Presentation on theme: "Battlefield Communication during the Civil war"— Presentation transcript:
1Battlefield Communication during the Civil war Origin of the U.S. Signal CorpsWig Wag System
2The origins of the U.S. Signal Corps can be traced back to Albert Myer, an army doctor, who invented a method of communication using line of sight to send coded messages across battlefields.Developed in 1856, prior to the Civil War, it was called flag telegraphy.During its use in the Civil War it became known as wig wag because of the movement of the flags.Major Albert MyerBACKGROUND:In 1854, Myers became an assistant surgeon in the Army and was sent west where federal troops were fighting Indians. Inspired by the sight of Indian smoke signals and hand communications, he developed a “wig-wag” communications system that used flags by day and lanterns and torches by night. He was campaigning for the Army to adapt his system when the Civil War began.wig wag: (noun) the act or process of sending messages by the movements of two flags or the like waved according to a code. (Can also be used as a verb.) Random House Unabridged Dictionary
3On June 21st, 1860, Congress approved the creation of the United States Signal Corps with Albert Myer as the first signal officer with the rank of Major. However, the bill passed by Congress didn’t provide any personnel to work for Myer.It wouldn’t be until March 3rd, 1863 that the United States Signal Corps received a formal organizational structure. Abraham Lincoln signed a bill which included the position of chief signal officer with the rank of colonel, a lieutenant colonel, two majors, a captain for each corps or military department, and as many lieutenants, not to exceed eight, per corps or department as the president deemed necessary. Each officer was provided one sergeant and six privates.
4They were also required to pass a series of exams. Candidates for the Signal Corps had to be able to_______________ and _______________.READWRITEUnion Code BookThey were also required to pass a series of exams.Confederate soldiers who were selected for the Signal Corps were paid an extra 40 cents per day in their pay.
5Lookout Mountain in Cumberland Mountains Visibility was very important!Signalmen used:Scaffolds and towersTreesand Mountains in their quest to be seen.SteeplesRooftops~ FREDERICKSBURG ~ THE COURTHOUSE STEEPLE IN THE CENTER CONTAINED FEDERAL SIGNALMENFormer house of John C. Calhoun at the mouth of the Savannah River.Signal tower at JacksonvilleLookout Mountain in Cumberland MountainsSignal Station on the Mississippi
6Communication in battle was necessary for success! Two reasons communication was necessary were to________________ and _________________ the troops.MOVEWARNLutheran Seminaryused during the Battle of Gettysburg.Cobb’s Hill Signal TowerCobb Hill, Virginia, 1864
7The method of flag telegraphy, or wig wag, was first used in combat by the Confederacy. A former Myer trainee, Lt. E.P. Alexander, sent flag signals at the Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) to warn the South’s General Beauregard of a Union flanking movement.Bull Run Battlefield
8Union signal station at Antietam Union forces successfully used flag signals in September 1862 when General Burnside was alerted to an attack by Stonewall Jackson’s cavalry at the Battle of Antietam in Maryland.Two months later, the Union victory at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania was directly influenced by signalmen who scaled the strategic heights of Little Round Top to warn that it was undefended.Union signal station at Antietam
9Union Communications from Little Round Top during the Battle of GettysburgRound Top Mountain Signal StationJuly 2, 1863Capt. Hall:Saw a column of the enemy's infantry move into woods on ridge, three miles west of the town, near the Millerstown road. Wagon teams, parked in open field beyond the ridge, moved to the rear behind woods. See wagons moving up and down on the Chambersburg pike, at Spangler's. Think the enemy occupies the range of hills three miles west of the town in considerable force.Norton, TaylorRound Top Mountain Signal StationJuly 2, 1863, A.M.General Butterfield:The rebels are in force, and our skirmishers give way. One mile west of Round Top Signal station the woods are full of them.Jerome
10The technique of wig wag is a two element system in which a flag waived to the left or the right represents a “1” or a “2”.Combinations of “1’s” and “2’s” represent specific letters, much like dots and dashes represent letters in Morse code.A third motion of the flag to the signalman’s front represents a “3” which provides punctuation between words and sentences.Example:A = = end of wordB = 1221C = = end of sentenceD = 111E = = end of messageF = 1112Click here to view demoFLAG TRAINING LESSON- Two Element Flash Demo
11Standard Union Signal Kit Flags –usually cotton or linen; 2, 4, or 6 feet square. (White flags were usually used since they showed up best against most backgrounds.)Poles - 4 x Hickory poles, 4-ft long and jointed like a fishing rod.Torch - Copper cylinder with reservoir for fuel and a wick.Canteen and Service Can - for carrying tourch and lantern fuel in 1/2 and 5 gallon amounts.Case and haversack - for storage.Funnel, pliers, wormer and shears - for filling and trimming torches.And finally the kit case - to house it all.
12Both sides began using Cipher Disks to encrypt their messages. Union and Confederate used essentially the same wig wag system. Interception of messages by the enemy was a constant concern.Both sides began using Cipher Disks to encrypt their messages.Once, Confederate signal operators intercepted a message that read, “Send me a copy of Rebel Code immediately, if you have one in your possession.” The Confederates quickly changed their codes.To encrypt the message, a signal disk made of two disks of brass or cardboard was used. One contained the alphabet, the other numeral combinations. By rotating the disk and changing the alignment of the numbers and letters, the codes could be easily changed.Side Note:Telescopes and field glasses were an essential part of a signal party's equipment. Union officers were accountable for their equipment and were under strict orders not to let any fall into enemy hands.
13The final transmission of the wartime signal corps was from the roof of army headquarters (the extant Winder Building in Washington, D.C.) to a single station of the once proud Army of the Potomac, across the river: "Sic transit gloria mundi," "thus passes the glory of the world."By the end of the war the US Signal Corps numbered some 300 officers and 2,500 men. Who were "the ablest, coolest, and most daring men in the Army"? This was the term applied by George Ward Nichols, in his in his Story of the Great March. He was describing the men of the signal corps, probably the least known and least appreciated body of men in the Civil War. (David Winfred Gaddy)