Presentation on theme: "Contents Ⅰ. Disaster countermeasures and Great East Japan disaster"— Presentation transcript:
0Disaster and ICT Systems in Japan December 2012Michiko FukahoriMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsJapan
1Contents Ⅰ. Disaster countermeasures and Great East Japan disaster Ⅱ. ICT systems which was effective in disaster situationⅡ-1. Disaster Warning SystemⅡ-2. Communications SystemⅡ-3. Information SharingTVMobile TVRadioData BroadcastingInternetⅡ-4. Research and Development - for the future
2Ⅰ. Disaster countermeasures and Great East Japan disaster
3Outline of the Disaster Management System [National Level]Prime Minster|Central Disaster Management CouncilDesignated Government OrganizationsDesignated Public CorporationsFormulation and promoting implementation of the Basic Disaster Management PlansFormulation and promoting implementation of the Basic Disaster Operation Plans[Prefectural Level]Governor|Prefectural Disaster Management CouncilDesignated Local Government OrganizationsDesignated Local Public CorporationsFormulation and promoting implementation of Local Disaster Management Plans[Municipal Level]Mayors of Cities, Towns and Villages|Municipal Disaster Management CouncilFormulation and promoting implementation of Local Disaster Management Plans出典：内閣府『日本の災害対策』[Residents level]Designated Government Organizations24 ministries and agenciesDesignated Public Corporations56 organizations including independent administrative agencies, Bank of Japan and gas companies and NTTSource: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.8
4Organization of National Government Central Disaster Management Council PresidentPrime MinisterMinister of State for Disaster ManagementMinistersChief Cabinet SecretaryCabinet Secretariat in charge of security and risk management出典：内閣府『日本の災害対策』Ministries related to disaster managementDisaster management, Cabinet OfficeInteract with each otherSource: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.9
5Structure of Basic Disaster Management Plan Natural DisastersEarthquake Disaster CountermeasuresStorm and Flood CountermeasuresVolcano Disaster CountermeasuresSnow Disaster CountermeasuresAccident DisasterMaritime Disaster CountermeasuresAviation Disaster CountermeasuresRailroad Disaster CountermeasuresRoad Disaster CountermeasuresNuclear Disaster CountermeasuresHazardous Materials Disaster CountermeasuresLarge-scale FireDisaster CountermeasuresForest Fire Disaster Countermeasures(Addressing all the disaster phases)Disaster Prevention and Preparedness出典：内閣府『日本の災害対策』Disaster Emergency ResponseDisaster Recovery and Rehabilitation(Tangible countermeasures to be taken by each stakeholder)National GovernmentLocal GovernmentsResidentsSource: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.11
6The number of victims (deaths and missing) of disasters Storm and FloodsSnowfallEarthquake, Volcano and Tsunami出典：内閣府『日本の災害対策』Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.2
7Earthquake in the vicinity of Japan DateEarthquakes or Hypocenters①Uraga-oki Earthquake②Kushiro-oki Earthquake③Hkkaido-Toho-oki Earthquake④Sanriku-Haruka-oki Earthquake⑤Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake⑥Satsuma region in Kagoshima Prefecture⑦Northern region in Iwate Prefecture⑧Niijima and Kozushima Earthquake⑨Western Tottori Earthquake⑩Geiyo Earthquake⑪Miyagi-ken-oki Earthquake⑫Northern Miyagi Earthquake⑬Tokachi-oki Earthquake⑭Niigata-ken-Chuetsu Earthquake⑮Fukuoka-ken-Seihou-oki Earthquake⑯⑰Noto-hanto Earthquake, 2007⑱Niigata-Chuetsu-oki Earthquake, 2007⑲Iwate-Miyagi Inland Earthquake, 2008⑳Northern coastal area of Iwate Prefecture㉑Suruga Bay③Legend○: Earthquakes with seismic intensity of 6 or greater～: Active faults②①⑬④⑦⑳⑲⑪⑫⑯⑱⑰⑭㉑出典：内閣府『日本の災害対策』⑨⑧⑤⑮⑩⑥Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.24
8The Great East Japan Earthquake & Tsunami JMA Seismic IntensitySendaiTokyoMiyako (Iwate)Run-up height:38m*Otsuchi (Iwate)Run-up height:17m*Kesennuma (Miyagi)Run-up height: 20m*EpicenterFukushima nuclear power station* The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami Joint Survey Group (http://www.coastal.jp/)- Date and Time: 11 March 2011 (FRI) 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC)- Magnitude: (the largest magnitude recorded in Japan’s history)- Epicenter: N38.1, E142.9 (130km ESE off Oshika Peninsula) Depth 24km (Japan Meteorological Agency)出典：研究推進室
10Summary of Damages 9.0 15,835 3,669 903,220 > 22,000 > 300 Great East Japan Earthquake ( )Great Hanshin Earthquake ( )Magnitude9.07.3Dead15,8356,434Missing3,6693DamagedHouses903,220639,686Damaged Fishing Boats> 22,00040Damaged Fishing Ports> 30017Farmland23,600ha214ha出典：研究推進室*1 As of November 7, 2011 (source: National Police Agency)*2 As of November 24, 2011 (source: MAFF)
11Damage to Fixed Lines, Mobile Base Stations [Unit:10,000Lines]15000～■ In total, around 1.9 million communication lines were damaged.■ In total, about 29,000 base stations were damaged.Max. no. of damaged base stationsMax. no. of damaged linesFixed-line CommunicationsMobile Communicationsfixed-line phonesFTTH＋ADSL[base stations]出典：事業政策課
12Emergence of Network Congestion ■ Carriers restricted voice traffic by as much as 70 to 95 percent.*■ Packet traffic, however, was either not restricted or restricted at a lower rate (0 to 30 percent) than voice traffic.■ Carriers restricted phone traffic by as much as 80 to 90 percent.*Max. outgoing traffic restrictionseMobile was not subject to restrictions.* There was 4 to 9 times the normal volume of traffic (NTT East.)* There was 50 to 60 times the normal volume of traffic (DoCoMo).Fixed-line CommunicationsMobile Communicationsvoicepacket出典：事業政策課
13Locations of Damage to Mobile Networks Area AArea BRNCBase stations collapsed or backup batteries ran outCables cut off or duct destroyedBackup generators ran out of fuel because of long power outagesBasestationCommunication cableTransmission line relay stationTrunkexchangeNTT central office(housing building)NTT central office, customer building, etc.(relay building)出典：事業政策課
14Revision to Technical Standards on Measures for Countering Congestion and for Ensuring Important Communications●Network design capacity and communications quality reporting, etc.Reporting to MIC of basic policy for network capacity and measures for usage restrictions and preferential treatment of important communications.Regular actual measurement and reporting to MIC of communications quality (connection quality, etc.).Disclosure in appropriate form of information helpful to users on basic policy for network capacity and on measures for usage restrictions.●Analysis of communications status during usage restrictionsPreservation and analysis of data on status of important communications and general communications during usage restrictions in the event of disaster, and continuing review of network design capacity and implementation rules for usage restrictions etc. and reporting thereof to MIC.●Disclosure of congestion statusImmediate disclosure of status of congestion and usage restriction in the event congestion occurs.Announcements and appeals to avoid making inessential and non-urgent calls and to keep call time as short as possible, and to use communication methods other than voice calls, including emergency message services.出典：事業政策課Extending the list of target institutions for emergency priority callsCareful consideration based on a review of network design capacityIntroducing call length limitsIssue for future studyIntroducing phone calls with reduced sound qualityIssue for future study
15Thanks for assistance from all over the world 出典：研究推進室、重要無線室Offers from 163 countries and regions, and 43 international organizationsCondolences expressed by more than 180 countries and regions, and more than 60 international organizationsAs of October 17,2011, survey by Ministry of Foreign Affairs Japan
16Ⅱ. ICT systems which was effective in disaster situation Ⅱ-1. Disaster Warning SystemⅡ-2. Communications SystemⅡ-3. Information SharingⅡ-4. Research and Development - for the future
18Earthquake Early Warning System Main-waveDisaster management OrganizationsS-waveP-waveImmediate action against disastersEnsure Safety of residentsPublic Institutions(hospitals, schools, etc. )Ensure evacuation and safetyUse to reduce damageResidentsFire prevention, evacuationJapan Meteorological AgencyDissemination出典：内閣府『日本の災害対策』Transportation, elevators, etc.Emergency stop for safetyEarthquake Early WarningCompanies/FactoriesProtection of workers and facilities against disastersBackup of important dataSource: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.13
20Information flow on Earthquake and Tsunami Seismic dataGathering SystemJapan Meteorological AgencyEPOS(Earthquake PhenomenaObservation System)4,200 sites around Japan.
21Monitoring earthquake activities Seismic data Gathering System4200 sites around Japan.The earthquake monitoring system collates seismic data coming from seismographs installed in 4200 locations throughout Japan.
22（Earthquake Phenomena Observation System） Gathering and analyzing information on earthquake and tsunamiEPOS（Earthquake Phenomena Observation System）・Analyzes the seismic data for Earthquake and Tsunami.・Announces Earthquake Warning alarm starting right after from detection of the earthquake.
23C I T Z E N Delivering Information on Earthquake and Tsunami Fire and Disaster Management AgencyJapan Meteorological AgencyAdministrative OrganCITZENLocal GovernmentTelecom CarriersMediaLifeline carriersEPOS(Earthquake PhenomenaObservation System)Transportation facilitiesJapan Coast GuardEarthquake or tsunami warnings are instantly delivered to central & local governments, broadcasters, telecom carriers.After receiving this warning, local government deliver alarm through their sirens or microphones.Ministry for Land,infrastructure,Transport and Tourism (MLIT)WEB
24Early Warning to Mobile Phones Detection of earthquakeJapan MeteorologicalAgencyEarthquake Early WarningProcess messagedeliveryMail CenterDisaster/ Evacuation informationFrom state/ local governments- No monthly fee or telecommunication fee is charged
25EEW EWBS Automatic activation !! Early Warning through Broadcasting SystemBroadcasting StationJapanMeteorologicalAgency (JMA)EEWAlert information in Program onlyEWBSEEW: Earthquake Early WarningEWBS: Emergency Warning Broadcasting SystemAlert information with“Switch-on” signal of receiversAutomatic activation !!
26One-seg Mobile TV Saved Many Lives during the 3.11 Disaster Mobile television – Example 1 -One-seg Mobile TV Saved Many Lives during the 3.11 DisasterA huge earthquake struck on March 11 in the north-east area of Japan. Right after the end of the violent shakes caused by the earthquake, Mr. Takahashi, Senior Managing Director of TOYO KNIFE, an industrial cutlery company located in Miyagino district, Sendai City, immediately turned on the one-seg TV function on his mobile phone in his office, to which the power supply was cut off.He got an emergency warning alarm for a tsunami on his one-seg TV (mobile phone). Regrettably his office was located very near the port (about 500m from Sendai-Shiogama Port), so he and other staff did not have much time to evacuate, but 100 people managed to rush to a shelter on a hill.By the time they arrived at the shelter (Tagajyo Public Cultural Center) at 3:30 pm, the TOYO KNIFE office and factory had been completely destroyed by the long-lasting, huge tsunami.Mr. Takahashi said “ We couldn’t watch TV because of the power cut, but we could get information on the disaster quickly from our one-seg TVs.”Note: the one-seg TV function on a mobile phone is powered by the phone’s batteryTOYO KNIFE２５０ｍSendai-Shiogama PortMiyagino district, Sendai City (after the huge tsunami waves)(Summary from Sankei Shimbun (major Japanese national newspaper), June 24, 2011)
27Mobile television – Example 2 - Two policemen saved 40 lives from the train with the tsunami warning alarm from mobile TV(one-seg) right after the earthquake occurred at 14:46 on March 11, 2011.They got a tsunami warning alarm from the passengers mobile phone with TV when checking if everyone is fine in the train. They quickly decided to lead the 40 passengers to the hill to avoid the disaster of tsunami. All passengers were safely evacuated from the tsunami area before the tsunami struck the train.Derailed cars of trainShinchi StationPacific OceanRoute for evacuationTrack of Japan railwayShinchi StationTown hall of ShinchiPassengers got on the truck hereThe hillThe cars of train derailed off the track by huge tsunami waves. (March 12, 2011)(Summary from Yomiuri Shimbun(Japanese major national news paper), March 29, 2011)
28Emergency system for high-speed train Measuring equipment ofearthquake on railroadMeasuring equipment ofearthquake around coastMain-waveS-waveP-waveEARTHQUAKESTOP!!control centerMeasuringEquipmentof earthquake
30Central Disaster Management Radio Communications System On-site Disaster Management HeadquartersDesignated Local Public CorporationsPrefecturesAriake no Oka Core Wide-area Disaster Prevention BaseGovernment designatedCabinet Office(Disaster Management)Tokyo Metropolitan AreaPrime Minister’s OfficeDesignatedPublic CorporationTachikawa Reserve Facility of the Government Headquarters for Disaster ManagementCommunication Networkfor Disaster Management Organizations Located Tachikawa Wide-areaDisaster Management BaseCommunications Network for Disaster Management Organizations in Central TokyoCommunications Network for Local Disaster Management OrganizationsReal time pictures on the spotA Communications SatelliteMobile equipmentTransmission of pictures from helicoptersヘリテレ官邸(災害対策本部)出典：内閣府資料Source: Cabinet Office
31Ⅱ-3. Information Sharing TVMobile TVRadioData BroadcastingInternet
32Media used at the time of earthquake Immediately after the earthquake, the usefulness of mobile phones, mobile phone messages and terrestrial broadcasts received higher evaluation and at the end of April, the evaluation of the usefulness of mobile phones, mobile phone messages and terrestrial broadcasts exceeded that of radios.During the period from the occurrence of the earthquake until the end of April, the websites and search sites of administrative agencies and news media received higher evaluationAt the time of occurrence of the quake, AM radios received the highest evaluation (60.1%) followed by FM radios.At the time of occurrence of the earthquakeImmediately after the quakeUntil the end of AprilImmediately after the earthquake, radios were the only means to obtain information. However, radios were insufficient to grasp the actual state of damage in the area and it took a long time to know of the enormous damage caused by tsunami. We were unable to know who was doing what and felt highly anxiousness.Pay phonesFixed line telephonesMobile phonesInternet phonesMobile phone messagesInternet sTerrestrial broadcastsBS broadcastingCS broadcastingCable TVOne segment broadcastingAM radiosFM radiosTemporary radio broadcasting stationsInternet radiosAdministrative agencies’ websitesNews media’s websitesSearch sitesSNSTwitterVideo sharing websitesInternet broadcastingLocation based servicesOther websitesDisaster radioDisaster emergency message board and dial-up provided by telephone operators and mobile phone operatorsFAXWords of mouth from neighborhoodsOthersPhone calls and sBroadcastingInternet出典：情報通信白書
33TV Relay Station after Disaster （Number of station）Number of relay station off the air for TVTV stations suffered significant damages and 120 stations in eleven prefectures were out of service. As there was no power supply in the large part of the disaster areas, both transmitters and receivers were not usable.Number of relay stations off-the air for TV reached the maximum on 12th MarchJun. 1May 23May 19May 16May 12May 9May 6May 2Apr. 28Apr. 27Apr. 26Apr. 25Apr. 22Apr. 21Apr. 20Apr. 19Apr. 18Apr. 15Apr. 14Apr. 13Apr. 12Apr. 11Apr. 10Apr. 7Apr. 6Apr. 5Mar. 30Mar. 29Mar. 28Mar. 25Mar. 24Mar. 23Mar. 22Mar. 21Mar. 20Mar. 19Mar. 18Mar. 17Mar. 16Mar. 15Mar. 14Mar. 13Mar. 12Mar. 11【Source】 Information material from MIC
34Mobile TV in the Evacuation Center Many people watched mobile TV in the evacuation center. As power was disrupted, mobile TV was very important information source for the people in the disaster area.Image: People could see TV through the mobile phoneeven in the blackout in the afflicted area(Summary from Sankei Shimbun (major Japanese national newspaper), June 24, 2011)
35Local Disaster FM stations Radio also played a very important role in the disaster area, as many radio receivers work with batteries and people can receive information even during a power outage. MIC also provided 10,000 radios to the disaster areas free of charge. Temporary radio stations have been set up which have been actively providing information needed at local level. Many volunteers and local government officials contributed to the operation of such local radio stations.The Studio of “Natori Saigai(disaster) FM” established at Natori City office building, Miyagi prefecture
3626 stations are established. Temporary Disaster Designated Broadcasting Stations for Devastated AreaIwate26 stations are established.MIC has quickly granted broadcasting licenses to local disaster FM stations, which account for 21 in the disaster area.●●●●●●●Miyagi●●●●J●●●●●Fukushima●●●●●Newly established by communitiesBased on the community FMEstablished by broadcasters●●●●3636国土地理院承認 平14 総複第149号
37Digital Signage system at Normal Time 出典:デジタルサイネージ総研Source: Digital signage Now
38Digital Signage systems at the time of disaster Digital signage network is effective tool for information provision at the time of disaster.After the earthquake, all the train services stopped and there was terrible traffic jam in Tokyo. About 5 million people were not able to go home. Digital signage system was used as media to provide information.■Scenes at each monitor in Tokyo on 11 March 2011A: At a monitor set on 1st Floor at MarunouchiBuilding (Photographed around at 22:00)B: At a monitor set in Central Entrance on 1stFloor of Otemachi Building(Photographed around at 16:00)C: At a monitor set in Elevator Hall on B1Floor of Shin-Marunouchi Building(Photographed around at 22:00)D: At a monitor set on B1 Floor of MarunouchiBuilding (Photographed around at 22:00)(Source: MITSUBISHI ESTATE CO.,LTD.)
39The Internet as a Lifeline - Person Finder (Google) – Person Finder provides a registry and message board for survivors, family, and relatives affectedby a natural disaster to post and search for information about each other's status.(Source: Google)
40The Internet as a Lifeline - Posted Photos of Evacuee Lists
41Traffic Information in Disaster Area Some car navigation system gathers driving information from navigation unit and the system consolidate information and send traffic information to users. On March 14, Honda released this driving information gathered through their navigation system on the website. This information became instantly available through Twitter and Facebook. Many people thanked that “We could deliver relief supplies”, or “We could reach family and relatives” by using this system.Road with traffic record : BlueNo-traffic record : GrayVehicle congestion : Red22 March6 May(Source: website of ITS Japan)
43R&D into Strengthening the Disaster Tolerance (3rd FY 2011 Supplementary Budget) (1) Research and development of technologies for reducing the incidence of mobile-telephony congestion during disasters(2) Research and development of technologies for autonomous recovery ofdisaster-damaged infrastructureThis project establishes communication technologies for maintaining the use of voice calling during disasters, when voice communication increases dramatically as users make safety confirmation calls. The technologies make intensive use of non-voice communication-processing capabilities and of communications equipment located outside the affected regions.This project establishes radio communications technologies for ensuring autonomous access by local authorities and public facilities to the Internet and other communications even if the regular communications infrastructure has been damaged by disaster.Transmitting images of coastal watersWireline networkimportantInformation on well-beingData transmissionEmergency voice callingMobile-telephone networkInternet connectionData lineSystem havingimproved flexibilityCommunications processing capabilities for different services flexibly shared out in the event of disasterResearch and development, testing/verification/evaluationForming a world-leading research centerFostering innovation, strengthening collaboration between industry, academia, and government, and promoting standardization and developing results through joint research with universities in the affected regions出典：事業政策課● Achieving information and communications networks that are robust in disasters● Reviving local economic activity in affected regions(3) Provision of research centerat Tohoku University, etc.Japan’s National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) has provided Tohoku University with test bed facilities for testing, verification, and evaluation supported by the NICT facilities-improvement fund. Provided are communications network testing equipment introducing the world’s most advanced optical transmission technology, used in testing technologies for reducing network congestion; field-portable radio network equipment, used in testing autonomous recovery technologies; and field-portable satellite earth station equipment.
44Flexible reconfiguration of communication processing resources R&D on Dynamic Control of Mobile Communication Networks at the Time of a Major DisasterFlexible reconfiguration of communication processing resourcesMaximum possible resources can be directed to basic communication services during a disaster.…Voicecalls,internetMusicMoviesFilesVoice calls, internet (emergencymessage boards)Basic communicationservicesRich media etc.Basic communication servicesNext-generation congestion-proof systemNo possibility to reconfigure or redirect processing resourcesDynamic allocation of processing resources, internet (emergency message boards)OtherNormaluseEmergency出典：研究推進室
45R&D on Inter-Cloud Technology for Wide-area Disaster Responses Sharing resources among multiple cloud systems by optimal communication route after a large-scale disasterTransfer whole processing functions from one cloud to another within 30 minutesAdvantages of the Inter-cloud approach- Individual operators can keep investment costs to a minimum.- Small and medium-sized operators will not be forced out of business.Cloud 12 stand-by facilitiesNormal load3 facilitiesOverload4 facilitiesUse stand-by facilities of other carriersCloud data center ACloud 2Cloud 31 stand-by facilityAvailable to local businesses in the Tohoku region1 stand-by facility出典：研究推進室Boost disaster response capacity byInter- clouds dispersed around remote regionsInter-CloudInter-Cloud test bedCloud data center BTechnology for instant switching based on validation using JGN-XCloud data center C
46ITU-T FG-DR&NRR Tokyo, Japan: “Technical Tour of SENDAI CITY” R&D Projects for Resilient Information and Communication Networks in JapanMIC and NICT of Japan are promoting R&D projects for realizing a resilient information and communication network. Please come up to Sendai and check them out on a technical tour on 8th February, 2013.Contact;Mr. Yasuo SHINOZAWADeputy DirectorTechnology Policy DivisionMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationProject examples:R&D for relieving service congestion in the mobile network caused by disasterUnder a disaster, a vast amount of voice calls are made in mobile carrier networks and an unprecedented level of traffic (congestion) is generated.New network technology applicable to current and next generation networks to relieve service congestion in the network will be explained.High priorityserviceRich mediacommunicationsVoiceMailMusicVideoFileBy designIn a disasterResource reallocation by dynamic controlR&D on the reconfigurable communication “resource unit” for disaster recoveryA “Resource Unit” which can meet the wide variety of communication demands under a disaster will be explained.The “Resource Unit” can be transported by means such as a high-mobility vehicle, can be connected to surviving communication networks, and can reconfigure the damaged networks immediately.Developments of next generation VSATs effective for severe disastersEven in the event of a destroyed ground communication infrastructure by disaster, easy and prompt establishment of satellite communications networks secures alternative communication paths.New multimode VSATs that can connect to heterogeneous satellite systems using easy procedures in a disaster will be explained.