Presentation on theme: "A2 Crime and Deviance Control and Punishment. Learning outcomes Understand and evaluate a range of crime prevention and control strategies, Define and."— Presentation transcript:
A2 Crime and Deviance Control and Punishment
Learning outcomes Understand and evaluate a range of crime prevention and control strategies, Define and evaluate the different perspectives on punishment, Identify the main trends in sentencing and define their significance, Define the main patterns of victimisation and evaluate the sociological perspectives on victimisation.
Crime Prevention and Control Key themes: 1.What makes people commit crime ? 2.When are they tempted not to do so? 3.What be done to prevent them from deviating ?
Situational Crime Prevention (SCP) An introduction 11Cw 11Cw
SCP: a definition Situational Crime Prevention theory is based on the foundation that much of the crime committed is contextual and opportunistic. This is the view that criminals act rationally, weighing up the cost and benefits of a crime opportunity before deciding whether to commit it ( links in with the Rational Choice Theory)
Situational Crime Prevention 2 key sociologist: Ron Clark (1992) Felson (1998)
What do you think? Can you think of examples of situational crime prevention which are in place in contemporary society ?
Ron Clarke (1992) Describes SCP as a pre-emptive approach that relies on reducing the opportunities for crime, Emphasises on three features of measures aimed at SCP: 1.Directed at specific crime, 2.Involve managing or altering the immediate environment of the victim, 3.Aim to increase the effort and risks of committing crime as well as reducing the rewards to committing crime.
Clarkes (1992) contrast with theories of crime that stress that the root cause can be explained through examples such as lack of socialisation or capitalist exploitation. Thus in order to deal with crime we would need to transform the socialisation of children or create a revolution. Furthermore Clarke (1992) argues that most theories do not provide a realistic solution to crime thus we need to focus on the immediate crime situation.
Marcus Felson (1998) – an example of SCP The Port Authority Bus Terminal poor design was a perfect location for deviant conduct such as luggage thefts, rough sleeping, homosexual liaisons and drug dealing. Restructuration of the bus terminal design based on SCP by replacing the large sinks in which the homeless people were bathing by smaller ones reduced such activity.
TPS In pairs: Discuss the following questions What prevention measures do you take to avoid being a victim of crime in different situations? What prevention measures are taken in your family home? What prevention measures have you seen elsewhere in the last few days ? (bus, tube, college, shops, etc)
Displacement Why do you think that the concept of displacement could be seen as a criticism of SCP? SCP does not reduce crime it simply moves it elsewhere..... Chaiken et al (1974) subway robberies
Displacement 5 forms of displacement: 1.Spatial (moving elsewhere to commit crime), 2.Temporal ( committing it at a different time), 3.Target (choosing a different victim) 4.Tactical (using a different method) 5.Functional (committing a different type of crime) Link with suicide.
What do you think ? How do you believe that the concept of suicide links in with the idea of displacement in sociology?
Evaluation Using the information on the book in your own words write down an evaluation of the concept of situational crime prevention.
Task In groups: A survey of 76 known adult burglars in Rochdale, published by the Home Office Crime Prevention Unit in 1988, found that: Using the information above, you are asked to make recommendations to the local Neighbourhood Watch group about target- hardening measures to prevent burglary in your area. What recommendations would you make? As a group, put together a plan of action.
Environmental Crime Prevention Key sociologist: Wilson and Kelling (1982) Definition: Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, or CPTED (pronounced sep-ted), is crime prevention philosophy based on the theory that proper design and effective use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime, as well asan improvement in the quality of life.
Downes (1999) – Broken Windows Used to describe the various signs of disorders and lack of concerns for others found in some neighbourhood, Examples: graffiti, begging, dog fouling, etc Downes argues that leaving broken windows unrepaired and tolerating aggressive behaviour sends out a signal that no one cares. Absence of control 1.Formal social control (the police) 2.Informal social control ( the community)
Zero tolerance Policy Wilson and Kelling Two fold strategy: – Environmental improvement strategy : any broken windows must be repaired immediately, – Zero tolerance policy: proactive tackling of any sign of disorder whether it might be criminal or not.
Have a think? Can you think of behaviour for which you believe a zero tolerance policy should be put in place in your area ?
Individual Task Read through the evidence section of your handout and summarise the topic of evidence.
Social and Community Crime Prevention Wilson and Kelling emphasises of the power of community and other informal modes of social control, Strategies which aim to remove the conditions that predispose individuals to crime in the 1 st place (long term strategy), Emphasises that crime is often rooted in social conditions such as poverty, unemployment, and poor housing.
The Perry School Project In your table groups read through the Perry pre-school project and answer the questions on the handout.
Punishment 2 justifications for the concept: – Reduction: the act of decreasing or reducing something – Retribution: a justly deserved sanction which might make an example of someone thus preventing the behaviour from occurring again.
Reduction Can you think of an example of deterrence, rehabilitation and incapacitation when looking at a criminal behaviour of your choice ?
Reduction Deterrence: discouraging an individual from committing crime (young offenders institutions), Rehabilitation: reforming or changing an individuals behaviour so that they cease to commit crime (sex offender treatment), Incapacitation: punishment is used to remove offenders capacity to offend again (release conditions) Retribution: paying back to society.
Soc perspectives in punishment Functionalist and Marxist Functionalist see punishment as
Functionalist perspective 2 types of justice (retributive and restitutive), Retributive: Restitutive:
Marxism Society is split in two subordinate classes (ruling and subordinate), Link between punishment and how it serves the ruling class, Function of punishment is
Marxism EP Thomas (1977) and the rule of terror (punishment administered such as hanging were a methods of maintaining social control), Rusche and Kirchheimer (1939) punishment reflects the base of the economy, Melossi and Pavarini (1981) imprisonment reflects the capitalist economy based on the exploitation of wage labour
Foucault (1977) Discipline and punish – the concept of sovereign and disciplinary power. Sovereign power Disciplinary power
Foucault Panopticon Prisons
Changing roles of prisons The purpose of prisons in pre industrial Europe was
Imprisonment today In liberal society where the death penalty des not exist, prison is the most severe form of punishment (also seen as a deterrent for petty offenders), Scepticism with regards to prisons ability to truly rehabilitate, Move towards populist punitiveness (seeking electoral popularity by campaigning for tougher sentences – New Labour)
Imprisonment Today Prison populations has increased Overcrowding issues such as
Imprisonment today Cross-cultural findings Gender and ethnic differences
Era of mass incarceration Read through page 142 and summarise in your own words the concept of mass incarceration and transcarceration
Alternatives to Prisons Diversion – reducing the risk of self fulfilling prophecy, Examples of diversion such as community based controls, curfews, electronic tagging, etc Steady rise of young offenders in custody, Link in with Marxist concept that community controls are a form of societal control.