Presentation on theme: "Made by-FY Mechanical - 2 Batch C ID no. 13BEMEG114 to 13BEMEG122."— Presentation transcript:
Made by-FY Mechanical - 2 Batch C ID no. 13BEMEG114 to 13BEMEG122
Air pollution occurs when gases, dust particles, fumes (or smoke) or odour are introduced into the atmosphere in a way that makes it harmful to humans, animals and plant. Things that pollute the air are called pollutants.
Composition Of Air Air is mainly composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, which together constitute the major gases of the atmosphere. Water vapor accounts for roughly 0.25% of the atmosphere by mass.
Composition Of Atmosphere
Cause Of Air Pollution Emissions from industries and manufacturing activities Burning Fossil Fuels Household and Farming Chemicals
POLLUTANTSTime Weighted Average Concentration of Ambient Air Industrial Area Residential Rural and other area Sensitive area Method of Measurement Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Annual Average2 4 hours 80g/m 3 120g/m 3 60g/m 3 80g/m 3 15g/m 3 30g/m 3 Improved west and Gacke Method Ultraviolet fluorescence Oxides of Nitrogen (NO2) Annual Average2 4 hours 80g/m 3 120g/m 3 60g/m 3 80g/m 3 15g/m 3 30g/m 3 Jacab Hochheister modified (Na-Arsentire methodGas Phase Chemilumine Scene Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) Annual Average2 4 hours 360g/m 3 500g/m 3 140g/m 3 200g/m 3 70g/m 3 100g/m 3 High Volume sampling (average flow rate not less than 1.1 m 3 /minute) Air quality Standards in India
Respirable Particulate Matter (size Less than 10m) RPM Annual Average2 4 hours 120g/m 3 1 50g/m 3 60g/m 3 100g/m 3 50g/m 3 75g/m 3 Respirable particulate matter sampler Lead as Pb Annual Average 24 hours 1.0g/m 3 1.5g/m 3 0.75g/m 3 1.0g/m 3 0.50g/m 3 0.75g/m 3 AAS method after sampling using EPM 2000 or equivalent filter paper Carbon Monoxide 8 hours 1 hour 5.0mg/m 3 10.0mg/m 3 2.0mg/m 3 4.0mg/m 3 1.0mg/m 3 2.0mg/m 3 Non disbersive infrared spectroscopy
Two types of pollutants Primary pollutants are those gases or particles that are pumped into the air to make it unclean. They include carbon monoxide from automobile (cars) exhausts and sulfur dioxide from the combustion of coal. Secondary pollutants: When pollutants in the air mix up in a chemical reaction, they form an even more dangerous chemical. Photochemical smog is an example of this, and is a secondary pollutant.
Sources Of Common Air Pollutants
Common atmospheric pollution sources and their pollutants CategorySourceEmitting pollutants AgricultureOpen burningSuspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds Mining and quarryingCoal mining; crude oil and gas production; stone quarrying Suspended particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds Power generationElectricity; gas; steamSuspended particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulphur trioxide, lead TransportCombustion enginesSuspended particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, lead Community serviceMunicipal incineratorsSuspended particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, lead
Sulphur oxides (SO x ) - especially sulfur dioxide, a chemical compound with the formula SO 2. SO 2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxidation of SO 2, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as NO 2, forms H 2 SO 4, and thus acid rain. This is one of the causes for concern over the environmental impact of the use of these fuels as power sources.
Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) - especially nitrogen dioxide are expelled from high temperature combustion, and are also produced naturally during thunderstorms by electric discharge. Can be seen as the brown haze dome above or plume downwind of cities. Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula NO 2. It is one of the several nitrogen oxides. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor. NO 2 is one of the most prominent air pollutants.
Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), atmospheric particulate matter, or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. Sources of particulates can be man made or natural. Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, and sea spray. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and various industrial processes also generate significant amounts of aerosols. Averaged over the globe, anthropogenic PM(those made by human activities)currently account for about 10 percent of the total amount of aerosols in our atmosphere. Increased levels of fine particles in the air are linked to health hazards such as heart disease, altered lung function and lung cancer.
Other include Toxic metals, such as lead and mercury Radioactive pollutants Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Particulates created from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in photochemical smog Ammonia (NH 3 ) - emitted from agricultural processes
Sources Anthropogenic sources (man-made sources) mostly related to burning different kinds of fuel Natural sources
Health impact of specific air pollutants Some of these gases can seriously and adversely affect the health of the population and should be given due attention by the concerned authority. The gases mentioned below are mainly outdoor air pollutants but some of them can and do occur indoor depending on the source and the circumstances. Tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke generates a wide range of harmful chemicals and is a major cause of ill health, as it is known to cause cancer, not only to the smoker but affecting passive smokers too. It is well-known that smoking affects the passive smoker (the person who is in the vicinity of a smoker and is not himself/herself a smoker) ranging from burning sensation in the eyes or nose, and throat irritation, to cancer, bronchitis, severe asthma, and a decrease in lung function.
Biological pollutants. These are mostly allergens that can cause asthma, hay fever, and other allergic diseases. Volatile organic compounds. Volatile compounds can cause irritation of the eye, nose and throat. In severe cases there may be headaches, nausea, and loss of coordination. In the longer run, some of them are suspected to cause damage to the liver and other parts of the body. Formaldehyde. Exposure causes irritation to the eyes, nose and may cause allergies in some people. Lead. Prolonged exposure can cause damage to the nervous system, digestive problems, and in some cases cause cancer. It is especially hazardous to small children. Sulphur dioxide. SO 2 (sulphur dioxide) in the air is caused due to the rise in combustion of fossil fuels. It can oxidize and form sulphuric acid mist. SO 2 in the air leads to diseases of the lung and other lung disorders such as wheezing and shortness of breath. Long-term effects are more difficult to ascertain as SO2 exposure is often combined with that of SPM.
Radon. A radioactive gas that can accumulate inside the house, it originates from the rocks and soil under the house and its level is dominated by the outdoor air and also to some extent the other gases being emitted indoors. Exposure to this gas increases the risk of lung cancer. Ozone. Exposure to this gas makes our eyes itch, burn, and water and it has also been associated with increase in respiratory disorders such as asthma. It lowers our resistance to colds and pneumonia. Oxides of nitrogen. This gas can make children susceptible to respiratory diseases in the winters. Carbon monoxide. CO (carbon monoxide) combines with hemoglobin to lessen the amount of oxygen that enters our blood through our lungs. The binding with other haeme proteins causes changes in the function of the affected organs such as the brain and the cardiovascular system, and also the developing fetus. It can impair our concentration, slow our reflexes, and make us confused and sleepy
SPM (suspended particulate matter). Suspended matter consists of dust, fumes, mist and smoke. The main chemical component of SPM that is of major concern is lead, others being nickel, arsenic, and those present in diesel exhaust. These particles when breathed in, lodge in our lung tissues and cause lung damage and respiratory problems. The importance of SPM as a major pollutant needs special emphasis as a) it affects more people globally than any other pollutant on a continuing basis; b) there is more monitoring data available on this than any other pollutant; and c) more epidemiological evidence has been collected on the exposure to this than to any other pollutant
Air pollution prevention, monitoring and solution Solution efforts on pollution is always a big problem. This is why prevention interventions are always a better way of controlling air pollution. These prevention methods can either come from government (laws) or by individual actions. In many big cities, monitoring equipment have been installed at many points in the city. Authorities read them regularly to check the quality of air. Let's see more below:
Government (or community) level prevention Governments throughout the world have already taken action against air pollution by introducing green energy. Some governments are investing in wind energy and solar energy, as well as other renewable energy, to minimize burning of fossil fuels, which cause heavy air pollution Governments are also forcing companies to be more responsible with their manufacturing activities, so that even though they still cause pollution, they are a lot controlled..
Individual Level Prevention Encourage your family to use the bus, train or bike when commuting. If we all do this, there will be less cars on road and less fumes. Use energy (light, water, boiler, kettle and fire woods) wisely. This is because lots of fossil fuels are burned to generate electricity, and so if we can cut down the use, we will also cut down the amount of pollution we create.
Recycle and re-use things. This will minimize the dependence of producing new things. Remember manufacturing industries create a lot of pollution, so if we can re-use things like shopping plastic bags, clothing, paper and bottles, it can help.