Section 1 General Information RAID Throughput v. Response Time
Who Is This Guy? Been an independent consultant for 11 years Sun Certified Systems Administrator Oracle Certified Professional Taught Performance and Optimization class at Learning Tree Taught UNIX Administration class at Virginia Commonwealth University Primarily focus on complete system performance analysis and tuning
What Is He Talking About? Disks are horrible! – Disks are slow! – Disks are a real pain to tune properly! Multiple interfaces and points of bottlenecking! What is the best way to tune disk IO? Avoid it! – Disks are sensitive to minor changes! – Disks dont play well in the SAN Box! – You never get what you pay for! – Thankfully, disks are cheap!
What Is He Talking About? (continued) Optimize IO for specific data transfers – Small IO is easy, based on response time Improved with parallelism, depending on IOps Improved with better quality disks – Large IO is much more difficult Increase transfer size. Larger IO slows response time! Spend money on quantity not quality. Stripe wider! You dont get what you expect (label spec) – You dont even come close!
Where Do Vendors Get The Speed Spec From? 160 MBps capable does not mean 160 MBps sustained – Achieved in optimal conditions Perfectly sized and contiguous disk blocks Streamline disk processing – Achieved via a disk-to-disk transfer No OS or FileSystem
What Do I Need To Know? What is good v. bad? What are realistic expectations in different cases? How can you get the real numbers for yourself? What should you do to optimize your IO?
Why Do I Care? IO is the slowest part of the computer IO improves slower than other components – CPU performance doubles every year or two – Memory and disk capacity double every year or two – Disk IO Throughput doubles every 10 to 12 years! A cheap way to gain performance – Disks are bottlenecks! – Disks are cheap. SANs are not, but disk arrays are!
What Do Storage Vendors Say? Buy more controllers – Sure, if you need them – How do you know what you need? – Dont just buy them to see if it helps Buy more disks – Average SAN disk performs at < 1% – 50 disks performing at 1% = ½ disk – Try getting 20 disks to perform at 5% instead (= 1 whole disk)
What Do Storage Vendors Say? (continued) Buy more cache – Sure, but its expensive – Get all you can get out of the cheap disks first Fast response time is good – Not if you are moving large amounts of data – Large transfers shouldnt get super-fast response time – Fast response time means you are doing small transfers
What Do Storage Vendors Say? (continued) Isolate the IO on different subsystems – Just isolate the IO on different disks Disks are the bottleneck, not controllers, cache, etc. – Again, expensive. Make sure you are maximizing the disks first.
What Do Storage Vendors Say? (continued) Remove hot spots – Yes, but dont do this blindly! – Contiguous blocks reduce IOps – Balance contention (waits) v. IOps (requests) carefully! RAID-5 is best – No its not, its just easier for them!
The Truth About SAN SAN = scalability – Yeah, but internal disk capacity has caught up SAN != easy to manage SAN = performance – Who told you that lie? – SAN definitely != performance
The Truth About SAN (continued) But I can stripe wider and I have cache, so performance must be good – You share IO with everyone else – You have little control over what is on each disk Hot Spots v. Fragmentation Small transfer sizes Contention
How Should I Plan? What do you need? – Quick response for small data sets – Move large chunks of data fast – A little of both Corvettes v. Dump Trucks – Corvettes get from A to B fast – Dump Trucks get a ton of dirt from A to B fast
RAID Performance Penalties Loss of performance for RAID overhead Applies against each disk in the RAID The penalties are: – RAID-0 = None – 1, 0+1, 10 = 20% – 2 = 10% – 3, 30 = 25% – 4 = 33% – 5, 50 = 43%
Popular RAID Configurations RAID-0 (Stripe or Concatenation) – Dont concatenate unless you have to – No fault-tolerance, great performance, cheap RAID-1 (Mirror) – Great fault-tolerance, no performance gain, expensive RAID-5 (Stripe With Parity) – medium fault-tolerance, low performance gain, cheap
Popular RAID Configurations (continued) RAID-0+1 (Two or more stripes, mirrored) – Great performance/fault-tolerance, expensive RAID-10 (Two or more mirrors, striped) – Great performance/fault-tolerance, expensive – Better than RAID-0+1 – Not all hardware/software offer it yet
RAID-10 Is Better Than RAID- 0+1 Given: six disks – RAID-0+1 Stripe disks one through three (Stripe A) Stripe disks four through six (Stripe B) Mirror stripe A to stripe B Lose Disk two. Stripe A is gone Requires you to rebuild the stripe
RAID-10 Is Better Than RAID- 0+1 – RAID-10 Mirror disk one to disk two Mirror disk three to disk four Mirror disk five to disk six Stripe all six disks Lose Disk two. Just disk two is gone Only requires you to rebuild disk two as a submirror
Expected Throughput Vendor specs are maximum (burst) speeds You wont get burst speeds consistently – Except for disk-to-disk with no OS (e.g. EMC BCV) So what should you expect? – Fiber = 80% as best-case in ideal conditions – SCSI = 70% as best-case in ideal conditions – Disk = 60% as best-case in ideal conditions – But even that is before we get to transfer size
Transfer Size Amount of data moved in one IO Must be contiguous block IO – Fragmentation carries a large penalty! Device IOps limits restrict throughput Maximum transfer size allowed is different for different file systems and devices Is Linux good or bad for large IO?
Transfer Size Limits Controllers = Unlimited Disks and W2K3 NTFS = 2 MB – Remember the vendor Speed Spec W2K NTFS, VxFS and UFS = 1 MB
Transfer Size Limits (continued) NT NTFS and ext3 = 512 KB ext2 = 256 KB FAT16 = 128 KB Old Linux = 64 KB FAT = 32 KB
So Linux Is Bad?! Again, what are you using the server for? – Transactional (OLTP) DB = fine – Web server, small file share = fine – DW, large file share = Might be a problem!
Good Transfer Sizes Small IO / Transactional DB – Should be 8K to 128K – Tend to average 8K to 32K Large IO / Data Warehouse – Should be 64K to 1M – Tend to average 16K to 64K Not very proportional compared to Small IO! And it takes some tuning to get there!
Find Your AVG Transfer Size (continued) PerfMon
Find Your AVG Transfer Size (continued) AVG Disk Bytes / AVG Disk Transfers – Allow PerfMon to run for several minutes – Look at the average field for Disk Bytes/sec – Look at the average field for Disk Transfers/sec
The mkfile Test Simple, low-overhead, write of a contiguous (as much as possible) empty file – Really is no comparison! Get cygwin/SFU on Windows to run the same test time mkfile 100m /mountpoint/testfile – Real is total time spent – Sys is time spent on hardware (writing blocks) – User is time spent at keyboard/monitor
The mkfile Test (continued) User time should be minimal – Time in user space in the kernel Not interacting with hardware Waiting for user input, etc. – Unless its waiting for you to respond to a prompt, like to overwrite a file
The mkfile Test (continued) System time should be 80% of real time – Time in system space in the kernel Interacting with hardware Doing what you want, reading from disk, etc. Real – (System + User) = WAIT – Any time not directly accounted for by the kernel is time spent waiting for a resource – Usually this is waiting for disk access
The mkfile Test (continued) Common causes for waits – Resource contention (disk or non-disk) – Disks are to busy Need wider stripes Not using all of the disks in a stripe – Disks repositioning Many small transfers due to fragmentation Bad block/stripe/transfer sizes
The Right Block Size Smaller for small IO, bigger for large IO – The avg size of data written to disk per individual write – In most cases you want to be at one extreme As big as you can for large IO / as small as you can for small IO Balance performance v. wasted space. Disks are cheap! Is there an application block size? – OS block size should be <= app block size
More iostat Metrics iostat –exn (from a live Solaris server) extended device statistics ---- errors --- r/s w/s kr/s kw/s wait actv wsvc_t asvc_t %w %b s/w h/w trn tot device 2.8 1.1 570.7 365.3 0.0 0.1 2.9 19.0 1 3 0 0 0 0 d10 – %w (wait) = 1. Should be <= 10. – %b (busy) = 3. Should be <= 60. – Asvc_t = 19 (ms response). Most argue that this should be <= 5, 10 or 20 in todays technology. Again, response v. throughput.
iostat On Windows Not so easy – PerfMon can get you %b Physical Disk > % Disk Time – Not available in cygwin or SFU – So what do you do for %w or asvc_t Not much You can ID wait issues as demonstrated later Depend on the array/SAN tools
vmstat Metrics Vmstat procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- ----cpu---- r b w swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa 0 0 0 163608 77620 0 0 3 1 1 0 5 11 1 3 96 0 – b+w = (blocked/waiting) processes – Should be <= # of logical CPUs – us(er) v. sy(stem) CPU time
vmstat Metrics (continued) Is low CPU idle bad? – Low is not 0 – Idle cycles = money wasted – Need to be able to process all jobs at peak – Dont need to be able to process all jobs at peak and have idle cycles for show! – Better off watching the run/wait/block queues – Run queue should be <= 4 * # of logical CPUs
vmstat On Windows Cygwin works (b/w consolidated to b)
vmstat On Windows (continued) PerfMon – System time = idle time – user time
vmstat on Windows (continued) PerfMon – Run Queue is per processor (<=4) – Block/Wait queue is blocking queue length
Additional Metrics Do not swap! – On UNIX you should never swap Use your native OS commands to verify Dont trust vmstat – On Windows some swap is OK Use PerfMon to check Pages/sec. –Should be <= 100 Use free in cygwin
Additional Metrics (continued) Network IO issues will make your server appear slow netstat –in displays errors/collisions – Collisions are common on auto-negotiate networks – Hard set the switch and server link speed/mode Use net statistics workstation on Windows
Measuring Oracle IO Install Statspack – @?rdbms/admin/spcreate Schedule snapshots – @?rdbms/admin/spauto Take your own snapshots – Exec statspack.snap; Get a report – @?rdbms/admin/spreport – Everybody gets a report
Measuring Oracle IO (continued) Read the report – Instance Efficiency Percentages Buffer hit % Execute to Parse % In-memory sort % – Top 5 Timed Events Db file sequential read is usually at the top and is in the most need of tuning
Measuring Oracle IO (continued) Queries – Check Elapsed Time / Executions to find the long running queries – Dont forget to tune semi-fast queries that are executed many times Tablespace/Datafile IO – Physical reads – Identify hot spots – May need to move/add files
IO Performance Factors Controller overhead = 0.3 ms Burst controller/disk speed = varies. Vendor spec. Average Transfer Size = varies. Can be anything between the block size and the lesser of device/FS/OS limitation Average Seek Time = varies. Vendor spec. Most range between 1 and 10 ms
IO Equations Controller Transfer Time (ms) = / + Controller IOps Limit = 1000 / Controller Transfer Rate = *
IO Equations (continued) Rotational Delay (ms) = 1/(RPM/30) IO Time (ms) = + Disk IOps Limit 1000 / * Disk Transfer Rate = *
IO Equations (continued) Optimal Disks Per Controller = / NOT controller speed spec / disk speed spec IOps weight heavier against disks than against controllers
IO Equations (continued) Stripe Size = ( / ) or ( / ) What if I have nested stripes? (Dont!) – Outer Stripe Size = ( / )or( / ) – Inner Stripe Size = /
Striping A Stripe Nested stripes must be planned carefully – The wrong stripe sizes can lead to degraded performance and wasted space Assume we have 16 disks – The backend is configured as four RAID-5 luns, each one containing four disks – We want to stripe the four luns into one large volume on the OS with DiskSuite Set Block Size high (e.g. 8K) and assume 32 for multiblock count
Striping A Stripe (continued) The outer stripe size should = 64K 8K * 32 / The inner stripe size should = 16K / Cant always be dead on – Round down to the next available size
Striping A Stripe (continued) We throw out parity disks and just use data disks for the illustrations in this example Whiteboard
Striping A Stripe (continued) We need to write 256K of data – Data is divided into 64K chunks – Each 64K chunk is handed to one column in the outer stripe (a column represents an inner stripe set) – Each 64K chunk is divided into 16K chunks – Each 16K chunk is written to one column (one disk) in the inner stripe. – Perfect fit. All disks are used equally.
Striping A Stripe (continued) 64K Outer Stripe Size Diagram – 16K to each inner stripe
Striping A Stripe (continued) Same scenario, but use a 32K outer stripe size with the 16K inner stripe size Data divided into 32K chunks Each 32K chunk handed to one column in the outer stripe Each 32K chunk divided into two 16K chunks
Striping A Stripe (continued) The 16K chunks are written to two disks You lose up to half of the performance value for the write and for future reads.
Striping A Stripe (continued) 32K Outer Stripe Size Diagram – 16K to each inner stripe
Striping A Stripe (continued) Same scenario, 128K outer stripe size Data is divided into two 128K chunks Third and Fourth RAID-5 sets (inner stripe columns) are never hit Data fits nicely within the other two RAID sets – 128K divided into 16K chunks – Two chunks written to each of four disks
Striping A Stripe (continued) 128K Outer Stripe Size Diagram – 16K to each inner stripe
Striping A Stripe (continued) So you lost the use of half of the raid-5 sets in your outer stripe But you made good use of the other two What if the outer stripe size had been 256K – Lose the use of all but one RAID-set – Basically, only use four of the 16 disks
Oracle Disk Layout Many (myself included) say stripe wide – Dont do so at the expense of other good practices – Separation of IO is as/more important than striping IO Depends on the type of IO Depends on the parallelism of the application Stay away from ASM! – Oracle loves to push/sell it – Requires an extra DB ASM DB must be online for you to start your DB – You lose control over what goes where
Oracle Disk Layout (continued) Striping is good, but make sure you retain control – You need to know what is on each disk. This theory kills the big SAN concept – Redo logs should be on their own independent disks even at the expense of striping because they are perfectly sequential – Tables and Indexes should be separated and striped very wide on their own set of disks If you have multiple high IO tablespaces then each of them should be contained on their own subset of disks – Control files should be isolated and striped minimally (to conserve disks)
Disk Device Cache Write Cache v. Read Cache – Writers block writers – Writers block readers – Readers block writers – Readers block readers – Cache it all! Cache is available in many places Disk, Controller, FileSystem, Kernel Dont double-cache one and zero-cache the other
Disk Device Cache (continued) Dont double-cache reads if you have a lot of memory for buffering on the host. Use the disk system cache for writes. – You read the same data many times, it is easy to cache at the host – Reads are faster than writes. We know where the blocks to read are located. We have to plan where to store the blocks for a write.
Sequential v. Random Optimization Sequential IO is 10 times faster than Random IO – Reorg/Defrag often to make data sequential Cache writes to improve sequential layout percentage Cache reads to aid with the performance of Random IO
Sequential v. Random Optimization (continued) Random IO requires more disk seeks and more Iops – Use small transfer/stripe/block sizes – # of disks is less important – Use disks with fast seek time Sequential IO requires more throughput and streaming disks – Use large transfer/stripe/block sizes – Use a lot of disks – Use disks with better RPM
Tune Something Kernel Parameters – MAXPHYS – maximum transfer size limit Yes there is a limit, that restricts you from reaching the maximum potential of the filesystem and/or disk device when you want to Who thought that was a good idea? Set it to 1M, which is hard maximum
Tune Something (continued) Kernel Parameters – sd_max_throttle – Number of IO requests allowed to wait in queue for a busy device. Should be set to 256 /. – sd_io_time – Amount of time an IO request can wait before timing out. Should be set to 120 /
Tune Something (continued) Filesystem Parameters – Maxcontig – maximum number of contiguous blocks. Should be /. Set it really high if you arent sure. It is just a ceiling. – Direct/Async IO & cache – Follow your application specs. If you dont have app specs try different combinations. Large, sequential writes should NOT be double-cached. Async is usually best, but there are no guarantees from app to app
Tune Something (continued) Filesystem Parameters – noatime/dfratime – Why waste time updating inode access time parameters. They will be updated the next time some change happens to the file. Do you really need to know in- between? If you do fine, but this is extra overhead. – Forcedirectio – Dont cache writes. Good for large, sequential writes.
Tune Something (continued) Filesystem Searching – Many people like a small number of large filesystems because space management is easier – Filesystems are also starting points for searches – Searches are done using inodes – Try not to have too many inodes in one filesystem
Tune Something (continued) Driver (HBA, Veritas, etc.) Parameters – Investigate conf files in /kernel/drv – Check limits on transfer sizes (e.g. vol_maxio for Veritas). These should usually be set to 1M per controller. – Check settings/limits for things like direct/async IO and cache. Make sure it falls in line with the rest of your configuration
Tune Something (continued) Driver (HBA, Veritas, etc.) Parameters – Parameters for block shifting if you are using DMP (e.g. Veritas dmp_pathswitch_blks_shift should be 15). – lun_queue_depth – limits the number of queue IO requets per lun. Sun says 25. EMC says 32. Emulex says 20 (but their default is 30). This is very confusing. Anything between 20 and 32 is probably good? Well, it should really be.
Tune Something (continued) Others. – We could have a one week class. – The previous parameters follow the 90/10 rule and give you the most bang for the buck. 10% of the parameters will give you 90% of the benefits. This list is more like 3%, but still yields about 90% of the benefits
Tune Something (continued) What about Windows? – Sorry, not much we can do Cant tune the kernel for Disk IO like you can for Network IO Cant tune NTFS At the mercy of Microsofts Best Fit – HBA drivers do have parameters that can be tuned in a config file or in the registry
RAMSAN Do IO on RAM, not on disk – Memory is much faster than disk! Random memory outruns sequential disk – Bottleneck shifts from 320 MBps (haha!) disk to 4 Gbps fiber channel adapter Want more than 4 Gbps, just get more HBAs What can your system bus(es) handle? – No need to optimize transfer size, stripe, etc.
RAMSAN (continued) Problem – data is lost when power is cycled – Most RAMSANs have battery backup and flush to disk when power is lost – Data is also flushed to disk throughout the day when performance levels are low – Only blocks that have a new value are flushed to disk Block 1 is 0 and is flushed to disk Block 1 is updated to 1 Block 1 is updated to 0 Flush cycle runs, but block 1 doesnt need to be copied to disk Major performance improvement over similar cache monitors
RAMSAN (continued) A leading product – TMS Tera-RamSan – www.superssd.com www.superssd.com – 3,200,000 IOps – 24 GBps – Super High Dollar – Everyone gets some PDFs
RAMSAN (continued) Solid State Disks by: – TMS – Solid Data Systems – Dynamic Solutions – Infiniband
Disk IO Performance Calculator Spreadsheet of Performance Equations and automated formulas Allows you to plug-n-play numbers and gauge the performance impacts Helps determine what you need to get the bottom line throughput you are looking for Helps determine the number of disks you can use per controller
Disk IO Performance Calculator (continued) Works for both large IO and small IO Contains examples to provide a better understanding of how different IO components impact each other.
Large Transfer Size v. Small Transfer Size 986 IOps v. 1,064 IOps 238 MBps v. 9 MBps 8 disks / controller v. 33 disks / controller
12 Disks v. 36 Disks (Small Transfer Size) 1,064 IOps v. 3,191 IOps 9 MBps v. 27 MBps 33 disks / controller v. 33 disks / controller
10K RPM v. 15K RPM (36 Disks, Small Transfer Size) 3,191 IOps v. 3,588 IOps 27 MBps v. 31 MBps 33 disks / controller v. 29 disks / controller
6ms Seek v. 3ms Seek (15K RPM, 36 Disks, Small Transfer) 3,588 IOps v. 5,730 IOps 31 MBps v. 49 MBps 29 disks / controller v. 18 disks / controller About as good as it gets. – 3ms Seek, 15K RPM – Yet 36 disks on two controllers only pushes 49 MBps due to small (normal) transfer size
Back to Large Transfer Size (3 ms Seek, 15K RPM, 36 Disks) 5,730 IOps v. 5,021 IOps 49 MBps v. 1,210 MBps 18 disks / controller v. 5 disks / controller 1.2 GBps is pretty good – But 36 disks * 160 MBps = 5.6 GBps Again, only in ideal test conditions Max Transfer Size on every transfer No OS/Filesystem overhead
Speed v. IOps Notice we never came close to the speed threshold (multiply number of disks by consistent speed) for the disks before maxing out IOps Notice that we did come close on two controllers with the large transfer size. If you push that much IO, you do need more controllers, but notice how big that number is
Large IO Requires A Large Transfer Size Large IO requires large (not necessarily fast) individual transfers You have to tune your transfer size Avoid fragmentation – Use good stripe sizes – Use good block sizes
Now Lets Really See The Calculator Refer To The Spreadsheet – Everyone gets their own copy – What tests do you want to run? Follow Along. – Feel free to contact the developer at any time Charles Pfeiffer, CRT Sr. Consultant –(888) 235-8916 –CJPfeiffer@RemoteControlDBA.comCJPfeiffer@RemoteControlDBA.com
Summary You dont get the label spec in throughput. Not even close! Throughput is the opposite of response time! RAID decreases per-disk performance! – Make up for it with more disks
Summary (continued) Striping a stripe requires careful planning – The wrong stripe size will decrease performance Big money disk systems dont necessarily have big benefits – The range from high-quality to low-quality isnt that severe – Quantity tends to win out over quality in disks Make your vendor agree to reasonable expectations! – Use the IO Calculator!
This Presentation This document is not for commercial re-use or distribution without the consent of the author Neither CRT, nor the author guarantee this document to be error free Submit questions/corrections/comments to the author: – Charles Pfeiffer, CJPfeiffer@RemoteControlDBA.comCJPfeiffer@RemoteControlDBA.com