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1 What is Algebra in the Middle School? Dr. Eric Milou Rowan University Department of Mathematics milou@rowan.edu 856-256-4500 x3876

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2 Overview Traditional Algebra Patterns & Algebra Problems States Test Problems Algebra I Placement

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3 Algebra If x + y = 28 and xy = 7, then

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4 x + y = 28 and xy = 7

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5 Find x

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6 Define ALGEBRA The intensive study of the last three letters of the alphabet. using variables to replace something significant in a problem equations, formulas, numbers, headaches using letters such as x to represent an unknown number and solving for that letter The class between prealgebra and geometry

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7 Traditional Definitions! Dolciani Verbs –Solve –Simplify –Factor –Rationalize

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8 We need a BALANCE Traditional Algebraic Symbolic Manipulation Patterns & Algebraic Thinking Contextual problem solving

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9 Patterns to Algebra Swimming Pool Walkway Given a 2 by 2 pool: How many 1 by 1 concrete slabs (tiles) are needed for the walkway?

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10 What if the pool was 3 by 3?

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11 Extend to algebra Pool SizeTiles for walkway 2 by 212 3 by 316 4 by 4 5 by 5 n by n 20 24 4n + 4

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12 Connect the algebra back to the geometry

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13 Piles of Tiles: 3rd grade algebra

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14 Construct a Table FigureTotal Squares 14 27 310 4 5 x 13 16 3x+1

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15 Growing Tiles size# of tilessize# of tilessize# of tiles 020-101 151213151213 282537282537 31138511 414411715 517514919 333333344443 2222 3x+2 3x-12x+1

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16 Crossing the River 8 adults and 2 children need to cross a river and they have one small boat only available. The boat can hold ONLY: –One adult –One or two children How many one-way trips does it take for all 8 adults and 2 children to cross?

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17 8 adults and 2 children # of ad. + 2ch.One ways trips 1515 2929 313 417 521 x4x+1

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18 8 adults and 3 children # of ad. + 3ch.One ways trips 1717 211 315 419 523 x4x+3

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19 a adults and c children a ad. + # ch.One ways trips 24a + 1 34a + 3 44a + 5 54a + 7 c4a + ( ) 2c - 3

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20 Scratch off game cards A game card has 5 scratch off spots. Exactly two of them have a million dollar prize. The other three spots are blank. You can ONLY scratch off two spots. What is the probability that the two spots you scratch off have the million dollar prize?

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21 Change the Number of Spots Spots Probability 31/3 41/6 51/10 61/15 71/21 x 3456111

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22 To Medicate or Not? Thursday at 9 PM, an athlete is considering taking a cold preparation medicine (16 gr. dose). He will be drug tested before competing on Saturday at 9 AM. The test can detect 1 gram or more or the drug. His body eliminates 1/4 of the drug every four hours. If he takes the 16 gr. dose, will he fail the test?

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23 16 gram dose Number Hours Grams Remaining of IntervalsElapsedin Body 0 016 1412 289289 3126.75 4165.06 x4x

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24 Back to 3rd grade 13 x 17 = ? 1 3 x 1 7 1 2 9 031 2 2 1 ------- 10 7 10 3 1 0 0 3 0 7 0 2 1 221

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25 This approach leads to ? x 7 x3x3 x2x2 3x 7x 21 Algebra: (x + 3) (x + 7) =

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26 Texas State Assessment Herman claimed that the square of a number is always greater than or equal to the number. Which of the following examples disproves Hermans claim? –A) A comparison of (-1.5) 2 with -1.5 –B) A comparison of (-0.5) 2 with -0.5 –C) A comparison of (0.5) 2 with 0.5 –D) A comparison of (1.5) 2 with 1.5 The graph of y = 11x 2 + c is a parabola with a vertex at the origin. Which of the following is true about the value of c? –A) c > 0 –B) c < 0 –C) c = 0 –D) c = 11

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27 Connecticut State Assessment Elena plans to rent a motorbike at the beach. She uses a rental service that charges a fixed fee of $25 plus $15 for each hour or part of an hour that she uses the bike. Fill in the table and extend the patterns to show the total charges if she works from 9:15 am to 5:40 pm. HoursCharges 0 < h 1 1 < h 2 2 < h 3 3 < h 4

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28 Massachusetts State Assessment The graph below shows the number of milligrams of a medication in the bloodstream from the time it was administered to 300 minutes after administration. Using the information from the graph, which of the following statements is true? A. The maximum amount of medication in the bloodstream was 12 milligrams. B. The minimum amount of medication was in the bloodstream 300 minutes after administration. C. The amount of medication in the bloodstream increased at a faster rate than it decreased. D. The maximum amount of medication was in the bloodstream 100 minutes after administration.

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29 Idaho State Assessment a. In the space provided, draw in the diagonals for the six- sided polygon. b. How many diagonals are there in an 8-sided polygon? Show or explain how you found your answer. c. Explain how you would determine the number of diagonals in a 15-sided polygon. 9

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30 Algebra Placement Districts should not encourage all students to take Algebra I in grade 8; students should be taking Algebra I in grade 8 only if they are highly motivated, have a strong foundation in middle school mathematics, receive high grades in previous courses, intend to study calculus in high school, and only if the Algebra I courses are taught by teachers with mathematics certification.

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31 Summary Algebra Courses: –Traditional Algebraic Symbolic Manipulation –Patterns & Algebraic Thinking –Contextual problem solving

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32 Thank You Dr. Eric Milou Rowan University milou@rowan.edu

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