Presentation on theme: "Hope Lorenz. Introduction Three Physiological Systems Required for Voice Production Respiratory Phonatory Resonation Voice Evaluation Includes Measures."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction Three Physiological Systems Required for Voice Production Respiratory Phonatory Resonation Voice Evaluation Includes Measures of… Vital Capacity Maximum Phonation Time
Previous Research Normative Values Vital Capacity Males – 4180 to 4800cc Females – 3010 to 3500 cc Maximum Phonation Time Males – 24.6 to 31.6 seconds Females – 20.9 to 24.6 seconds Ptacek, et al. (1966), Awan (2001), Rau and Beckett (1984), and Shanks and Mast (1977
Previous Research Continued… Factors Which Influence Vital Capacity and Maximum Phonation Time The best method for eliciting maximum phonation time is the combination of verbal instructions with a full model of the task (Soman, 1997). Measures of vital capacity and maximum phonation time do not fall within normal ranges for individuals who smoke (Awan & Alphonso, 2007) Increased age is associated with decreased performance in vital capacity and maximum phonation time (Awan, 2006) Height most strongly predicts measures of vital capacity (Parma et al., 1996)
Previous Research Continued… Impact of Vocal Training Singers have slightly higher measures of vital capacity than wind instrumentalists and normal speakers (Schorr-Lesnick, Teirstein, Brown, & Miller, 1985) A retrospective study compared vital capacity and maximum phonation time of trained singers with normative data and found no significant difference between the two (Carroll et al., 1996)
Purpose Singers are trained to effectively use respiration for phonation Suggests singers may be able to sustain phonation for longer than normal speakers Limitations of previous studies Retrospective Impact of smoking Impact of height
Research Questions Is there a difference in vital capacity in trained singers versus normal speakers? Is there a difference in maximum phonation time in trained singers versus normal speakers?
Participants Trained Singers Normal Speakers 18-23 years old 10 vocal majors At least 1 year formal vocal training at collegiate level Exercised average of 2.4 times per week 2 Freshman, 2 Sophomores, 3 Juniors, 3 Seniors No history of smoking In good health Average Height = 64.40 inches 19 to 22 years old 6 CDS majors, 2 elementary education majors, 1 English major, 1 marketing major No previous vocal training Exercised average of 3.4 times per week 6 Seniors, 4 Sophomores No history of smoking In good health Average Height = 64.40 inches
Measurements Vital Capacity Measured with a Spiropet dry spirometer Standing with good posture, blow air into handheld device Repeatable measures within 10% Maximum Phonation Time Measured using the Visipitch IV Standing with good posture, continue to phonate /a/ as long as possible Repeatable measures within 10%
Correlation Between Maximum Phonation Time and Vital Capacity The correlation between maximum phonation time and vital capacity was r =.24; p =.29; indicating the two measures were not significantly correlated. Vital Capacity (in cc) Maximum Phonation Time (in seconds)
Maximum Phonation Results No significant difference in maximum phonation time between groups Both groups lower than past norms Maximum Phonation Time Norms Females – 20.9 to 24.6 seconds Ptacek, et al. (1966), Awan (2001), Rau and Beckett (1984), and Shanks and Mast (1977)
Vital Capacity Results Normative Values Vital Capacity Females – 3010 to 3500cc Ptacek, et al. (1966), Awan (2001), Rau and Beckett (1984), and Shanks and Mast (1977) Vital capacity significantly higher in normal speakers; p =.02 Trained singers lower than past norms Normal Speakers within past norms
Discussion of Unexpected Results Why was vital capacity significantly lower for trained singers than the control group? Why was maximum phonation time lower for singers than controls (although not significantly) and why were both groups lower than past norms? What factors may have influenced these results?
Influence of Major Communication Disorders and Sciences Majors: Understanding of task possibly skewed results
Influence of Exercise Each Week Times/WeekTrained SingersNormal Speakers 030 1-213 3-444 5+23
Discussion Clinical Implications Large range of normal Possible contributing factors: Profession/Education Years of vocal training Exercise Future Research Factors which influence measures Amount of vocal training