3Course Objectives1-3PLAN THE NETWORKIdentifyArchitecturesIdentify network architecturesSelect and install network infrastructure componentsSelect and install network devicesProgram the network by configuring devices and connecting network variablesCommission devicesTest and verify network devices and channelsOptimize network and device performanceDocument the network designMaintain the networkBe sure to find out if there are any special concerns or issues to cover for this audience.The design process in terms of order of operation will vary as a function of the installation scenario –This is a common order that we will follow in this course.We will refer back to the flow chart at the beginning of most chapters.Select NetworkComponentsIMPLEMENT THE NETWORKInstall PhysicalNetworkProgramNetworkCommissionNetworkTEST AND OPTIMIZETest and VerifyNetworkOptimizeNetworkDOCUMENT AND MAINTAINDocumentNetworkMaintainNetwork
5Objectives2-2Review the following LONWORKS Technology concepts:Control NetworksLONWORKS BenefitsLONMARK InternationalLONWORKS TerminologyLonTalk ProtocolBasic LONWORKS ComponentsDevice Interface ComponentsLONWORKS Network Services (LNS®)In this section, get students to talk about what they know about the basics of LonWorks technology.They should already be familiar with the basics of LonWorks networks and should remember some of the terminology.Take the opportunity in this section to make the learning interactive.Ask lots of questions so YOU (the instructor) can learn what the students know and don’t know.
6Control Networks 1st Generation 2-31st GenerationMaster/SlaveA single master control device or panel makes the control decisionsMaster controller continuously polls input devices for values and directs output devices to play valuesSingle point of failureDifficult to expandCostly to install – more wiring needed to connect sensors and actuatorsProprietary programming modelLonWorks is said to be a third generation control systemPolling increases network trafficCentralized ArchitectureCentrally located processorNo integrated intelligenceSingle point of failure
7Control Networks 2nd Generation 2-42nd GenerationDecentralized Master/SlaveAdded network programable logic controllers (PLCs) between central processor and devicesSingle master control device makes the control decisionsMaster controller continuously polls PLCs for values and directs output devices to play valuesGreatly reduced wiring requirementReduced point of failureProprietary programming modelCentralized control reduced single point failure but did not eliminate itCompared to centralized architectureNetworked PLCsDistributed intelligenceCentrally located processorSingle point of failure reduced
8Control Networks 3rd Generation 2-53rd GenerationPeer-to-PeerDistributed control intelligence within all control devicesNo single point of failureEasy to expand and add more devicesLess costly wiring installationNo home I/O wiring runsEvent drivenDevices publish control information to the networkEvent driven – if an event happens it goes on to the network, does not need to poll.Can remove after installation completeMonitoring and control can be added at any pointDecentralized AutomationDistributed intelligenceIntelligent nodes/devicesNo central processor neededSingle point of failure eliminatedReduced wiring requirement
9The Origins of LONWORKS Technology 2-6Local Operating NetworkEchelon founded in 1988 by AC ‘Mike’ MarkulaCEO of Apple ComputerFirst Neuron Chip shipped in 1991Echelon is a global company250+ employeesNasdaq listed ELON100+ productsLonTalk is an implementation of an open protocol international standardISO/IECANSI/CEA 709.1BENLonWorks refers to “technology”While explaining Apple’s networking “roadmap” (early days of computer networks) to new CEO John Scully, Mike realized there was a hole in the plan –control of devices over network.
10Benefits of the LONWORKS Platform 2-7Robust, reliable, proven everyday device networking protocol on a single inexpensive microchipDistributed control with reduced single point of failureManufacturers of smart everyday devices can get to market quicklyEnd users no longer locked into single supplierIntegrators can choose best of breed devicesLonTalk ISO/IEC protocol is media independentLONWORKS tools operate on multiple computer platformsMulti-industry standards group ensure interoperability – LONMARK InternationalFlexibility for changes and expansion, very easy to add & interchange devicesCan be used for almost any type of control/ operation of any type of equipmentOverall result –Lower costsDecreased complexityFlexibility for changes and expansionMore options
11Open Systems To ensure an open interoperable system is delivered 2-8To ensure an open interoperable system is deliveredAll application-specific controllers should be LONMARK certifiedNetwork architecture should follow the LONMARK Open Systems Architecture definition.BenefitsAbility to chose between multiple vendorsAffordable and economical service and system expansionSub-system and device-level expansion at any timeFull choice of service providersFacilitate interoperability with other vendors / systemsPlethora of choicesFlexible, expandable automationVAV, T-Stat are applications
12LONMARK International Making Plug-and-Play A Reality 2-9LonMark International is a global membership organization created to promote and advance the business of efficient and effective integration of open, multi-vendor control systems utilizing ISO/IEC and related standards.
13Who is LONMARK International? 2-10Manufacturers, distributors, engineers, system integrators and end-usersCalifornia based non-profit corporation.Over 500 members worldwideOver 750 certified interoperable productsOver 70 approved functional profilesOversees open systems professional certificationThe word LONMARK itself is a trade association symbolLonMark refers to trade association symbolMembership open to any manufacturer, distributor, engineer, system integrator, or end-user interested in the development, specification, and use of open, interoperable products utilizing ANSI/CEA and related standards
14LONMARK - A Virtual Who’s Who in Control Networking
15Look for the LONMARK Label 2-12Ensures that products will interoperate in the most efficient and economical way possible in an open, integrated control systemIncludes the number designating the latest version of the LONMARK Interoperability Guidelines as shown here.Certifies product conformance following technical guidelines and standards developed by industry specific task groupsSFP - standard functional profilesSNVT - standard network variable typesSCPT - standard configuration property typesProvides a resource of device informationControllers, actuators and application-specific devices can be LONMARK CertifiedSFP – LonMark site has this data on their site
16LON Speak LONWORKS LonTalk LNS LONMARK LonMaker LonPoints Channel – communication mediaNetwork Variable – NV application specific data shared among devices and toolsBinding- network variable connectionConfiguration property – defines device/object/NV behaviorFunctional Profile – A definition created by LonMark to describe how the combination of network variables and configuration properties support device function.Functional Block – An instance of a functional profile present on a device.Plug-in – application that provides a graphical user friendly way to configure devicesXIF – A text file listing functional blocks, network variables and configuration properties to be used in designing a network without having physical devices present.SFPT/SFP – standard functional profile template defined by LonMarkSNVT – standard network variable type defined by LonMarkUNVT – user network variable type defined by manufacturerSCPT – standard config property type defined by LonMarkA-3Use simple one sentence descriptions. Details on following slides.LonWorks – generic term to describe the technology, overall encompassing system.LonTalk – communication protocol, the language.LNS – Lonworks Network Services – network operating system, database toolsLonMark – interoperability organization, organization that certifies devicesLonMaker – network management tool design/install/manage, network integration toolLonPoints – Echelon’s intelligent devices, no longer soldNetwork Integrator – contractor that delivers complete control solution to end user, he who creates the systemNeuron Chip– 3 microprocessors on one chip that implements the LonTalk protocol, they do all the workNode – intelligent device, anyhting with a neuron chip, speaks on LonWork networki.LON –Echelon’s family of internet enabled LonWorks devices that provide routing, interface, web services, data logging, scheduling, and alarming functionality. IP productDomain/Subnet/Node – device’s logical address (city/street/address)Client/Server – allows multiple users running LNS tools such as LonMaker on separate computers to access the LNS server simultaneously, how LNS is allowed to communicate.Channel – what you talk overNetwork Variable – output of a deviceBinding – making a connectionConfiguration Property – making adjustments, doing set pointsFunctional Profile – definition of a device, the network variables, configuration properties, defaults, and power-up behaviorsFunctional Block – instance of a profilePlug-In - manufacturer created profilesXIF – definition of everything that makes up a device, file tells network-management tools how to communicate and recognize a deviceSFP – Standard Functional ProfileSNVT – Standard Network Variable TypeUNVT – User Network Variable Type (manufacturer, provides resource of device information)SCPT – Standard Configuration Property TypeUCPT – User Configuration Property TypeLONWORKSLonTalkLNSLONMARKLonMakerLonPointsNetwork IntegratorNeuron ChipDevice/Nodei.LONDomain/Subnet/NodeClient/ServerChannelNetwork VariableBindingConfiguration PropertyFunctional ProfileFunctional BlockPlug-InExternal Interface File (XIF)SFPT or SFPSNVTUNVTSCPT and UCPT
17LONWORKS – Distributed Control Intelligence 2-13Puts the control intelligence inside the device where the control happensEach device may subdivide multiple control functionality into objects called functional blocksCould be I/O, controller, system wide functions or a combinationAny device can communicate with any other device using standard data typesCan create large, powerful and flexible networks across LANs and WANsReduces installation costs compared to Master/Slave systemsFlat LonWorks architectures allow devices to communicate with each other without passing data through central controllerFlat LonWorks architectures devices can communicate with each other without passing data through central controller
18LONWORKS Network Program 2-14The network image is a collection of configured devices and their associated connections (aka network variable bindings)A network management tool is initially required to configure device behavior and define the network variable connectionsWhen the tool is finished it can go away!LONWORKS uses an event driven control processThe network in the drawing is without function. Don’t try to understand what it does.
19Addressing and Routing LonTalk Protocol2-14Communications protocol - language of LONWORKSOpen and published standard available to anyoneISO/IEC (ANSI/CEA 709.1)Designed for control applications - not data applicationsIncludes all 7 layers of the ISO Open Systems Interconnection Reference ModelImplemented on all LONWORKS devices through Neuron Chip or equivalent processorMedia independentPhysical ConnectionMedia AccessAddressing and RoutingMessage ServiceNetwork ManagementNetwork VariablesNeuron C Program1245673PhysicalData LinkTransportSessionPresentationApplicationNetworkPhysical MediaPhysical Electrical Interconnect twisted pair, power line, radio frequency, coax, fiber opticLink Media Access and Framing CRC Error checking, Collision Avoidance, Data EncodingNetwork Destination Addressing Addressing RoutersTransport End-to-end Reliability Acknowledged & unacknowledgedSession Remote Actions Authentication, Network Interface and ManagementPresentation Data Interpretation Network varaiblesApplication Application Compatibility SNVT
20Addressing and Routing LonTalk Standards2-15ISO/IECOpen Data Communication in Building Automation, Controls and Building ManagementANSI/CEA BControl Network Protocol SpecificationEN :2005GB/ZControl Network LonWorks Technology SpecificationIEEE 1473Standard for Communications Protocol Aboard TrainsPhysical ConnectionMedia AccessAddressing and RoutingMessage ServiceNetwork ManagementNetwork VariablesNeuron C Program1245673PhysicalData LinkTransportSessionPresentationApplicationNetworkPhysical Media
21ISO/IEC 14908 and Related Control Standards 2-16InternationalElectrotechnicalCommissionInternational Organization for StandardizationISO/IEC Open Data Communication in Building Automation, Controls and Building Management – Control Network ProtocolBecause "International Organization for Standardization" would have different acronyms in different languages ("IOS" in English, "OIN" in French for Organisation internationale de normalisation), its founders decided to give it also a short, all-purpose name. They chose "ISO", derived from the Greek isos, meaning "equal". Whatever the country, whatever the language, the short form of the organization's name is always ISO.provides peer to peer and master/slave control strategies,125kbit/s between multiple nodesall information necessary for power line communicationInternet protocol communicationISO/IECPart 1: Protocol StackANSI/CEA B-2000EN :2005GB/ZISO/IECPart 2: Twisted Pair CommunicationANSI/CEA-709.3ENGB/ZISO/IECPart 3: Power Line Channel SpecificationANSI/CEA-709.2ENGB/ZISO/IECPart 4: IP CommunicationANSI/CEA-852ENGB/Z
22LONWORKS Network Elements 2-17ChannelNetwork ToolDeviceChannelMedia that devices communicate overDeviceActuator, sensor, controller or combinationLONMARK Certified or compliantNetwork ToolNetwork management toolHuman machine interface (HMI)Protocol analysisNote that controllers, actuators, and applications specific devices can be LonMark Certified
23Network Integration/ Management Tools 2-18Install devices on a network and enable them to become active participants in the network byAssigning logical network addressesBinding network variable connectionsConfiguring devicesCommissioning devicesRequired for non-self installed networksLM ExamCommon network management tasks - binding, commissioning, and device configurationRequired for non-self installed networksA primary goal of all integration tools – assign logical addressesProvide device with applications, logical addresses and links to device variablesAlso referred to as Network Integration Tools
24Network Variables LM Exam 2-19The dynamic data sent or received by network devicesCreate the logical interface to the networkSignal-type independent – temperature, pressure, volume, flow, etc.SNVTs are standard network variable types as defined by LONMARKKnown and documented structure, size, range, resolution and scaling for each field.UNVTs (user network variable types) are manufacturer definedLM ExamNVs create the logical interface of the node to the networkSNVT includes size, range, resolution and scaling for each fieldNote that the SNVT types given here just randomly chosen examples. SNVTs provide a convenient way to exchange data between two or more points.We will use network variables throughout this course to accomplish a distributed network control algorithm.
25Configuration Properties 2-20Define device’s operating or application behavior such as setpoint, high limits, throttle.SCPTs are standard configuration property types defined by LONMARKKnown and documented structure, format, range, etc.SCPT Master List available onUCPTs (user configuration property types) are manufacturer defined
26Functional Blocks2-21Defines a single function within a device – sensor, actuator or controllerDevices can include multiple functional blocksInclude network variables (NV) and configuration properties (CP)Standard Functional Profiles (SFP) are templates defined by LONMARK which describe the application-layer interfaceUser-defined functional profiles (UFP) represent manufacturer specific control functionsLonMark Functional profiles describe in detail the application-layer interface—including the network variables, configuration properties, defaults, and power-up behaviors—required on LonMark devices for specific, commonly used control functions.
27LONMARK Standard Functional Profiles - SFP 2-22Describe in detail the application-layer interface required on interoperable LONMARK devices for specific, commonly used control functionsEnsure interoperability by definingMandatory and optional SNVTsMandatory and optional SCPTsDefault and power-up behaviorsA device’s primary functionmust be based on SFP if it is to be certified to the LONMARK Interoperability Guidelines.To be LONMARK certified, a device must contain one or more SFPEvery SFP must include at least one network variable or configuration propertyLM ExamFunctional profile defines minimum NV and CP requirementsCertified device must contain one or more LonMark profilesRequired to become LM certified under 3.4 or later – primary function using one or more LM profilesMandatory NVs and CPs for specific functions aid interoperabilityDevice’s primary function must be based on SFP to be certifiedEvery profile has at least one NV or CPData types and network direction of mandatory input and output NVsEnsure interoperability
28Device Interface Elements 2-23Device Interface ElementsFunctional BlocksNetwork VariablesConfiguration PropertiesHardware characteristicsDevice External Interface File (.XIF)Created by device manufacturerSpawned from the device application program
29Demonstration: LONWORKS Resources LONMARK Web siteSNVT/SCPT master listInteroperability guidelinesFunctional profilesCase study examples
30LNS® – LONWORKS Network Services 2-25Network management platformFoundation for open and interoperable networksProvides unified functions - directory, installation, management, monitoring and control services to a Windows programClient/server architecturesSupports open configuration tools from multiple vendorsMultiple personnel can simultaneously access network and application management services and data from any number of client toolsProvides access to any point of network information from any point on the networkLNS based tools include resource filesLM ExamLNS – LonWorks Network ServicesProvides unified functions to a Windows programEchelon Corporation's LNS provides directory, installation, management, monitoring, and control services required for open LonWorks networks. LNS is a platform that allows multiple LNS applications to interoperate on the same personal computer (PC) or on multiple PCs on the same network. See also LonWorks Network Services.
31Local Client Application(s) Remote Client Application(s) LNS Server2-26Provides network servicesNetwork installation and configurationNetwork maintenance and repairSystem monitoring and controlMaintains network database of project data stored in standardized formatEnables and coordinates multiple points of access to its services and dataMust be present on the network whenever management operations are performedRuns on PC and provides database and unified functions for accessing LW networkLNS is a client-server operating system with a single LNS Server that supports many interoperating client applications. The LNS Server can run as a standalone application on a PC attached to the network, or it can run on the same PC as the Network Management tool. Clients on other PCs (called remote clients) can log into the LNS Server to access the shared LNS database.Network Management tools use the client-server capabilities of LNS to allow multiple Network Management tools running on different PCs to simultaneously access the same LNS Server. This capability allows multiple users to work at the same time on a single network.Local Client Application(s)LNS ToolLNS Plug-InRemote Client Application(s)LNS ToolLNS Plug-InRemoteAccessLNS ServerUtilityLNS ServerDatabaseLONWORKS Network
32Local Client Application(s) Remote Client Application(s) LNS Clients2-27Client - LNS applications, capable of running locally or remotely.A single network can simultaneously be accessed by several local and remote applications.Local client application - one that is running on the same PC as the LNS Server and database.Remote client application - one that is running on a PC that does not contain the LNS database or run the LNS Server.Local Client Application(s)LNS ToolLNS Plug-InRemote Client Application(s)LNS ToolLNS Plug-InRemoteAccessLNS ServerUtilityLNS ServerDatabaseLONWORKS Network
33Summary and Review Network variable Configuration properties 2-28What creates the logical interface to a LONWORKS network?network variableWhat defines a device’s operating or application behavior ?configuration propertiesWhat provides unified functions - directory, installation, management, monitoring and control services to a Windows program?LNS – LONWORKS Network ServicesHow many layers of the ISO standard for networking does the LonTalk protocol include?7 (seven)What must a device’s primary function be based on if it is to be certified to the LONMARK Interoperability Guidelines?SFP - Standard Functional ProfileWhat does SNVT stand for? SCPT?Standard Network Variable Type, Standard Configuration PropertiesNetwork variableConfiguration propertiesLNS LonWorks Network Services7 (seven)SFP – Standard Functional ProfileStandard Network Variable Type, Standard Configuration Property Type
35Objectives Describe the steps for creating a network design 3-2Describe the steps for creating a network designChoose an appropriate network architectureExplain the difference between monitoring and control functions vs. network management tasksIdentify possible network topologiesSelect design and installation strategiesChoose a network design tool
36Network Design Process 3-3PLAN THE NETWORKIdentifyArchitecturesLONWORKS networks are design/build networksEngineered networks are built to fit any application, architecture, and customer needSuccess requires planningUsing the right partsLogical design sequenceSafe installation processNetwork sustainabilitySelect NetworkComponentsIMPLEMENT THE NETWORKInstall PhysicalNetworkProgramCommissionNetworkTEST AND OPTIMIZETest and VerifyNetworkOptimizeNetworkDOCUMENT AND MAINTAINDocumentNetworkMaintainNetwork
37Planning the Network Design 3-4Project informationWho is the customer?Control requirementsWhat does the customer require?Network architectureWhat topologies are possible?How will network tools access the network?How will end users access network information?How will the network design be created?Who will create the design? Where?How will the network program be implemented?Commissioning, testing, verification?How will the network be maintained?Adds, moves, changes, backups, replacements?
38Job Aid – Network Design Plan Worksheet 3-5Begin to design your network with the Network Design Plan WorksheetNote that when looking at the worksheet on the following page, many of the items that are not clear yet will become clear later In the courseNSI Network Services InterfaceTP/FT Free topology/twisted pairPCC-10 formerly PCMCIA pc cardPCLTA-10 ½ size ISA cardSLTA-10 RS232 port
39Installation Options Interoperable Self-Installation (ISI) Lowest cost 3-6Interoperable Self-Installation (ISI)Lowest costSuitable for simple networks with simple configuration and connectionsStandard installation tool using an i.LON SmartServerSimplest solution for small networksSuitable for simple networks with simple configuration and no connectionsStandard installation tool such as LonMakerLowest development costBest flexibility and network documentationCustom installation toolMost customized solutionHighest development cost
41Simple Device Network3-8Devices communicate with each other directly, no head end or master controller required.Network management tool is not required after devices have been commissionedA portable network manage-ment tool is required to perform network maintenance tasks such as adds, moves and changesNM ToolPortable NetworkManagement Tool
42Local Client Applications 3-9LNS database resides on same computer as the network toolLNS network management tools and Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) communicate with devices via network services interface (NSI) hardware/ softwareLocal NSI interface over Twisted Pair, Power Line, RFLocal IP client over IP-852i.LON router connects IP channel to LONWORKS channelConfig Server must be running on a PC connected to IP-852 channelLocal IP client over telephone networkUses PPP (point-to-point protocol)Requires RNIPoor performanceNSILNS App(s)LNS ServerLocal ClientSNTP server may be required if IP-852 channel is internetLNS App(s)Config ServerLNS ServerLocal IP ClientIP-852 Networki.LONIP-852NIC
43Remote Lightweight Client Applications 3-10Communicate with LNS Server via IP network (not to be confused with IP-852 channel.)Doesn’t have data server so can only communicate with devices on physical network through the LONWORKS interface of the serverNetwork management, monitoring and controlling tasks are all routed through the LNS Server.Potential bottleneck in the LNS Server if multiple remote lightweight clients monitoring and controlling multiple data points simultaneously.LM ExamLightweight client needs IP connection to LNSDoes not have its own data serverLNS App(s)Remote Lightweight ClientLNS ServerNSINICIP NetworkServer
44Remote Fullweight Client Applications 3-11Communicate with the LNS Server PC through any LONWORKS channel, typically IP-852 or TP/XF-1250.Has data server so can communicate directly with devices through its own network interface (any LONWORKS channel including IP-852).Network management tasks are routed through the LNS Server.Monitoring and controlling tasks are sent directly to the network.LM ExamFullweight clients use its own LonWorks interface and bus connectionClient PC has LNS client and data serverNSILNS App(s)Full ClientLNS ServerServerTP/XF-1250High SpeedBackboneRouterNICLNS App(s)Full ClientConfig ServerLNS ServerNICServerIP-852 Networki.LONIP-852
45Telephone Connections to the Network 3-12ModemSLTA-10PSTNNM ToolNSIHMI ToolSLTA (Serial LonTalk Adapter) with modem locally installed at networkModems allow the RS-232 line to be extended through the public switched telephone networkLinkManager software required by LNS applicationNM ToolNSIModemPSTNHMI Tooli.LON 100 withModem Optioni.LON 100 can also provide remote IP connectivity with optional internal modemSupports connection to an external GSM or GPRS modem
47Internet/Intranet IP Backbone 3-17Internet to LONWORKS (i.LON devices) can be used to create one network by connecting remote locations over IP-852 channelsLNS Server is not required for routing packetsUp to 256 IP-852 devices per channelIP-852 can use existing IP infrastructurei.LONsIP-852i.LONDevices in LondonDevices in LisbonDevices in BeijingDevices in Hong KongDevices in New YorkIntranet 3(IP)Intranet 1Intranet 2 (IP)NICInternetSNTP Server12:10:15Web BrowserLM ExamSignificant advantage of IP-852 – use existing of IP infrastructure
48Monitoring/Control and Network Management 3-18Network management/maintenance tasks are routed through the LNS serveradd/remove devices and routerschange channelsbind NVsadjust CPsMonitoring and Control applications are sent directly to the networkget updates (monitor network variables)send updates (write to network variables)On a remote lightweight client, monitoring, and controlling tasks as well as network management tasks are routed through the LNS ServerLM Exam (note entire monitoring paragraph)Monitoring - The ability to display real-time data about a networkWeb based – UI that allows browser to accessWeb server allows data to be displayed to an Internet browser in HTML format.Note that while database is not required for monitoring and control, server needs to be present for LonMakerLNS ServerMonitoring andControlManagement andMaintenanceMonitoring - The ability to display real-time data about a network