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Evolution & Application of GIS

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Presentation on theme: "Evolution & Application of GIS"— Presentation transcript:

1 Evolution & Application of GIS

2 Handling Spatial Data Manually
Sieve Mapping : A technique that combines several map layers to identify sites meeting a number of criteria Shortest Distance Calculating Areas

3 Problems Inaccurate Time Consuming Difficult to repeat
Lack of Relative Information Slow Speed of access and updating Information

4 Development of Computer Methods for Handling Spatial Data
System Approach Theoretical framework for the development of GIS concepts and techniques Holistic system Approach Modeling of all aspects of real worlds Considers how a process works Metadiscipline

5 Development of Computer Methods for Handling Spatial Data
Computer Cartography Also known as Digital mapping, automated cartography , or computer aided cartography Is the generation , storage and editing of maps using a computer. The Atlas of Britain Work started in 1950 and published in 1963 Out of date material SYMAP Automated cartographic package (1965)quick production of maps but low quality SYMAP Synagraphic Mapping, 1964 developed as general-purpose mapping package output exclusively on line printer (poor resolution, low quality ) limited functionality but simple to use first real demonstration of ability of computers to make maps

6 Development of Computer Methods for Handling Spatial Data
Spatial Statistics In early 1960’s computer became available to help statisticians for spatial statistics and geographic analysis Development in areas like measure of spatial distribution, 3-D Analysis, Network analysis and modeling techniques.(took place remote from GIS) Synthetic data sets were used but GIS uses real world data and where analysis can be repeated many times. Only few models are used in GIS like gravity models, location allocation models etc. (but in separate packages)

7 Development of Computer Methods for Handling Spatial Data
AM/FM (Automated Mapping and Facilities management) Used to store information about utility facilities and link external files to electronic files Automated mapping by itself allows storage and manipulation of map information. AM/FM systems add the ability to link stores of information about the features mapped. However, AM/FM is not used for spatial analysis, and it lacks the topological data structures of GIS.

8 Development of Computer Methods for Handling Spatial Data
CAD (Computer-Aided Design) These systems were designed for drafting and design. (architectural design, engineering etc) Used to enter and manipulate graphics data but GIS is used to store and analyze spatial data. Provide no functions for the production or analysis of maps. GIS/CAD hybrid packages are used to provide tools for the creation, editing and manipulation of graphics entities like site plans or design drawings

9 The Development of GIS The 1970s
Digital Multi-color Standard series Map produced digitally appeared in 1971 in UK First GIS Conference (International Geographic Union) GIS (Limited Analysis) Computer cartography Problems of Implementation with Management and Technical

10 Development of GIS cont’d…
The 1980s Demand (Graphics,analysis,querying,topology) Spatial Modeling First Microcomputer First Text book, International Journal on GIS

11 Development of GIS cont’d…
The 1990s General purpose Software Packages containing many analysis operations Data Encoding , Large Volume Data, Storage Devices Data Shareability Modeling Outside GIS Packages Multimedia GPS

12 Development of GIS cont’d…
The 2000s Improved Data Model for 3D and temporal Databases Data Volume problem disappear

13 Application of GIS GIS are now used extensively in government, business, and research for a wide range of applications including environmental resource analysis, landuse planning, locational analysis, tax appraisal, utility and infrastructure planning, real estate analysis, marketing and demographic analysis, habitat studies, and archaeological analysis.

14 GIS Applications Agriculture And Land Use Crop Production Irrigation
Cropping Patterns Soil

15 Natural Resources Management
One of the major areas of application natural resources management, including management of wildlife habitat, recreation resources, floodplains, wetlands, agricultural lands, forests.

16 Facilities Management
One of the largest areas of application has been in facilities management. Uses for GIS in this area have included locating underground pipes and cables, balancing loads in electrical networks, planning facility maintenance

17 Land Management Local, state, and federal governments have found GIS particularly useful in land management. GIS has been commonly applied in areas like zoning and subdivision planning, land acquisition, environmental impact policy, water quality management, maintenance of ownership.

18 GIS Applications cont’d…
Municipal Management Municipal GIS applications provide systematic collection ,updating ,Processing and distribution of land-related data. Used for legal ,administrative , and economic decision-making, as well as for various planning activities The terms Land Information Systems (LIS) and Land Record Information Systems (LRIS) are frequently used to refer to GISes that have been specialized for these Applications Archeology Made use of GIS techniques both to analyze known sites and to predict the location of undiscovered sites Geology GIS enables the geologist to work with the data more quickly ,more accurately and in ways that would not be practical using manual methods Health Services Hazard Mitigation

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