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Content Management & Portal Management

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1 Content Management & Portal Management
Christine Apikul

2 Module 2 Objectives Introduce a strategic approach to content management and portal management Provide an overview of the national e-governance strategy in Iraq Explain the Iraqi government interoperability framework and national enterprise architecture for content management and portal management

3 Module 2 Objectives Discuss a comprehensive framework for portal development and management Highlight the development of a monitoring and evaluation framework to measure progress and performance Explore the different funding options for content management and portal management, including public-private partnerships

4 What is a Strategy

5 What is a Strategy A strategy includes:
Analyses of needs, opportunities and risks A vision and goals that integrate the needs of the stakeholders Mechanisms that need to be in place for implementation and supervision, as well as monitoring and evaluation

6 Strategy Development Process

7 Case Study: m-Governance Strategy in the Republic of Korea
By 2011, more than 160 mobile applications covering internal processes, access to information and public service delivery. Problems arose because the applications lacked a common framework, resulting in: Redundant development of products Mismatch of technical standards across ministries and agencies Lack of a clear direction for budget priorities around m-governance services

8 Case Study: m-Governance Strategy in the Republic of Korea
In 2011, five-year m-governance strategy launched, focusing on both internal processes and public services. It establishes a common framework for developing simple mobile websites and mobile applications It sets priorities ranging from security to quality assurance and authentication, to the establishment of a mobile common data management system It provides a detailed guide to the user interfaces and experiences with mobile government websites

9 A Strategic Approach Review existing policies and plans
Focus on development outcomes Balance choice and flexibility with fairness and common good Users first – Consult and engage with them Promote multi-stakeholder partnerships

10 Focus on Development Outcomes
What is it? The actual improvements in people’s social and economic conditions Why? To drive enterprise-wide cultural change and break down service silos Collaborate around shared outcome targets Challenge entrenched working practices, organizational boundaries and corporate values

11 Focus on Development Outcomes
Example: In school system The number of teaching hours per student – Input The quality of the curriculum – Process The average exam results of students – Output/Result Students go on to further education or employment – Outcome

12 Development Outcome: Questions
What are the development outcomes for an e-governance portal project How can these outcomes be measured?

13 Balance Choice with Common Good
Be inclusive Reach out to marginalized communities Get marginalized communities involved Consider bandwidth Consider access to technology Consider literacy levels The advancement in ICT risk leaving some people behind—those who are not computer literate and those without access to a broadband connection or a PC—widening the digital divide. As more services and information move online, the challenge will become increasingly acute. It is important to ensure that those who have the greatest need receive the most help and those who are most able to help themselves have the opportunities and means to do so.

14 Consult and Engage with Stakeholders
Who are the stakeholders? Who might be affected (positively or negatively) by the development concern to be addressed? Who are the voiceless for whom special efforts may have to be made? Who are the representatives of those likely to be affected? Who is responsible for what is intended? The distinguishing characteristic of the whole-of-government approach is that government ministries, departments and directorates share objectives across organizational boundaries, as opposed to working solely within an organization. A strategic approach emphasizes consensus building so that all stakeholders agree upon the future direction and the priorities for content management and portal management.

15 Who are the Stakeholders?
Who is likely to mobilize for or against what is intended? Who can make what is intended more effective through their participation or less effective by their non-participation or outright opposition? Who can contribute financial and technical resources? Whose behaviour has to change for the effort to succeed?

16 Users First Citizens Businesses Non-profits Government Employees
Foreigners Marginalized Groups The most important stakeholders of an e-governance portal are the users. The users must be consulted widely and regularly as needs change; and do not forget to involve the marginalized groups. By consulting with these users, there is a higher chance of e-governance uptake and use of the e-governance portal.

17 Modes of Stakeholder Consultation
Roundtable meetings Focus group discussions Training workshops Formation of working groups and consultative committees Various online consultation and exchanges

18 Promote Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships
e-Consultation – better strategies Resources sharing (finance, skills and innovation) e-Participation – citizens and businesses as co-producers of content and applications Transparency and accountability – build trust Sustainable programmes – promote ownership and commitment for action

19 National e-Governance Strategy and Plan of Action 2012-2015

20 Vision Harness ICT tools to improve basic services to all and to promote all-round good governance, including increased public participation, better social equity and justice as well as a general enhancement of the transparency and effectiveness of public institutions in order to build the necessary platform for a competitive, robust and knowledge-based economy.

21 5 Strategic Goals Strengthen the interaction between citizens and the state to enhance participation of civil society in public affairs and promote social inclusion Disseminate and promote the new e-Governance services within the province so that all citizens have access to them on an equal opportunity standing Increase the capabilities and responsiveness of public institutions through the use of ICTs to achieve better governance and to enhance efficiency, transparency and accountability Contribute to the development of a favorable environment for sound economic growth Foster the development of a knowledge based society and bridging the digital divide

22 10 Criticial Components Awareness Raising and Communication
Human Capacity and Resources Government Interoperability, Standards and Applications Organizational and Cultural Change Regulatory Framework Telecommunications Infrastructure Financial Resource Management Monitoring, Evaluation and Assessments Connecting Services and Citizen Data and Information Systems Content management and portal management cut across these ten components. For example, citizens need to be aware of the e-services and have the skills to use them. An e-government portal requires a common and integrated architecture framework that allows different ministries, departments and local authorities to share and exchange data. And a monitoring and evaluation system needs to be in place to assess citizen satisfaction and changing needs.

23 Key Themes To improve interactions with citizens
Enable citizens to participate in decision-making Promote transparency and accountability One-stop shop portal envisioned “Services will be groups into topics or life events” “Use everyday language of citizens” Ensure all citizens have access to services Create community service centres (CSCs) Link CSCs with implementation of e-services Address local issues and priorities

24 Action Points Qualify the community centres in the governorates
Develop a framework for the use and dissemination of information through mobile phone Coordinate with other ministries to qualify the enquiry offices in the service ministries Conduct customer satisfaction questionnaire

25 Action Points Identify parameters of governorate e-strategies and the role that they will do to deliver services to citizens Adopt open data policy Develop a mechanism to identify and involve other institutions and help them to develop and increase their available e-services and update their data In addition, a number of studies, standards, policies and plans are proposed

26 Sectoral e-Strategies & Roadmaps
Guide development of content and services of the different sectors Selected sectors are linked with priorities given in the framework of the Public Sector Modernization Programme Includes: e-Health e-Education e-Municipal works e-Citizens’ personnel records

27 Local Framework & Action Plan
Basis for planning content management and portal management at the local level Missan and Ninawa have been selected to pilot the development of e-local governance strategies and road maps List of priorities identified for: G2C services G2G services Any portal management and content management initiatives should be aligned with the National e-Governance Strategy. These priorities are important in determining the schedule for the type of content that will be made available on the e-governance portal.

28 Exercise Study the National e-Governance Strategy
Form groups of 4 to 6 people and choose a priority area or action point for discussion. Answer these questions: What are the steps that need to be taken to address the priority area or action point Who will be involved What are the factors that will determine the success of the initiative? Summarize discussion on a flip chart for presentation

29 GIF & NEA

30 Interoperability The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged

31 Benefits to Administrations
Helps them to do their jobs better, more efficiently, and fulfil their obligations faster at lower cost Speeds up the development of public services and supporting systems Better decision-making, allowing data collected by different agencies to be aggregated, and serve as inputs to better, more informed decisions Allows for better coordination of government services resulting in higher added value to citizens and businesses

32 Benefits to Citizens Interoperability is the foundation of citizen-centric delivery of one-stop-shop services through a variety of channels Enabling the streamlining and simplification of e-government services offered to them (e.g. via integrated/single window-type applications) The seamless flow of information across government and between government and citizens/businesses increases transparency and accountability

33 e-Government Interoperability
Adoption of standards (in a GIF) Architecture (in a NEA)

34 GIF A set of standards and policies that a government uses to specify the preferred way that its organizations, citizens and partners should interact with each other Business process or organizational interoperability Technical interoperability Information or semantic interoperability

35 NEA A strategic planning framework that relates and aligns ICT with the governmental functions that it supports Provides a common framework that ensures general coherence between public sector ICT systems at the same time as the systems are optimized in terms of local needs

36 Open Standards GIFs/NEAs are often based on open standards
Easy accessibility for all to read and use Developed by a process that is open and relatively easy for anyone to participate in No control or tie-in by any specific group or vendor

37 Iraqi GIF/NEA Technical standards – 4 categories
Semantic interoperability

38 Iraqi GIF/NEA – Technical Standards
1. Interconnection/Network – to enable all government departments and employees to communicate with each other using a set of standard protocols and software e.g. HTTP, SOAP, SMTP/MIME, POP3, IMAP, LDAP, TCP, IPv4 / IPv6, IEEE , and more

39 Iraqi GIF/NEA – Technical Standards
2. Data Integration – the protocols and standards to allow the recognition, input and output of data e.g. UTF-16, XML, XSL, RDF, UML, and more

40 Iraqi GIF/NEA – Technical Standards
3. Access and Presentation Access - ensure that content is accessible to citizens with impairments to vision, hearing, speech and mobility Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), version 2.0 Presentation – the format of content for presentation for multiple devices (including websites and mobile phones), and for interchange between ministries, departments and directorates as well as third parties e.g. HTML, XHTML, WML, ODF, OOXML, PDF, CSV, JPEG, MPEG, and more

41 Iraqi GIF/NEA – Technical Standards
4. Security – lists open standards used to secure information stored and transferred on a government network e,g, ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 24762, TLS, S/MIME, WS-I Basic Security Profile and more

42 Semantic Interoperability
Ensures that the precise meaning of exchanged information is understandable by any person or application receiving the data This is accomplished by adding metadata

43 Metadata Used for Can be applied to Finding digital content
Managing digital content Can be applied to Text Images Sound Videos Services

44 Metadata – Dublin Core Example
Title=“APDIP e-Note 5 – Building Online Communities of Practice: The International Open Source Network Model” Creator=“Apikul, Christine” Subject=“Community of Practice Subject=“Open Source” Description=“Discusses the approaches, tools and technologies used by the International Open Source Network to build a participatory, sustainable and ever-expanding community of practice around issues related to free/open source software, open content and open standards.” Publisher=“United Nations Development Programme” Date=“2005" Type= “Text” Format=“application/pdf” Identifier=“http://www.unapcict.org/ecohub/resources/apdip-e-note building-online-communities-of” Language=”en” The Dublin Core is an international standard for metadata in electronic documents, with a basic set of elements for cataloguing. Named after Dublin, Ohio, where it originated.

45 Iraqi GIF Semantic Standards
ISO/IEC Metadata Registry Standard for cataloging and harmonizing data across organizations. Simple Dublin Core Standard for describing Web-based documents Open Archives Initiative – Protocol for Metadata Harvesting Standard for repository interoperability Iraqi e-Government Metadata Standards – based on Law No , amended in 2001

46 Exercise In Iraq, the National e-Governance Strategy and GIF/NEA are key guiding documents for the management of portals and contents From your experience, what other policies, strategies, mechanisms, structures need to be in place to ensure that a whole-of-government, multichannel and citizen-centric e-governance portal can be successfully achieved? What are their statuses? Discussions in small groups will be followed by a plenary session

47 A Framework for Portal Management

48 Strategic Framework for Portal Management

49 Back-end

50 Implementation Approach/Strategy
Portal development as a project Put in place project management processes Set up project management unit Emphasize continuous improvement Manage knowledge Regular monitoring and evaluation involving users Key outputs to guide implementation Project Management Guidelines Knowledge Management / Sharing System

51 Governance A framework for decision rights and accountabilities
Governance model and leadership that is concerned with the authority or decision rights of e-government portals User adoption strategy that is concerned with devising strategies to increase the adoption of e-government portals by users, such as branding and promotion

52 Governance Model & Leadership
Identify roles and relationships needed for policy-setting, control and monitoring the use of the e-governance portal For decisions related to the technology used to develop the portal (ICT governance) For decisions related to the content that goes into the portal (content, workflow, metadata governance) Require strong and influential executive leadership Committees are set up to oversee the governance aspects across business functions

53 Saudi Arabia’s Yesser Governance Structure
Supreme Supervisory Committee Yesser Steering Committee E-Government Program Directorate Project Managers

54 User Adoption Strategy
Branding – create portal identify Promotion – “Voice” of the brand to inform, remind and persuade target users Incentives Communication – throughout portal development process and after

55 Governance Key outputs to guide governance ICT Governance Framework
Content Governance Framework Branding and Communication Strategies

56 IT Strategy IT infrastructure IT architecture

57 IT Infrastructure A combined set of hardware, software, networks, facilities, etc., in order to develop, test, deliver, monitor, control or support IT services

58 IT Infrastructure Computer Hardware Operating Systems
Enterprise Software Applications Data Management & Storage Networking/Telecommunications Internet Platforms Consulting and System Integration Services

59 IT Architecture Links IT decision-making and investments with the organization’s business strategy Establishes and defines a consistent, agreed-to process for decision makers to follow in the form of documented procedures, methods, standards, protocols and infrastructure

60 IT Architecture Layers
Access and Presentation Application Data Integration Infrastructure Security Operations

61 General Principles for IT Decisions
Take long-term, high-level view and observe trends Adhere to open standards Adopt stable rather than cutting-edge technologies Adopt appropriate and sustainable technologies

62 Shared Services A common infrastructure and technology services used by all operating agencies, and for which a central organization plays the primary role in management Includes: Administrative business systems (HR, accounting, logistics, finance System software (operating systems, database management systems) Hardware (servers and network equipment) Communication services to connect with users (bulk s, SMS service and cell broadcasting) One of the most challenging aspects of e-governance is the integration of information systems in a way that different agencies suitably interact with each other by sharing activities, processes and services. Shared services is a business approach and an ICT architecture designed to allow agencies to share key parts of their infrastructure, applications and business processes within their own organization, with other agencies and with the general public.

63 Share Services Offered by the Government of Dubai for e-Governance:
Electronic payment services (ePay) Mobile messaging services (mDubai) Electronic suveys (eSurvey) Cross-government information exchange (SYNC) Statistics on e-services (GESS) Hosting portal services (eHost) Multi-channel contact centres (AskDubai)

64 Questions What shared services among government agencies are provided in your country? Which shared services should be given priority? Why?

65 Information Strategy A key back-end attribute that decides what information is published and how it is published on an e-governance portal Information architecture Information (content) management

66 Information Architecture
Focuses on: The structure and organization of content Navigation – so that users can browse and move around from page to page with ease Findability – so that users can search for what they want with ease Categorization and description of content Presentation, labeling and layout of content

67 Content Development and Management
Create Update Publish Translate Archive Retire Focuses on: Content purposes and contexts Content topics and types Content delivery channels Roles and responsibilities for different components of the content life cycle Content work flow There are many versions of the content life cycle. Recognizing a content lifecycle means recognizing that the process of creating and publishing content follows a predefined repeatable process with activities and decisions assigned throughout the cycle. The success of a lifecycle is directly related to the effort put into planning the content strategy that creates the blueprint by which designers, writers and developers can build a successful model for creating and delivering content. Content Life Cycle

68 Front-end

69 Service Delivery Availability – the types, levels and number of services offered via an e-governance portal Accessibility – the ease of attaining information and services offered through an e-governance portal This includes considerations for the disabled and the elderly Key outputs to guide service delivery e-Governance Strategy Accessibility Guidelines

70 Accessibility No citizen should be left behind: citizens of differing abilities (or "disabilities") should be accommodated, according to their needs Design Web interfaces according to standardized web accessibility guidelines ensuring access for disabled persons Prepare multimedia (audio, video, etc.) data to be understood in alternative ways

71 Accessibility Use a language and vocabulary that can be understood by the average/typical user Provide multi-language access Provide access to e-governance services and information through multiple channels to enable wider reach

72 Customer Orientation Segmentation enables managers to target information and services towards specific groups of people. It is an important attribute for ensuring increased use of an e-government portal By beneficiary By department/sector By life events

73 Customer Support Automated help and support – FAQs, sitemap
Human-intervened help and support – , chat, phone

74 Customer Orientation Key outputs to guide customer orientation
Customer Charter e-Participation Strategy

75 Usability The degree of ease with which citizens are able to use an e-governance portal Related to: Efficiency – accuracy and completeness with which users can achieve specific goals Design – graphics, layout, colours, multimedia and other features Key outputs to guide usability Website/Portal Development and Design Guidelines

76 Trustworthiness Transparency is a characteristic of governments, companies, organizations and individuals that are open in the clear disclosure of information, rules, plans, processes and actions. Accountability means ensuring that officials in public, private and voluntary sector organizations are answerable for their actions and that there is redress when duties and commitments are not met. Transparency and accountability need each other and can be mutually reinforcing. Together they enable citizens to have a say about issues that matter to them and a  chance to influence decision-making and hold those making decisions to account. Each concept is part of a strategy used for and by citizens to have the means, resources and opportunities to influence decision-making and affect development outcomes. Source:

77 Trustworthiness Information security is the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. It is the practice of ensuring that the information being stored is safe from unauthorized access and use, ensuring that the data is reliable and accurate and that it is available for use when it is needed Privacy is the appropriate use of information. This means that organizations should use the information provided to them only for the intended purpose The more things are interconnected, the broader and more serious is the potential impact of security threats. Protection against these threats is critical in building citizens’ trust. Privacy breaches can shatter public trust in e-governance. Online privacy issues are major concerns for citizens. They include spam, unauthorized tracking and data collection, and sharing of information with third parties. Generally, there must also be a strong emphasis on a legal framework that embodies elements of trustworthiness, traceability, security and privacy of citizens’ data.

78 Security Installing firewalls, anti-virus software, and intrusion detection systems Deploying strong cryptographic protection of sensitive data Undertaking constant training of personnel Maintaining network surveillance and security monitoring Conducting testing and ethical hacking Establishing an incident response and recovery capability, including back-ups and alternate site operations if appropriate As security must be implemented to ensure privacy, let’s look at some security measures.

79 Trustworthiness Key output to guide trustworthiness
Human Rights Charter Open Data Policy Information Security Policy Privacy Policy

80 Exercise: Linkages For example: Users need to be able to access the site before it can be used Users need to trust the site before it is used A robust IT infrastructure is needed to ensure availability of e-governance services A content strategy is needed to ensure that content is relevant to users A sound governance model and strong leadership contributes to successful implementation In pairs, explore how the different components of the framework are interlinked

81 Portal: The Window to e-Government Services (Source: Smart Cube)
Portal management involves the complex undertaking of managing the national e-governance portal and its linkages.

82 Portal Management System
National Level Ministry websites that offer information and services on a particular sector or sectors (e.g. agriculture, education, health, employment) e-Services (that may require the involvement of more than one ministries at the back-end) (e.g. e-registration, e-payment, e-procurement)

83 Portal Management System
Local Level Local government websites for different governorates, and even districts or communities (managed by the community service centres) e-Governance portals for the different governorates or communities that aggregate information and services

84 Exercise In groups of 4-6 people, take stock of the different websites and portals currently available and planned in Iraq. Discuss how they link together as part of the national e-governance portal system Creatively draw a diagram showing the linkages of the IT components in the e-governance portal system Draw another diagram showing the linkages of the content components After the exercise, the diagrams are taped to the walls. Participants in their same group can then do a “gallery walk” to view these diagram and take note of how they are similar or dissimilar to the ones s/he drew This is followed by a plenary to discuss the diagrams

85 Monitoring and Evaluation

86 Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring is an ongoing analysis of project progress towards achieving planned results for the purpose of improving management decision-making Evaluation focuses on the efficiency, effectiveness, impact, relevance and sustainability of the strategies and actions The mechanism for regular monitoring of progress and independent evaluation should be planned from the very beginning.

87 Why Evaluate? To know if an intervention succeeded or failed to achieve its objectives To determine whether the intervention is likely to meet the needs of all stakeholders To establish that an intervention is financially and socially sustainable in the long run To establish whether investment in a solution is worth the expenditure To assess whether the solution is scalable, replicable or produces best practices that can serve as normative standards

88 Evaluation Characteristics
Impartial and independent of the programming and implementation of the project Credible – The evaluation is conducted by appropriately skilled and independent experts, and transparency is observed, for example through the wide dissemination of results Encourages the participation of stakeholders in the evaluation process to ensure that different perspectives and views are taken into account Ensures that findings and recommendations are useful through timely presentation of relevant, clear and concise information to decision makers

89 M&E Cycle Citizen Centric Planning Using the findings Monitoring
Evaluation Using the findings As the national e-governance strategy emphasizes a citizen-centric approach, It is important to regularly monitor and analyse citizens’ feedback to highlight weaknesses and then use it in performance management, decision-making and strategic planning to drive improvements in service delivery. Tools for monitoring and evaluating e-governance portals and websites are discussed in Module 3.

90 Funding Options

91 Funding Options Central funding – Appropriate for initiatives relating to general values (standards/interoperability, openness, transparency, democracy) and value-added services (e.g., security, identification, search) Ministry-level financing through normal budget allocation processes – Best for projects aimed at service process redesign and capacity building Budget guidelines or requirements – Central government mandates to ministries and departments to allocate a certain percentage of their budgets to e-governance

92 Funding Options Budget offsets through cost saving brought on by greater efficiency – Assuming that the computerization of manual processes can save money, it can free up resources that can be reallocated and used to fund additional e-governance projects Governments can finance e-governance projects by issuing bonds on either the domestic or international capital markets, with the interest on the bonds to be paid for by proceeds from the project or from general tax revenues For many developing countries, foreign assistance (ODA or “official development assistance”) is an important source of funding for e-governance projects

93 Private and Non-Gov Sector
A contracted supplier for specific products and service elements Outsourcing of services (e.g., community service access point, or IT help desk) A partner in the development and/or management of an e-governance service or capability

94 Public-Private Partnerships Models
Design-Build-Finance-Operate (DBFO) Build-Own-Operate (BOO) Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Build-Own-Operate and Transfer (BOOT)

95 Principles for PPPs Risk transfer – Define the allocation of risk around the services to be delivered Specification of outputs – Detail service outputs rather than the configuration of capital assets or input resources Whole-of-life asset performance – The contract should demonstrate the private partner’s obligation to ensure the performance of assets for a significant duration of their useful life

96 Principles for PPPs Performance-related reward related to –
Output and availability Limited or no guarantees for payments Penalty for poor performance Termination arrangements – The period of the partnership should be specified, along with arrangements for the disposal of assets at the end of the specified period

97 Summary

98 Summary A set of strategies, policies and frameworks are essential to help guide the content management and portal management processes to achieve development goals and increase the likelihood of success A strategic approach to content management and portal management involves: Reviewing existing policies and plans Balancing choice and flexibility with fairness and common good Focusing on development outcomes Consulting and engaging with stakeholders Promoting multi-stakeholder partnerships

99 Summary National e-Governance Strategy and Action Plan
Improve interactions with citizens Enable citizens to participate in decision-making processes Promote accountability and transparency Implement one-stop shop portal Ensure all citizens have access to e-services

100 Summary Iraqi GIF/NEA GIF addresses technical and semantic interoperability policies and specifications NEA helps connect public administration information systems across Iraq and facilitates the interoperability of e-services for citizens Based on open standards

101 Summary Portal management framework Back-Office Aspects
Implementation Approach / Strategy Governance IT Strategy Information Strategy Front Office Aspects Service Delivery Customer Orientation Usability Trustworthiness

102 Summary Establish monitoring and evaluation mechanism and involve citizens in the process Consolidate funding mechanism to ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of the portal management system Keep in mind the complexity of the portal management system that requires close collaboration at national and local levels

103 Summary National level For ministries and local government departments
Vision, national strategy, infrastructure, standards and procedures for e-governance For ministries and local government departments Consider the infrastructure, standards and procedures Opportunities and constraints Local context Areas of collaboration Develop own vision and roadmap

104 What Next? Action Planning
Some questions that need to be discussed and agreed upon and documented in an action plan prior to the actual implementation: What information the portal or website will contain How will it be organized Who will be involved in designing or revamping the website Who will be involved in producing content for the website How do we ensure that the content is of good quality and is relevant to the users


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