2Module 2 ObjectivesIntroduce a strategic approach to content management and portal managementProvide an overview of the national e-governance strategy in IraqExplain the Iraqi government interoperability framework and national enterprise architecture for content management and portal management
3Module 2 ObjectivesDiscuss a comprehensive framework for portal development and managementHighlight the development of a monitoring and evaluation framework to measure progress and performanceExplore the different funding options for content management and portal management, including public-private partnerships
5What is a Strategy A strategy includes: Analyses of needs, opportunities and risksA vision and goals that integrate the needs of the stakeholdersMechanisms that need to be in place for implementation and supervision, as well as monitoring and evaluation
7Case Study: m-Governance Strategy in the Republic of Korea By 2011, more than 160 mobile applications covering internal processes, access to information and public service delivery.Problems arose because the applications lacked a common framework, resulting in:Redundant development of productsMismatch of technical standards across ministries and agenciesLack of a clear direction for budget priorities around m-governance services
8Case Study: m-Governance Strategy in the Republic of Korea In 2011, five-year m-governance strategy launched, focusing on both internal processes and public services.It establishes a common framework for developing simple mobile websites and mobile applicationsIt sets priorities ranging from security to quality assurance and authentication, to the establishment of a mobile common data management systemIt provides a detailed guide to the user interfaces and experiences with mobile government websites
9A Strategic Approach Review existing policies and plans Focus on development outcomesBalance choice and flexibility with fairness and common goodUsers first – Consult and engage with themPromote multi-stakeholder partnerships
10Focus on Development Outcomes What is it?The actual improvements in people’s social and economic conditionsWhy?To drive enterprise-wide cultural change and break down service silosCollaborate around shared outcome targetsChallenge entrenched working practices, organizational boundaries and corporate values
11Focus on Development Outcomes Example: In school systemThe number of teaching hours per student – InputThe quality of the curriculum – ProcessThe average exam results of students – Output/ResultStudents go on to further education or employment – Outcome
12Development Outcome: Questions What are the development outcomes for an e-governance portal projectHow can these outcomes be measured?
13Balance Choice with Common Good Be inclusiveReach out to marginalized communitiesGet marginalized communities involvedConsider bandwidthConsider access to technologyConsider literacy levelsThe advancement in ICT risk leaving some people behind—those who are not computer literate and those without access to a broadband connection or a PC—widening the digital divide. As more services and information move online, the challenge will become increasingly acute. It is important to ensure that those who have the greatest need receive the most help and those who are most able to help themselves have the opportunities and means to do so.
14Consult and Engage with Stakeholders Who are the stakeholders?Who might be affected (positively or negatively) by the development concern to be addressed?Who are the voiceless for whom special efforts may have to be made?Who are the representatives of those likely to be affected?Who is responsible for what is intended?The distinguishing characteristic of the whole-of-government approach is that government ministries, departments and directorates share objectives across organizational boundaries, as opposed to working solely within an organization. A strategic approach emphasizes consensus building so that all stakeholders agree upon the future direction and the priorities for content management and portal management.
15Who are the Stakeholders? Who is likely to mobilize for or against what is intended?Who can make what is intended more effective through their participation or less effective by their non-participation or outright opposition?Who can contribute financial and technical resources?Whose behaviour has to change for the effort to succeed?
16Users First Citizens Businesses Non-profits Government Employees ForeignersMarginalized GroupsThe most important stakeholders of an e-governance portal are the users. The users must be consulted widely and regularly as needs change; and do not forget to involve the marginalized groups. By consulting with these users, there is a higher chance of e-governance uptake and use of the e-governance portal.
17Modes of Stakeholder Consultation Roundtable meetingsFocus group discussionsTraining workshopsFormation of working groups and consultative committeesVarious online consultation and exchanges
18Promote Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships e-Consultation – better strategiesResources sharing (finance, skills and innovation)e-Participation – citizens and businesses as co-producers of content and applicationsTransparency and accountability – build trustSustainable programmes – promote ownership and commitment for action
19National e-Governance Strategy and Plan of Action 2012-2015
20VisionHarness ICT tools to improve basic services to all and to promote all-round good governance, including increased public participation, better social equity and justice as well as a general enhancement of the transparency and effectiveness of public institutions in order to build the necessary platform for a competitive, robust and knowledge-based economy.
215 Strategic GoalsStrengthen the interaction between citizens and the state to enhance participation of civil society in public affairs and promote social inclusionDisseminate and promote the new e-Governance services within the province so that all citizens have access to them on an equal opportunity standingIncrease the capabilities and responsiveness of public institutions through the use of ICTs to achieve better governance and to enhance efficiency, transparency and accountabilityContribute to the development of a favorable environment for sound economic growthFoster the development of a knowledge based society and bridging the digital divide
2210 Criticial Components Awareness Raising and Communication Human Capacity and ResourcesGovernment Interoperability, Standards and ApplicationsOrganizational and Cultural ChangeRegulatory FrameworkTelecommunications InfrastructureFinancial Resource ManagementMonitoring, Evaluation and AssessmentsConnecting Services and CitizenData and Information SystemsContent management and portal management cut across these ten components. For example, citizens need to be aware of the e-services and have the skills to use them. An e-government portal requires a common and integrated architecture framework that allows different ministries, departments and local authorities to share and exchange data. And a monitoring and evaluation system needs to be in place to assess citizen satisfaction and changing needs.
23Key Themes To improve interactions with citizens Enable citizens to participate in decision-makingPromote transparency and accountabilityOne-stop shop portal envisioned“Services will be groups into topics or life events”“Use everyday language of citizens”Ensure all citizens have access to servicesCreate community service centres (CSCs)Link CSCs with implementation of e-servicesAddress local issues and priorities
24Action Points Qualify the community centres in the governorates Develop a framework for the use and dissemination of information through mobile phoneCoordinate with other ministries to qualify the enquiry offices in the service ministriesConduct customer satisfaction questionnaire
25Action PointsIdentify parameters of governorate e-strategies and the role that they will do to deliver services to citizensAdopt open data policyDevelop a mechanism to identify and involve other institutions and help them to develop and increase their available e-services and update their dataIn addition, a number of studies, standards, policies and plans are proposed
26Sectoral e-Strategies & Roadmaps Guide development of content and services of the different sectorsSelected sectors are linked with priorities given in the framework of the Public Sector Modernization ProgrammeIncludes:e-Healthe-Educatione-Municipal workse-Citizens’ personnel records
27Local Framework & Action Plan Basis for planning content management and portal management at the local levelMissan and Ninawa have been selected to pilot the development of e-local governance strategies and road mapsList of priorities identified for:G2C servicesG2G servicesAny portal management and content management initiatives should be aligned with the National e-Governance Strategy.These priorities are important in determining the schedule for the type of content that will be made available on the e-governance portal.
28Exercise Study the National e-Governance Strategy Form groups of 4 to 6 people and choose a priority area or action point for discussion. Answer these questions:What are the steps that need to be taken to address the priority area or action pointWho will be involvedWhat are the factors that will determine the success of the initiative?Summarize discussion on a flip chart for presentation
30InteroperabilityThe ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged
31Benefits to Administrations Helps them to do their jobs better, more efficiently, and fulfil their obligations faster at lower costSpeeds up the development of public services and supporting systemsBetter decision-making, allowing data collected by different agencies to be aggregated, and serve as inputs to better, more informed decisionsAllows for better coordination of government services resulting in higher added value to citizens and businesses
32Benefits to CitizensInteroperability is the foundation of citizen-centric delivery of one-stop-shop services through a variety of channelsEnabling the streamlining and simplification of e-government services offered to them (e.g. via integrated/single window-type applications)The seamless flow of information across government and between government and citizens/businesses increases transparency and accountability
33e-Government Interoperability Adoption of standards (in a GIF)Architecture (in a NEA)
34GIFA set of standards and policies that a government uses to specify the preferred way that its organizations, citizens and partners should interact with each otherBusiness process or organizational interoperabilityTechnical interoperabilityInformation or semantic interoperability
35NEAA strategic planning framework that relates and aligns ICT with the governmental functions that it supportsProvides a common framework that ensures general coherence between public sector ICT systems at the same time as the systems are optimized in terms of local needs
36Open Standards GIFs/NEAs are often based on open standards Easy accessibility for all to read and useDeveloped by a process that is open and relatively easy for anyone to participate inNo control or tie-in by any specific group or vendor
38Iraqi GIF/NEA – Technical Standards 1. Interconnection/Network – to enable all government departments and employees to communicate with each other using a set of standard protocols and softwaree.g. HTTP, SOAP, SMTP/MIME, POP3, IMAP, LDAP, TCP, IPv4 / IPv6, IEEE , and more
39Iraqi GIF/NEA – Technical Standards 2. Data Integration – the protocols and standards to allow the recognition, input and output of datae.g. UTF-16, XML, XSL, RDF, UML, and more
40Iraqi GIF/NEA – Technical Standards 3. Access and PresentationAccess - ensure that content is accessible to citizens with impairments to vision, hearing, speech and mobilityWeb Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), version 2.0Presentation – the format of content for presentation for multiple devices (including websites and mobile phones), and for interchange between ministries, departments and directorates as well as third partiese.g. HTML, XHTML, WML, ODF, OOXML, PDF, CSV, JPEG, MPEG, and more
41Iraqi GIF/NEA – Technical Standards 4. Security – lists open standards used to secure information stored and transferred on a government networke,g, ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 24762, TLS, S/MIME, WS-I Basic Security Profile and more
42Semantic Interoperability Ensures that the precise meaning of exchanged information is understandable by any person or application receiving the dataThis is accomplished by adding metadata
43Metadata Used for Can be applied to Finding digital content Managing digital contentCan be applied toTextImagesSoundVideosServices
44Metadata – Dublin Core Example Title=“APDIP e-Note 5 – Building Online Communities of Practice: The International Open Source Network Model”Creator=“Apikul, Christine”Subject=“Community of PracticeSubject=“Open Source”Description=“Discusses the approaches, tools and technologies used by the International Open Source Network to build a participatory, sustainable and ever-expanding community of practice around issues related to free/open source software, open content and open standards.”Publisher=“United Nations Development Programme”Date=“2005"Type= “Text”Format=“application/pdf”Identifier=“http://www.unapcict.org/ecohub/resources/apdip-e-note building-online-communities-of”Language=”en”The Dublin Core is an international standard for metadata in electronic documents, with a basic set of elements for cataloguing. Named after Dublin, Ohio, where it originated.
45Iraqi GIF Semantic Standards ISO/IEC Metadata RegistryStandard for cataloging and harmonizing data across organizations.Simple Dublin CoreStandard for describing Web-based documentsOpen Archives Initiative – Protocol for Metadata HarvestingStandard for repository interoperabilityIraqi e-Government Metadata Standards – based on Law No , amended in 2001
46ExerciseIn Iraq, the National e-Governance Strategy and GIF/NEA are key guiding documents for the management of portals and contentsFrom your experience, what other policies, strategies, mechanisms, structures need to be in place to ensure that a whole-of-government, multichannel and citizen-centric e-governance portal can be successfully achieved?What are their statuses?Discussions in small groups will be followed by a plenary session
50Implementation Approach/Strategy Portal development as a projectPut in place project management processesSet up project management unitEmphasize continuous improvementManage knowledgeRegular monitoring and evaluation involving usersKey outputs to guide implementationProject Management GuidelinesKnowledge Management / Sharing System
51Governance A framework for decision rights and accountabilities Governance model and leadership that is concerned with the authority or decision rights of e-government portalsUser adoption strategy that is concerned with devising strategies to increase the adoption of e-government portals by users, such as branding and promotion
52Governance Model & Leadership Identify roles and relationships needed for policy-setting, control and monitoring the use of the e-governance portalFor decisions related to the technology used to develop the portal (ICT governance)For decisions related to the content that goes into the portal (content, workflow, metadata governance)Require strong and influential executive leadershipCommittees are set up to oversee the governance aspects across business functions
54User Adoption Strategy Branding – create portal identifyPromotion – “Voice” of the brand to inform, remind and persuade target usersIncentivesCommunication – throughout portal development process and after
55Governance Key outputs to guide governance ICT Governance Framework Content Governance FrameworkBranding and Communication Strategies
57IT InfrastructureA combined set of hardware, software, networks, facilities, etc., in order to develop, test, deliver, monitor, control or support IT services
58IT Infrastructure Computer Hardware Operating Systems Enterprise Software ApplicationsData Management & StorageNetworking/TelecommunicationsInternet PlatformsConsulting and System Integration Services
59IT ArchitectureLinks IT decision-making and investments with the organization’s business strategyEstablishes and defines a consistent, agreed-to process for decision makers to follow in the form of documented procedures, methods, standards, protocols and infrastructure
60IT Architecture Layers Access and PresentationApplicationDataIntegrationInfrastructureSecurityOperations
61General Principles for IT Decisions Take long-term, high-level view and observe trendsAdhere to open standardsAdopt stable rather than cutting-edge technologiesAdopt appropriate and sustainable technologies
62Shared ServicesA common infrastructure and technology services used by all operating agencies, and for which a central organization plays the primary role in managementIncludes:Administrative business systems (HR, accounting, logistics, financeSystem software (operating systems, database management systems)Hardware (servers and network equipment)Communication services to connect with users (bulk s, SMS service and cell broadcasting)One of the most challenging aspects of e-governance is the integration of information systems in a way that different agencies suitably interact with each other by sharing activities, processes and services.Shared services is a business approach and an ICT architecture designed to allow agencies to share key parts of their infrastructure, applications and business processes within their own organization, with other agencies and with the general public.
63Share Services Offered by the Government of Dubai for e-Governance: Electronic payment services (ePay)Mobile messaging services (mDubai)Electronic suveys (eSurvey)Cross-government information exchange (SYNC)Statistics on e-services (GESS)Hosting portal services (eHost)Multi-channel contact centres (AskDubai)
64QuestionsWhat shared services among government agencies are provided in your country?Which shared services should be given priority? Why?
65Information StrategyA key back-end attribute that decides what information is published and how it is published on an e-governance portalInformation architectureInformation (content) management
66Information Architecture Focuses on:The structure and organization of contentNavigation – so that users can browse and move around from page to page with easeFindability – so that users can search for what they want with easeCategorization and description of contentPresentation, labeling and layout of content
67Content Development and Management CreateUpdatePublishTranslateArchiveRetireFocuses on:Content purposes and contextsContent topics and typesContent delivery channelsRoles and responsibilities for different components of the content life cycleContent work flowThere are many versions of the content life cycle. Recognizing a content lifecycle means recognizing that the process of creating and publishing content follows a predefined repeatable process with activities and decisions assigned throughout the cycle.The success of a lifecycle is directly related to the effort put into planning the content strategy that creates the blueprint by which designers, writers and developers can build a successful model for creating and delivering content.Content Life Cycle
69Service DeliveryAvailability – the types, levels and number of services offered via an e-governance portalAccessibility – the ease of attaining information and services offered through an e-governance portalThis includes considerations for the disabled and the elderlyKey outputs to guide service deliverye-Governance StrategyAccessibility Guidelines
70AccessibilityNo citizen should be left behind: citizens of differing abilities (or "disabilities") should be accommodated, according to their needsDesign Web interfaces according to standardized web accessibility guidelines ensuring access for disabled personsPrepare multimedia (audio, video, etc.) data to be understood in alternative ways
71AccessibilityUse a language and vocabulary that can be understood by the average/typical userProvide multi-language accessProvide access to e-governance services and information through multiple channels to enable wider reach
72Customer OrientationSegmentation enables managers to target information and services towards specific groups of people. It is an important attribute for ensuring increased use of an e-government portalBy beneficiaryBy department/sectorBy life events
73Customer Support Automated help and support – FAQs, sitemap Human-intervened help and support – , chat, phone
75UsabilityThe degree of ease with which citizens are able to use an e-governance portalRelated to:Efficiency – accuracy and completeness with which users can achieve specific goalsDesign – graphics, layout, colours, multimedia and other featuresKey outputs to guide usabilityWebsite/Portal Development and Design Guidelines
76TrustworthinessTransparency is a characteristic of governments, companies, organizations and individuals that are open in the clear disclosure of information, rules, plans, processes and actions.Accountability means ensuring that officials in public, private and voluntary sector organizations are answerable for their actions and that there is redress when duties and commitments are not met.Transparency and accountability need each other and can be mutually reinforcing. Together they enable citizens to have a say about issues that matter to them and a chance to influence decision-making and hold those making decisions to account.Each concept is part of a strategy used for and by citizens to have the means, resources and opportunities to influence decision-making and affect development outcomes.Source:
77TrustworthinessInformation security is the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. It is the practice of ensuring that the information being stored is safe from unauthorized access and use, ensuring that the data is reliable and accurate and that it is available for use when it is neededPrivacy is the appropriate use of information. This means that organizations should use the information provided to them only for the intended purposeThe more things are interconnected, the broader and more serious is the potential impact of security threats. Protection against these threats is critical in building citizens’ trust.Privacy breaches can shatter public trust in e-governance. Online privacy issues are major concerns for citizens. They include spam, unauthorized tracking and data collection, and sharing of information with third parties.Generally, there must also be a strong emphasis on a legal framework that embodies elements of trustworthiness, traceability, security and privacy of citizens’ data.
78SecurityInstalling firewalls, anti-virus software, and intrusion detection systemsDeploying strong cryptographic protection of sensitive dataUndertaking constant training of personnelMaintaining network surveillance and security monitoringConducting testing and ethical hackingEstablishing an incident response and recovery capability, including back-ups and alternate site operations if appropriateAs security must be implemented to ensure privacy, let’s look at some security measures.
80Exercise: LinkagesFor example:Users need to be able to access the site before it can be usedUsers need to trust the site before it is usedA robust IT infrastructure is needed to ensure availability of e-governance servicesA content strategy is needed to ensure that content is relevant to usersA sound governance model and strong leadership contributes to successful implementationIn pairs, explore how the different components of the framework are interlinked
81Portal: The Window to e-Government Services (Source: Smart Cube) Portal management involves the complex undertaking of managing the national e-governance portal and its linkages.
82Portal Management System National LevelMinistry websites that offer information and services on a particular sector or sectors (e.g. agriculture, education, health, employment)e-Services (that may require the involvement of more than one ministries at the back-end) (e.g. e-registration, e-payment, e-procurement)
83Portal Management System Local LevelLocal government websites for different governorates, and even districts or communities (managed by the community service centres)e-Governance portals for the different governorates or communities that aggregate information and services
84ExerciseIn groups of 4-6 people, take stock of the different websites and portals currently available and planned in Iraq. Discuss how they link together as part of the national e-governance portal systemCreatively draw a diagram showing the linkages of the IT components in the e-governance portal systemDraw another diagram showing the linkages of the content componentsAfter the exercise, the diagrams are taped to the walls. Participants in their same group can then do a “gallery walk” to view these diagram and take note of how they are similar or dissimilar to the ones s/he drewThis is followed by a plenary to discuss the diagrams
86Monitoring and Evaluation Monitoring is an ongoing analysis of project progress towards achieving planned results for the purpose of improving management decision-makingEvaluation focuses on the efficiency, effectiveness, impact, relevance and sustainability of the strategies and actionsThe mechanism for regular monitoring of progress and independent evaluation should be planned from the very beginning.
87Why Evaluate?To know if an intervention succeeded or failed to achieve its objectivesTo determine whether the intervention is likely to meet the needs of all stakeholdersTo establish that an intervention is financially and socially sustainable in the long runTo establish whether investment in a solution is worth the expenditureTo assess whether the solution is scalable, replicable or produces best practices that can serve as normative standards
88Evaluation Characteristics Impartial and independent of the programming and implementation of the projectCredible – The evaluation is conducted by appropriately skilled and independent experts, and transparency is observed, for example through the wide dissemination of resultsEncourages the participation of stakeholders in the evaluation process to ensure that different perspectives and views are taken into accountEnsures that findings and recommendations are useful through timely presentation of relevant, clear and concise information to decision makers
89M&E Cycle Citizen Centric Planning Using the findings Monitoring EvaluationUsing the findingsAs the national e-governance strategy emphasizes a citizen-centric approach, It is important to regularly monitor and analyse citizens’ feedback to highlight weaknesses and then use it in performance management, decision-making and strategic planning to drive improvements in service delivery.Tools for monitoring and evaluating e-governance portals and websites are discussed in Module 3.
91Funding OptionsCentral funding – Appropriate for initiatives relating to general values (standards/interoperability, openness, transparency, democracy) and value-added services (e.g., security, identification, search)Ministry-level financing through normal budget allocation processes – Best for projects aimed at service process redesign and capacity buildingBudget guidelines or requirements – Central government mandates to ministries and departments to allocate a certain percentage of their budgets to e-governance
92Funding OptionsBudget offsets through cost saving brought on by greater efficiency – Assuming that the computerization of manual processes can save money, it can free up resources that can be reallocated and used to fund additional e-governance projectsGovernments can finance e-governance projects by issuing bonds on either the domestic or international capital markets, with the interest on the bonds to be paid for by proceeds from the project or from general tax revenuesFor many developing countries, foreign assistance (ODA or “official development assistance”) is an important source of funding for e-governance projects
93Private and Non-Gov Sector A contracted supplier for specific products and service elementsOutsourcing of services (e.g., community service access point, or IT help desk)A partner in the development and/or management of an e-governance service or capability
94Public-Private Partnerships Models Design-Build-Finance-Operate (DBFO)Build-Own-Operate (BOO)Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT)Build-Own-Operate and Transfer (BOOT)
95Principles for PPPsRisk transfer – Define the allocation of risk around the services to be deliveredSpecification of outputs – Detail service outputs rather than the configuration of capital assets or input resourcesWhole-of-life asset performance – The contract should demonstrate the private partner’s obligation to ensure the performance of assets for a significant duration of their useful life
96Principles for PPPs Performance-related reward related to – Output and availabilityLimited or no guarantees for paymentsPenalty for poor performanceTermination arrangements – The period of the partnership should be specified, along with arrangements for the disposal of assets at the end of the specified period
98SummaryA set of strategies, policies and frameworks are essential to help guide the content management and portal management processes to achieve development goals and increase the likelihood of successA strategic approach to content management and portal management involves:Reviewing existing policies and plansBalancing choice and flexibility with fairness and common goodFocusing on development outcomesConsulting and engaging with stakeholdersPromoting multi-stakeholder partnerships
99Summary National e-Governance Strategy and Action Plan Improve interactions with citizensEnable citizens to participate in decision-making processesPromote accountability and transparencyImplement one-stop shop portalEnsure all citizens have access to e-services
100SummaryIraqi GIF/NEAGIF addresses technical and semantic interoperability policies and specificationsNEA helps connect public administration information systems across Iraq and facilitates the interoperability of e-services for citizensBased on open standards
102SummaryEstablish monitoring and evaluation mechanism and involve citizens in the processConsolidate funding mechanism to ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of the portal management systemKeep in mind the complexity of the portal management system that requires close collaboration at national and local levels
103Summary National level For ministries and local government departments Vision, national strategy, infrastructure, standards and procedures for e-governanceFor ministries and local government departmentsConsider the infrastructure, standards and proceduresOpportunities and constraintsLocal contextAreas of collaborationDevelop own vision and roadmap
104What Next? Action Planning Some questions that need to be discussed and agreed upon and documented in an action plan prior to the actual implementation:What information the portal or website will containHow will it be organizedWho will be involved in designing or revamping the websiteWho will be involved in producing content for the websiteHow do we ensure that the content is of good quality and is relevant to the users