Presentation on theme: "3-19 This topology discussion is important to understand when we get to installation. Make sure any students who are falling asleep are paying attention."— Presentation transcript:
13-19This topology discussion is important to understand when we get to installation. Make sure any students who are falling asleep are paying attention here if they will be involved in installingNetwork Topologies
2Free Topology LM Exam Ring, star and mixed examples of free topology 3-20Ring, star or combination layout of network mediaAll except ring are polarity insensitiveOne terminator installed anywhere on the segmentTypical for device channelsMay be difficult to troubleshoot bad devicesInstallers could possibly exceed wiring limitsSimple to expand and add new devicesLM ExamRing, star and mixed examples of free topologyAll except ring are polarity insensitiveT
3Bus Topology LM Exam Longer cable runs and easier to troubleshoot 3-21Daisy chain structure with beginning and endMust be terminated at beginning and end of segmentTP/FT-10 Free Topology terminators are different from TP/FT-10 Bus Topology terminatorsTP/XF-1250 channels use different terminators than TP/FT-10 channelsCompared to Free Topology:Easier to troubleshootLonger cable runs allowedMore difficult to expand and add new devicesLM ExamLonger cable runs and easier to troubleshootT
4Termination will depend upon typology used on specific segments Backbone Topology3-22Connects routers to a common backbone channelTypically installed in a bus topology and includes routers, tool network interfaces, and system wide controllersCan be high speed twisted pair TP/XF-1250 or IP-852 channelReserves bandwidth for network tools and system control devices such as web servers, data loggers, schedulers, alarm generators, etc.Termination will depend upon typology used on specific segments
5Case Study Exercise: Identify Network Architectures 13-23Turn to the Laboratory Exercises chapter of your workbook – this is Laboratory 1Form a team with one or two fellow studentsRead exercise instructionsWrite down your answersClass review follows in 20 minutes
7Engineered Design – Planned Installation Scenario 3-25Design tool is not attached to the network devices during design processTools obtain device information from the device external interface file (xif)Allows network design to be completed in parallel with infrastructure installationVerifies device compatibility prior to purchasingAllows distribution of design workload
8Ad Hoc Installation3-26Design tool is attached to the network devices while the design is createdTools can upload the device interface information from the deviceUse this method if XIF file is not availableTypical for small networksDesign should be created while the tool is OffNet to minimize traffic consequences from updating device informationNote that ad hoc installation requires more highly trained and experienced personnel to be on site during the installation phase, compared to a 2-phased engineered installation.
9Matching the Design with the Physical Network 3-27The logical device on the design must match the physical device installed on the network.The network tool first identifies the network device using the device’s unique Neuron IDService Pin depressionManual entryDevice discoveryThe match is completed using the device’s channel and program ID
10Job Aids Guide for Determining Installation Scenario 3-28Guide for Determining Installation ScenarioNetwork Tool Selection Guide
11Selecting a Network Tool 3-29Should be based on the user and project’s needsAvailable from many manufacturersTools should include the latest LONMARK resource files documenting SNVT, SCPT and SFPTools should perform multiple functionsNetwork design and engineeringNetwork commissioning and configurationNetwork monitoring and controlNetwork maintenance and documentationMust be able to support up to 32,385 devices and domain addresses of up to six bytes (248)While not required for an open system, tools based on LNS provideInteroperability and connectivity featuresCapability to integrate LONMARK devicesLM ExamIntegration tool selection based on users requirementsAvailable from many manufacturersCommon network management tasks - binding, commissioning, and device configurationChosen based on user requirementsFor full LonTalk support, must support 32,385 devices (domain)Provide device with applications, logical addresses and links to device variablesA primary goal of all integration tools – assign logical addresses
12Summary and Review No Fullweight client The LNS database Bus IP-852 3-30Do remote clients include the LNS network database?NoWhat has a data server allowing it to communicate directly with devices through its own network interface?Fullweight clientWhat is required by LNS tools to perform network management tasksThe LNS databaseWhich topology is easier to troubleshoot and allows for longer cable runs?BusWhich channel type can take advantage of existing IP infrastructure?IP-852How many devices must a network tool be able to support? What size domain address?32,385, 248 (six bytes)NoFullweight clientThe LNS databaseBusIP-85232,385, 248 (6 bytes)
14Objectives Define the infrastructure components of a LONWORKS network 4-2IMPLEMENT THE NETWORKIdentifyArchitecturesSelect NetworkComponentsInstall PhysicalNetworkProgramCommissionTest and VerifyOptimizeDocumentMaintainDOCUMENT AND MAINTAINPLAN THE NETWORKTEST AND OPTIMIZEDefine the infrastructure components of a LONWORKS networkSelect network mediaDefine the metrics and channel characteristics of channelsSelect appropriate network interfacesSelect LONWORKS routers and repeatersDescribe the difference between a router and a repeaterThis section uses what we’ve discussed before with respect to architectures, maintenance and installation scenarios, and so forth. The goal is to find out what infrastructure devices we learned of already, and to summarize what they are used for.
15Main Infrastructure Components 4-3LONWORKS Devices1Communication ChannelsCommunications media that connect LONWORKS devicesPath between devices that exhibits various physical characteristics.Routers1 and RepeatersUsed to build large networks by connecting channels and segmentsRouters also used to transfer data from one channel type to anotherNetwork Interfaces1Connect PC to LONWORKS networkAlso referred to as LonTalk adapter or LonTalk interface1Most commonly specified componentsRTRRPTRNILM ExamMost commonly specified – LonWorks devices, router and network interfaceNetwork interface connects PC to LonWorks network
16Physical vs. Logical (1) LM Exam Stress network integration tool assignment of logical addressesStress number devices, subnets etc.4-4Neuron IDUnique 48 bit ID embedded into Neuron ChipSegmentSection of physical media connected to router or repeater portUnpowered TP/FT-10 can supportup to 64 devicesChannelRepresentation of physical media segment(s).Connected to other channels via routersCharacterized by device transceiver typesCan consist of two segments linked via physical layer repeaterLM ExamUnpowered TP/FT-10 can support up to 64 devices64 max FTT nodes per network segmentBackboneChannelDomain 09ESegment AChannel WSubnet 21234616263RTRChannel XRTRSegment BRPTRSegment C1262124123Subnet 1Subnet 3Channel YChannel ZRTRSegment DRTRSegment E123125556Subnet 4Subnet 5
17Physical vs. Logical (2) LM Exam Stress network integration tool assignment of logical addressesStress number devices, subnets etc.4-5Logical AddressAssigned by NI ToolDomain, Subnet, NodeLogical addresses are assigned during commissioning to enable devices to become active participants on networkNode IDA logical address assigned to deviceDomainA logical collection of up to 32,385 devices (nodes) on one or more channelsCan include up to 255 subnetsDirect communications can only take place among devices configured in the same domainID can be 1, 3 or 6 bytes (248) longSubnetA logical organization of up to 127 devicesSome channels may include more than oneCannot span configured or learning routersExample09E, 2, 63LM ExamLogical address needed to be active participant on networkDomain up to 248 (6 bytes)Logical address assigned during commissioning - domain/subnet/node idDomain highest level in logical LonWorks network structure127 Max devices per subnet255 Max subnets per domain32385 Max devices per domainBackboneChannelDomain 09ESegment AChannel WSubnet 21234616263RTRChannel XRTRSegment BRPTRSegment C1262124123Subnet 1Subnet 3Channel YChannel ZRTRSegment DRTRSegment E123125556Subnet 4Subnet 5
18Possible LONWORKS Media Types 4-6Twisted Pair CableLONMARK Guidelines supports both TP/RS and TP/FT-10TP/FT-10: low material cost, reduced cabling, high stabilityTwisted Pair Cable with Link PowerPower and Communication on single pair of wiresPower LineReliable communications over existing power wiresNo additional cable or installation interruption, limited range, 5400 bpsIP (Internet or Intranet)High transfer rateCan use existing IP infrastructureLM ExamTP – low material cost, high stabilityPL – Reliable communications over existing power wiresPL – no additional cable or installation interruption, limited range, 5400 bpsFO allows highest transfer rate in “rough” environments over long distancesFO advantage - longer distances than TPFO used in “noisy” electrical environmentsTP /FT has helped reduce cabling and improve stabilityLM Guidelines supports both TP/RS and TP/FT-10PL-20 (Band C) transmits at 132 kHzRF – Communicate with remote bldg without cabling“Fencing” is not a joke. A company in New Zealand made a power line-like transceiver to communicate on the wires of long running electrical fencing (cattle fencing). The communication is used to monitor and supervise the charger units and batteries along the fence.Note that twisted pair is the most commonly used network media. When choosing a channel type, it is important to look at the devices available with the transceiver type required.Fiber OpticHighest transfer rate in rough (noisy) environments over long distancesRadio FrequencyCommunicate with remote locations without cablingInfraredElectric Fencing
19Channel Metrics Topology support: free, bus or other LM Exam 4-7Topology support: free, bus or otherMaximum lengthMaximum device countMaximum number of packets/secCable type: standard or specialTermination requirementsPrivate or shared mediaLM ExamMax length depends on wire typeMax node-to-node is maximum distance from each node to each of the other nodes located in the same segmentNote that, although throughput is the most commonly quoted number, length constraints and maximum node counts are equally important.max lengthpkt/s12stublengthnmin nodedistancemax node countmax node-to-node
20Typical Channel Capacities PL-20N(3.6/5.4 kb/s)TP/FT-10(78 kb/s)TP/XF-1250 and FO-20(1.25 Mb/s)IP-852(10/100 Mb/s)100%No Collisions~14 pps~227 pps~850 pps84%MaximumThroughput~12 pps~192 pps~720 pps15,000 pps or greater67%Sustained~9 pps~153 pps~576 pps50%DesignGuideline~7 pps~115 pps~425 ppsTP/FT-10TP/XF-1250PL-20xIP-10xLM ExamTP/XF-1250 transfer rate – 1.25 Mbits/sPL-20C transmits on 132 kHzProtocol analyzer measures 100 pps on TP?FT-10 – approx BW =50%FO same transfer rate but lower sensitivity to noise than TP/XF 1250PL-20N Channel100% throughput no collisions: ~14 packets/secMaximum throughput (~84%): ~12 packets/secSustained throughput (~67%): ~9 packets/secChannel design guideline (~50%): ~7TP/FT-10 ChannelFTT-10A & FT 31x) Smart Transceivers100% throughput no collisions: ~ 227 packets/secMaximum throughput (~84%): ~192 packets/secSustained throughput: (~67%) ~153 packets/secChannel design guideline (~50%): ~115TP/XF-1250 Channel100% throughput no collisions: ~ 850 packets/secMaximum throughput (~84%): ~720 packets/secSustained throughput: (~67%) ~576 packets/secChannel design guideline (~50%) : ~425IP-852 Channels (IP-10L & IP-10W)~15000 fps (10baseT with min. 46 byte payload)~7000 LONTALK pps through PC Ethernet NI for monitoring purposespps: packets per second (average packet = 15 bytes)IP-852 estimate based on 46 byte minimum payload
21Job Aids Common LONWORKS Channel Types Miscellaneous Channel Types 4-8Common LONWORKS Channel TypesMiscellaneous Channel TypesLONMARK Standard Channel Types
22LONWORKS Routers LM Exam Router – connect two subnets 4-9Connects channels or subnets to build large networks or reduce trafficCan connect different channel media typesFilters or forwards messages based on Subnet ID or Domain ID (bridge) to provide network segmentationCan be configured as repeater to extend channel lengthCan be setup as learning, configured or bridgeChannel 2 FT-10Channel 1 IP-852RouterLM ExamRouter – connect two subnetsSubnets help to reduce trafficBridge used to isolate packets within networks that include multiple network domainsCan be configured as learning, configured or bridgePhysical connection between two different mediaHow many subnets between two routers ? 1Provide network segmentationLearning router automatically builds its own filter table by monitoring trafficForwards message packets based on Subnet IDBridge used to isolate packets within networks that include multiple network domainsLearning router automatically builds its own filter table by monitoring traffic
23Router and Physical Layer Repeater Differences LONMARK GuidelineThe total network length and number of devices may be extended by use of ANSI/EIA/CEA routers, and/or one TP/FT-10 physical layer repeater.4-10LM ExamGuidelineWhile both provide signal refresh,LONWORKS Routers…Segment or isolate local traffic (primary function)Connect similar or different channel typesForward packets based on internal routing tables of subnet and group addresses maintained by LNSCan be configured as an intelligent repeaterPhysical Layer Repeaters…Extend channel distance by amplifying signalAllows for higher device countsHave no filter function and dispatch each message as receivedPass all traffic – even noiseCan lead to channel overloadLM ExamRepeaters provide signal amplificationBoth provide signal refreshRepeaters extend length of channel and allow for more devicesNo filter function and dispatch each message as receivedMax number repeaters without router - 1Notes on physical layer repeaters:- not the poor man’s router.- only being in FTT/LPT networks,- should only be used to exceed the maximum cable length or the maximum node count. Clarify that PLR have their places in that area, but they can not replace a real router.- Collapsed backbone architectures, or backbone-like architectures with only PLR’s (and a pure master/slave architecture) can be built without violating any guidelines or constraints. However, those networks do not follow a desirable architecture.With “real” routers, the configured router is the type of choice. All modern network management tools support configuring and automatically administer such routers. There’s hardly a reason for having a learning router.Refer to LONWORKS Routers and Repeaters job aid starting on the following page and the Miscellaneous Infrastructure Devices job aid following that.LONMARK GuidelineThe total network length and number of devices may be extended by use of ANSI/EIA/CEA routers, and/or one TP/FT-10 physical layer repeater.
24Routing Design Guideline IP-852IP-852i.LONRouteri.LONRouterFT-10XF-1250LPR-12LPR-12FT-10For best performance always route from slower to higherspeed channelsXF-1250Improved Design –Route from slow to fastPoor Design –Slower channel betweenfaster channels
25Multiple XF-1250 Channel Routing i.LONRouteri.LONRouteri.LONRouterXF-1250XF-1250LPR-15PotentialBottleneckXF-1250Improved Design – i.LON routes at full speed of XF-1250 channelXF-1250Poor Design –LPR-15 throughput less than single XF-1250 channel
26Large System Routing IP-852 IP-852 i.LON Router i.LON Router XF-1250 FT-10LPR-10MPR-50(or individual LPR-12s)FT-10LPR-10FT-10FT-10FT-10LPR-10FT-10FT-10FT-10Improved Design – Eliminates hops across slower channelsPoor Design –Too many router hops across slower channels
27Network Interfaces LM Exam 4-14Connect PC to LonTalk mediumAlso referred to as network adapters and LonTalk interfacesAvailable in almost any PC form-factor, transceiver type and bus configurationMust support NSI (Network Services Interface) firmware for LNS applicationsShould support downloadable firmware images to allow for easy LNS firmware updatesIP – virtual network interface (VNI) or remote network interface (RNI)VNI creates a high performance IP-852 network interface with greater throughput than NSI.RNI provides a remote IP network interfaceLM ExamLonTalk I/F – h/w that connects PC to LonTalk mediumRNI – LonTalk interfaces that are connected over IPVNI has greater throughput than NSIVNI Virtual Network Interface - the ability to abstract multiple logical network interfaces from a single high performance network interface (PCLTA-20, PCC-10, Ethernet NIC)Which NSI ?Network Tool
28Connectivity Options LM Exam 4-15PCC-10: FT-10, TP-78, TP-1250STLA-10: FT-10, TP-78, TP-1250, RS-485FT-10, XF-1250i.LON 100FT-10, PL-20(Modem Option)U20: PL-20U10: TPFT-10i.LON 10(Router Option)i.LON 600i.LON SmartServeri.LONSmartServerPCLTA-20:TP-1250 SMXPCLTA-21:FT-10, TP-78,TP-1250, RS-485ModemPCIPCMCIAEIA-232IP-852 Routing10/100 Ethernet IP/RNIUSBModbus IPLM ExamLonTalk I/F – h/w that connects PC to LonTalk mediumHave samples available to pass around class* PSTN – Public Switched Telephone Network (also called POTS – Plain Old Telephone Service* PPP – Point to Point Protocol (IP)Network Interfaces:Available in almost any PC form-factor, transceiver type, and bus configurationAll of these network interfaces are LNS compatibleTCP/IP – Used by the i.LON 10, i.LON 100 and i.LON 100 to provide remote IP connectivityLonWorks /IP - creates a n EIA-852 standard LonWorks to IP channel (IP-852) and is used by the i.LON 600 and i.LON 100 (with IP-852 Routing).Modbus IP – Used by the i.LON SmartServer to communicate with TCP/IP enabled Modbus devices.
29Summary and Review LonWorks devices, router and network interface 4-16What are the most commonly specified components in a LonWorks network?LonWorks devices, router and network interfaceHow many devices can a subnet support? How many can an unpowered TP/\FT-10 segment support?127, 64Which channel type can provide the highest transfer rate in noisy environments over long distances?Fiber opticWhat can segment or isolate local traffic and connect similar or different channel types?RoutersTrue or false: LonMark Guidelines supports RS485 for use on twisted pair.True. RS-485 is supported as TP/RS485-39LonWorks devices, router and network interface127, 64Fiber opticRoutersTrue. RS-485 is supported as TP/RS485-39
31Objectives Define infrastructure installation tasks 5-2Define infrastructure installation tasksSelect and install channel mediaDecide where and when to use terminators for twisted pair channelsIdentify common installation pitfallsDescribe guidelines for installing channel topologies:Properly install shielded cableDescribe device installation guidelines
32Installation Tasks LM Exam 5-3IMPLEMENT THE NETWORKIdentifyArchitecturesSelect NetworkComponentsInstall PhysicalNetworkProgramCommissionTest and VerifyOptimizeDocumentMaintainDOCUMENT AND MAINTAINPLAN THE NETWORKTEST AND OPTIMIZEInstall backbone channelInstall device channels and routersInstall terminators where neededMount and install devicesProvide power supplies to devicesConnect I/O wiring to devicesLM ExamLarge portion of all communication problems can be traced to faulty wiringMost LONWORKS network problems can be traced back to an inadequate installation of cables and devices.
33Cabling Installation LM Exam Last two bullets5-4Use Echelon tested cable typesMatch cable length limitations to transceiver type and channel topologyFor link power transceiver devices (LPT-11), size wire to accommodate 42 VDC voltage drops over distanceSize distributed power cable to accommodate voltage drops over distanceAvoid magnetic inductive interference when laying cablesKeep nominal distance from AC cablesSeparate from RF and high voltage sources (low voltage sources okay)Maintain “twisting” to terminalKeep away from devices and actuators that generate strong interferenceLM ExamLightning-current arrestor needed anytime TP goes outside buildingLightning may cause device failure due to power surgeKeep cables nominal distance from AC cables to minimize magnetic inductive interferenceTP may be in same bundle as low voltage AC or DCFollow local and national regulatory requirements for electrical shock protectionConnect TP to device– two wires, polarity insensitiveUse lightning-current arrestor needed anytime twisted pair goes outside buildingFollow local and national regulatory requirements
34Tested Twisted Pair Cable Type Limitations LM ExamGo over various limits5-5Bus TopologyFree TopologyMax StubMax Bus LengthMax Node-to-NodeMax Total CableISO/IEC3 meters600 meters250 meters450 metersSpecifiedTIA 568A Category 5TP/FT-10TP/XF12500.3 meters900 meters130 metersValidatedBeldon 84712700 meters400 meters500 metersBeldon 85102Level 4/Level IV1400 metersJY (st)320 metersLM ExamLevel 4 acceptable for use with TP/FT-10, TP/XF-78 and TP/XF-1250LM Interoperability Guidelines details Cat 5 for TP/FT-10Not recommended – 24 AWG shielded untwisted
35Grounding Shielded Twisted Pair Cable 5-6When using shielded cable, terminate shield using the recommended grounding circuitGround the cable shield at least once per segment and preferably at each deviceGrounding the shield at every device will assist in suppressing 50/60Hz standing waves.Communication wires are not groundedShielded cable not recommended unless in high EMI environment.LM ExamCommunication wires not grounded
36Job Aids5-7LM ExamMention lightning current surge arrestors needed if bus cables go beyond build borders and are not installed in metal ducts.Suggest studying section for examCabling Installation – ProceduresCabling Installation – Common PitfallsMiscellaneous Infrastructure ComponentsLM ExamPoint out the various areas marked with LM Exam study icon in Cabling Installation - ProceduresYou’ll not go through all of this in detail in class, but you’ll probably want to skim through what is here and look at 1 or 2 examples in detail so students will be aware of the job aids when they return to their jobs
37Termination: What is it? 5-8A termination is a load connected across the network pairTermination absorbs unwanted signal reflections (resonance of date signal) which would interfere with communications causing packet errorsFree topology uses one terminator anywhere on segmentBus topology uses two terminators one at each end of segmentVerify termination for unknown twisted pair media by checking wiring impedance using an AC bridge100 mF52.3Ω Free Topology105Ω Bus TopologyTP/FT-10 TP/LP-10 TP/LP-11ChannelsLM ExamBus – 2 terminators ( ohms), one at each end of cableType of termination – RCFree topology single 52.3 ohm resistorDampen resonance of date signalNote: While termination can go anywhere on the segment, if you always install it near the router, you will always know where to look for it.0.15 mF59Ω340Ω102Ω0.33 mFTP/XF-78 TP/XF-1250Channels100Ω0.47 mFPower LineChannels
38Device Installation Mount devices as close to I/O as possible 5-9Mount devices as close to I/O as possibleWhere possible, avoid high EMI sourcesInstall application specific devices on application specific channelsIsolate device to device traffic where possibleUse routers for each subsystemInstall fewer than maximum allowed to provide for future expansionLocate system-wide control devices and network tools on or close to the backboneWeb server devices, trend loggers, schedulers, etc…
39LPT Link Power - Power and Communication on TP/FT-10 LM ExamJust about everything on slide and in workbook5-10LPT Link Power devices draw power from central 42V power supply on TP/FT-10 channel eliminating need for individual device suppliesLink power transceiver separates 78 kbps communication and 42 VDC power to supply +5VDC at up to 100mA to Neuron and I/O applicationsBoth link power and locally powered TP/FT-10 devices can be supported on a given segment, provided that the following constraint is met:(1 x LPT) + (2 x TP/FT) ≤ 128TP/FT-10 devices must be designed to ISO/IEC (ANSI/CEA-709.3) which specifies appropriate blocking capacitorsConsiderationsThe sum of the application current of all the devices in a segment must not exceed 3.2A on 5V supply.Voltage at LPT supply typically 41.0 to 42.4VVoltage at end of cable must not be less than 26V - LPT transceiver lower limitActual number of devices on segment depends upon cable length and currentExample: 500 meter Beldon 8471 and support 128 evenly distributed LPT devices at 25mA, 64 at 50mA or 32 at 100mALM ExamPower and Communication on single pair of wiresLink power can operate TP/FT-10 channelSum current of all LP devices on 5V side must be larger than 3.2AVoltage at supply 41 – 42.442 VDC and 78 kbps on TP/FT-10 channelBeldon evenly distributed devices at 50 mATP/FT-10 device designed to can be used on network with LPT devicesMemorize LPT / FT formula
40Job AidsJunction Box and Wiring Guideline for Twisted Pair LONWORKS NetworksFTT-10A Free Topology Transceiver User's GuideLPT-10 and LPT-11 Link Power Transceiver User’s GuidesThese job aids are on your student CD.Most recent versions on the Echelon Web site.
41Summary and Review5-12What can most LonWorks network problems be traced back to?Inadequate installation of cables and devicesHow can you avoid magnetic inductive interference when laying cables?Keep nominal distance from AC cables .Separate from RF and high voltage sources.What must be used anytime twisted pair cable goes outside of a building?Lightning-current arrestorHow many terminators are required on a twisted pair free topology segment? Bus topology? Where should they be installed?Free: One, anywhere on segment. Bus: Two, one at each end of segment.How many non-link powered devices can be added to a segment which already has 56 link-powered devices?36 (128 – 56) / 2Where and how should shielded cable be grounded?At minimum once per segment, preferably at each deviceInadequate installation of cables and devices2. Keep nominal distance from AC cables . Separate from RF and high voltage sources3. Lightning-current arrestor4. Free: One, anywhere on segment. Bus: Two, one at each end of segment.(128 – 56) / 26. At minimum once per segment, preferably at each device
42Exercise: Selecting and Installing Infrastructure Components 5-13Turn to the Lab 2 in the Laboratory Exercises chapter of your workbookForm a team with one or two fellow studentsRead exercise instructionsFind answersLab discussion and class review follows in 20 minutes
43Review Describe the principles of LONWORKS networks Select network architectures and design strategiesDetermine installation and maintenance scenariosSelect channel types, infrastructure devices, application devicesInstall the physical network infrastructure
44L1-1Lab 1, Case Study 1ModemSLTA-10PSTNNM ToolNSIHMI Tool