of excited chlorophyll? Pass energy to excite an e- that are passed to ETC (in thylakoid membrane) like to Pq Fluoresce and release the energy (photon)as red color (if no thylakoid)

39 #19 How many CO 2 molecules are needed to produce one glucose molecule? 6 6 turns of Calvin cycle to make one glucose

40 What are the final e- acceptors? Final electron acceptor in cellular respiration is oxygen Final electron acceptor in LDR is NADP+ H + ions power the ATP synthase to make ATP

41 #20 Strongest biological oxidizing agent P680

42 #21 What makes guard cells open and close? If turgid – guard cells open If flaccid – guard cells close

43 Note salt concentrations in the cells and the arrows showing Remember: hypo to hyper Stoma Animation flacci d turgid

44 #22 Calvin Cycle INPUT: 6 CO 2 OUTPUT: 2 G3P 18 ATP 18 ADP + P 12 NADPH 12 NADP+

45 What is…? Carbon Fixation? ANSWER: changing of unusable atmospheric CO 2 into usable organic compounds (like glucose)

46 3 PGA

47 #23 What is formed at the end of each phase of the Calvin cycle? Fixation 3 PGA Reduction G3P Regeneration Recycle RuBP

48 #24 In the LDR (PSII) water splits into: e- H+ oxygen

49 #25 Which greenhouse gas has the most affect on global warming? CO 2

50 UV infrared

51 Greenhouse effect Protects earth from: UV rays 3 Greenhouse gases: CO 2 O 2 H 2 O Increases in CO 2 due: to burning fossil fuels Negative effects: melt glaciers, increased sea levels, change to extreme weather (more hurricanes, extreme weather)

52 #26 The banning of CFCs was done because of what problem? CFCs were breaking down the ozone This allowed UV light to enter the atmosphere at dangerous levels

53 #34 CFCs

54 CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons Were put in aerosols, refrigerants, and styrofoam Products containing CFCs were Banned by those signing the Montreal Protocol

55 Ozone Thinning Over Antarctica Icy molecules react withCFCs more than other particles

56 #27 Write a conclusion.

57 #28 What is photoprotection Carotenoids reflect orange

58 #29 What does P680 and P700 mean? These are the wavelengths that these chlorophyll molecules absorb.

59 DIAGRAM A. PS II B. ETC C. PS I D. thylakoid interior E. ATP synthase F. stroma F 680 700


61 #30 PRODUCT FORMED: From fixing of carbon dioxide 3 PGA At the end of PSI NADPH As a result of photophoshorylation ATP

62 #30 Formed in the regeneration phase of the Calvin cycle RuBP Formed in the reduction phase of the Calvin cycle G3P Formed from the surplus of G3P RuBP

63 #30 WHERE FOUND? H+ high concentration = lumen Excited e - = PSII and PSI Water splitting = lumen NADPH and ATP = stroma ETC = thylakoid membrane

64 #30 Where do these take place? LDR takes place in the thylakoid disks LIR takes place in the stroma


66 8. Where does each take place? LIR LDR Calvin cycle ETC Chemiosmosis Splitting of water Stroma Thylakoid disks Stroma Thylakoid membrane Thylakoid interior through thylakoid membrane to stroma Thylakoid interior

67 Where do the H+ collect after they are split from water? G

68 D – thylakoid interior H+ G

69 Where is the ATP synthase located? G

70 E G

71 Where would NADPH and ATP be found? G

72 G G (stroma)

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