2 Handling Spatial Data Manually Sieve Mapping :A technique that combines several map layers to identify sites meeting a number of criteriaShortest DistanceCalculating Areas
3 Problems Inaccurate Time Consuming Difficult to repeat Lack of Relative InformationSlow Speed of access and updating Information
4 Development of Computer Methods for Handling Spatial Data System ApproachTheoretical framework for the development of GIS concepts and techniquesHolistic system ApproachModeling of all aspects of real worldsConsiders how a process worksMetadiscipline
5 Development of Computer Methods for Handling Spatial Data Computer CartographyAlso known as Digital mapping, automated cartography , or computer aided cartographyIs the generation , storage and editing of maps using a computer.The Atlas of BritainWork started in 1950 and published in 1963Out of date materialSYMAPAutomated cartographic package (1965)quick production of maps but low qualitySYMAP Synagraphic Mapping, 1964developed as general-purpose mapping packageoutput exclusively on line printer (poor resolution, low quality )limited functionality but simple to usefirst real demonstration of ability of computers to make maps
6 Development of Computer Methods for Handling Spatial Data Spatial StatisticsIn early 1960’s computer became available to help statisticians for spatial statistics and geographic analysisDevelopment in areas like measure of spatial distribution, 3-D Analysis, Network analysis and modeling techniques.(took place remote from GIS)Synthetic data sets were used but GIS uses real world data and where analysis can be repeated many times.Only few models are used in GIS like gravity models, location allocation models etc. (but in separate packages)
7 Development of Computer Methods for Handling Spatial Data AM/FM (Automated Mapping and Facilities management)Used to store information about utility facilities and link external files to electronic filesAutomated mapping by itself allows storage and manipulation of map information.AM/FM systems add the ability to link stores of information about the features mapped.However, AM/FM is not used for spatial analysis, and it lacks the topological data structures of GIS.
8 Development of Computer Methods for Handling Spatial Data CAD (Computer-Aided Design)These systems were designed for drafting and design. (architectural design, engineering etc)Used to enter and manipulate graphics data but GIS is used to store and analyze spatial data.Provide no functions for the production or analysis of maps.GIS/CAD hybrid packages are used to provide tools for the creation, editing and manipulation of graphics entities like site plans or design drawings
9 The Development of GIS The 1970s Digital Multi-color Standard series Map produced digitally appeared in 1971 in UKFirst GIS Conference (International Geographic Union)GIS (Limited Analysis)Computer cartographyProblems of Implementation with Management and Technical
10 Development of GIS cont’d… The 1980sDemand (Graphics,analysis,querying,topology)Spatial ModelingFirst MicrocomputerFirst Text book, International Journal on GIS
11 Development of GIS cont’d… The 1990sGeneral purpose Software Packages containing many analysis operationsData Encoding , Large Volume Data, Storage DevicesData ShareabilityModeling Outside GIS PackagesMultimediaGPS
12 Development of GIS cont’d… The 2000sImproved Data Model for 3D and temporal DatabasesData Volume problem disappear
13 Application of GISGIS are now used extensively in government, business, and research for a wide range of applications including environmental resource analysis, landuse planning, locational analysis, tax appraisal, utility and infrastructure planning, real estate analysis, marketing and demographic analysis, habitat studies, and archaeological analysis.
14 GIS Applications Agriculture And Land Use Crop Production Irrigation Cropping PatternsSoil
15 Natural Resources Management One of the major areas of application natural resources management, including management ofwildlife habitat,recreation resources,floodplains,wetlands,agricultural lands,forests.
16 Facilities Management One of the largest areas of application has been in facilities management. Uses for GIS in this area have includedlocating underground pipes and cables,balancing loads in electrical networks,planning facility maintenance
17 Land ManagementLocal, state, and federal governments have found GIS particularly useful in land management. GIS has been commonly applied in areas likezoning and subdivision planning,land acquisition,environmental impact policy,water quality management,maintenance of ownership.
18 GIS Applications cont’d… Municipal ManagementMunicipal GIS applications provide systematic collection ,updating ,Processing and distribution of land-related data.Used for legal ,administrative , and economic decision-making, as well as for various planning activitiesThe terms Land Information Systems (LIS) and Land Record Information Systems (LRIS) are frequently used to refer to GISes that have been specialized for these ApplicationsArcheologyMade use of GIS techniques both to analyze known sites and to predict the location of undiscovered sitesGeologyGIS enables the geologist to work with the data more quickly ,more accurately and in ways that would not be practical using manual methodsHealth ServicesHazard Mitigation