22Let’s look at some details about Hardware... What is the Central Processing Unit or CPU?
23The CPU is the real “brain” of the computer and contains electronic components and integrated circuits mounted on the MOTHERBOARD
24MOTHERBOARD EXAMPLE: PCI expansion slots AGP video slot ISA expansion slotsMicroprocessor slotRAM modules plug in hereHard drive connectionsFloppy Drive connections
25THE MICROPROCESSOR CHIP or “the brain” Hardware - The CPU containsthe inner workings of the computer including...THE MICROPROCESSOR CHIP or “the brain”
26The microprocessor chip’s PERFORMANCE (or speed) is gauged by MEGAHERTZ (MHz), or clock speed, which is millions of cycles per second.
27The faster the microprocessor chips pulse, the faster the computer PROCESSES information
28ENIAC had over 18,000 vacuum tubes and The first computer ever built was named ENIAC or Electronic Numerical Integratorand Calculator.It was built at the University of Pennsylvania inPhiladelphia in 1944.ENIAC had over 18,000 vacuum tubes andcould only perform math calculations.
29microprocessor chip history... The 4004 was the first microprocessor chip made, and was used in a clockThe 8086 and thethe brains of IBM's Personal Computer1974… The 8080 microprocessor chip became the brains of the first personal computerThe 286 microprocessor chip was the first to be compatible with all software
30microprocessor chip history... The 386 microprocessor chip had over 100 times as many transistors as the It was "multitasking”.1993…The Pentium microprocessor chip allowed computers to more easily incorporatespeech, sound, handwriting and photographic images.1989… 486 Microprocessor chip was the first to have a built-in math coprocessor, whichspeeds up computing.
31microprocessor chip history... 1995…The Pentium Pro microprocessor chip was faster, enabling the use of programs for computer-aided design, mechanical engineeringand scientific computation.1997…Pentium II microprocessor chip contains 7.5 million-transistors and was designed to process video, audio and graphics data efficiently.
32Think about how computers affect our lives… Go through a day and notice all the things you see that work because of a computer or microprocessor chip installed in them.Remember... anything that provides a digital display, such as a digital clock, has a microprocessor chip in it!
33RAM or RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Hardware - The CPU containsthe inner workings of the computer including...RAM or RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
34RAM is TEMPORARY MEMORY the computer uses to store information the microprocessor chip needs to operate
35is a number of MEMORY CHIPS mounted on the motherboard RAMis a number of MEMORY CHIPS mounted on the motherboard
36RAM...a.is the main memory of a computer systemstores three things... the Operating System, Software Applications and Datab.
37RAM…c.is a holding place for programs & data which must be in RAM before they will workd.is memory measured by the basic unit called a byte
38RAM...e.is measured in megabytes such as 128 Mb or 256 Mb, or gigabytes such as 1 Gbf.is a computer system's PRIMARY workspace
39forms the critical LINK between software and hardware RAM...g.determines the size and number of programs that can be open at the same timeh.forms the critical LINK between software and hardware
40Compare the RAM in a computer to a cup of coffee: An example of RAM...Compare the RAM in a computer to a cup of coffee:Pour too much coffee into this cup and what happens? It spills out - you lose coffee all over the table! You did not pay attention to the capacity of the cup.
41Compare the RAM in a computer to a cup of coffee: Open too many items on your computer and what happens? It spills out - well, worse - the computer freezes up and you could lose your work! You did not pay attention to the capacity of your RAM...
42Compare the RAM in a computer to a cup of coffee: …well, you could lose your work! But if you routinely SAVED the material you created during this session you would NOT lose that!
43RAM is a VOLATILE form of memory Volatile means that it can hold information only when ELECTRONICALLY powered
44If you turn off the power to the computer, all the information stored in the RAM chips is erased or LOST
45INSTALLING COMPUTER MEMORY Memory installation is a pretty easy upgrade to perform. Most of the work, if you could call it that, comes before you actually do the upgrade - in being sure you get the right kind of memory for your system.
46ROM or READ-ONLY MEMORY Hardware - The CPU containsthe inner workings of the computer including...ROM or READ-ONLY MEMORY
47ROM is similar to RAM with one important difference... the information stored on ROM is NOT VOLATILE
48Information is PERMANENTLY recorded on the circuits of the ROM chips during manufacturing and cannot be erased
49When you turn the power off on the computer... the information stored in the ROM chips is NOT LOST like it is in RAMWhen you turn the power off on the computer...
50When you turn the computer back on, the information stored in ROM is once again available to the CPU and to the OPERATING SYSTEM
51The computer uses ROM to store PROGRAMMING and INSTRUCTIONS
52THE HARD DISK DRIVE [C:] Hardware - The CPU containsthe inner workings of the computer including...THE HARD DISK DRIVE [C:]
53The Hard Disk Drive [C:] contains the hard disk and is the computer's main PERMANENT STORAGE DEVICE
54The hard disk drive [C:] holds large amounts of DATA and PROGRAMS
55BITS AND BYTESDATA and PROGRAMS are stored in DIGITAL form made up of bits or bytes
56BITS AND BYTESThe computer processes and stores information in BINARY form (Bi=Latin for Two) which means it uses two digits… “0” and “1”
57Each “1” or “0” in the computer is called a BIT BITS AND BYTESEach “1” or “0” in the computer is called a BITA BIT is one particle on a diskBIT is short for “binary digit”A BIT is the smallest unit of information a computer can understand“0” represents (off) and “1” represents (on)
58BITS AND BYTESBasic Input Output System (BIOS) is the part of the operating system that handles communication between the computer and all of its peripheral devices (keyboard, printer, mouse, etc.)
59A set of 8 bits (such as 0100 0001 = A) makes a BYTE. BITS AND BYTESA set of 8 bits (such as = A) makes a BYTE.Each alphabetic character, such as A, B, C... is represented by ONE BYTE.
60BITS AND BYTESOne standard page of typewritten text is approximately 2,000 characters or 2k bytes
61Information on your hard disk is NOT AFFECTED when you turn off the computer... and remains on the hard disk unless youTELL THE COMPUTERto delete it.
62THE FLOPPY DISK DRIVE [A:] Hardware - The CPU containsthe inner workings of the computer including...THE FLOPPY DISK DRIVE [A:]
6331/2” Floppy Disk Drive [A:] is found at the front of the...CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
64Each floppy disk drive consists of a... SLOTto accept a floppy diskMOTORthat spins the diskrecording &readingdevicethat moves across the disk in order to READ (look for) or WRITE (save) data
65Parts of the 31/2” Floppy Disk Drive [A:] This is where the floppy disk is INSERTEDThis light turns green to indicate the disk drive is READING or WRITING the inserted floppy diskPush this button to EJECT the floppy disk
66THE 31/2” FLOPPY DISK Hardware - The CPU contains the inner workings of the computer including...THE 31/2” FLOPPY DISK
67The 31/2” floppy disk is a STORAGE DEVICE for computer data to use in Drive [A:]
68Floppy disks are REMOVABLE making this storage device a good way to store your data... to give the data to another person... or to BACK-UPyour data (make an extra copy for safe keeping)
69Inside the protective case of the 31/2” floppy disk is a thin plate of flexible plastic coated with a layer of magnetic material.
70Let’s look at the inside of a 31/2” disk... When a 31/2” disk is broken open, the two halves of the cover break apart to expose the inside...
71The magnetic disk is positioned between two white paper rings Plastic HousingThe two rings are glued down to the plastic housing and stay still while the disk spinsMagnetic DiskPaper RingThe paper rings keep the magnetic disk clean from dust
72MAGNETIC DISKMade of a round, floppy piece of plastic coated with iron oxide.Iron oxide can be magnetized.When you save data on a disk, a recording head creates a magnetic pattern on the iron oxide.The pattern stores the data in a way that helps the computer “read” it, the next time you use the disk.
73PLASTIC FLAPIt's hidden under one of the paper rings.The small end is glued down, and the plastic is bent, just a little.It pushes the paper ring tight against the surface of the magnetic disk.
74THE HUBThe metal center of the magnetic floppy disk.The holes in the hub are like the hole in the middle of a vinyl record - they fit over spindles inside the computer and hold the disk in place while it spins.
75THE SHUTTERThe shutter is a piece of metal at the bottom edge of the disk.The shutter protects a rectangular area which exposes part of the delicate magnetic disk.This is the part of the disk that goes in first when you insert it in the computer.Inside the computer, the shutter slides over, and the information on the disk can be read through the rectangular slot.
76THE SPRINGWhen the floppy disk is ejected from the computer, the spring snaps the shutter closedThis stops dust or fingerprints from getting onto the magnetic disk
77WRITE-PROTECT TABThis little plastic rectangle is in the upper right corner of a floppy disk.It slides up to reveal a square hole in the housing...or slides down, to cover the hole.When the hole is open, the disk is locked.Your computer won't allow you to add anything to the disk or erase anything from it, while this is locked.
78will have boxes like these A double sided/high density disk is abbreviated DS/HDYou can tell that thisexample is a DS/HD bynoticing that twocorners of the diskwill have boxes like theseThe 31/2” DS/HD diskALWAYSholds 1.44 MB of data
79When you insert a floppy disk into a disk drive on your computer, a motor within the system unit spins the disk to READ or WRITE data.
80A floppy disk spins SLOWER than the hard disk A floppy disk spins SLOWER than the hard disk. A floppy disk does not hold enough information to accommodate larger programs and data files.
81DISK MAINTENANCE Take care of your disks and they will last a loooong time!
82(B) Keep diskettes away from your telephone. (A) Never place diskettes near magnetic devices; can erase information from the disk.(B) Keep diskettes away from your telephone.(C) Never touch your floppy disk media.(D) Never smoke near floppy disks.(E) Store your diskettes in a safe location.(F) Always make backup copies of your floppy disks.(G) Do not expose the disk to extreme heat or cold temperatures.(H) Never bend floppy disks.(I) Never remove the disk from the disk drive when the drive light is on.(J) Do not use paper clips or rubber bands on a disk.
83THE CD-ROM DRIVE [D:] Hardware - The CPU contains the inner workings of the computer including...THE CD-ROM DRIVE [D:]
84CD-ROM stands for: COMPACT DISK READ-ONLY MEMORY
85Information is permanently recorded on the compact disk during manufacturing and cannot be erased...
86Read-only means that you can… a. read the contents b. copy the contentsyou cannot…c. change the contents d. save data on the CD
87this type of disk also has graphics, This disk drive accepts a disk that looks like a music CD, but instead of having only music recorded on the platter,this type of disk also has graphics,text, and soundstored on it.
88Computers these days, are multimedia computers and come with... A CD-ROM DriveA sound adapter which is a card mounted on the motherboardSpeakersA Microphone
89CD-R or CD-RW DRIVE Hardware - The CPU contains the inner workings of the computer including...CD-R or CD-RW DRIVE
90CD-R stands for COMPACT DISK WRITABLE CD-RW stands for COMPACT DISK REWRITABLE
91(1) Save 700 megabytes of data on each CD — the equivalent of 450 floppy disks. This kind of disk drive accepts a CD that you can store data on. Some of the possibilities are...(2) Save files on a CD as easily as you would using a floppy disk.(3) Create your own CDs. Save files, photos, music and video.
92(4) Write and rewrite large files—Save several times on one CD-RW disk! (5) Create, store, and share your own photo, music, video, and multimedia projects.(6) Share files with anyone, anywhere. Use CD-Rs to distribute files, photos, presentations, music, and more on portable, durable CDs.
93An INTERNAL CD-Writer can be added to your desktop computer if you have an empty port... A blank panel on thefront of your CPUindicates anotherdrive can be added,such as a CD-R drive
94a. connect this portable drive to your laptop... An EXTERNAL CD-Writer can be plugged into the back of almost any computer...a. connect this portable drive to your laptop...b. to another computer in your officec. take the drive home with your office workd. you can take an external drive with you anywhere
95THE ZIP DRIVE Hardware - The CPU contains the inner workings of the computer including...THE ZIP DRIVE
96An INTERNAL Zip Drive can be added to your desktop computer if you have an empty port... A blank panel on thefront of your CPUindicates anotherdrive can be added,such as a Zip drive
97An EXTERNAL Zip Drive can be plugged into the back of any computer.
98Hardware - Another type of storage device available that are removable, easy to use and hold more data…FLASH MEMORY STICK
99FLASH MEMORY STICKElectronic memory comes in a variety of forms to serve a variety of purposes.Flash memory is used for easy and fast information storage.Flash memory is considered a solid state storage device.Solid state means that there are no moving parts -- everything is electronic instead of mechanical.
100THE MODEM Hardware - The CPU contains the inner workings of the computer including...THE MODEM
101A MODEM helps computers CONNECT with each other through telephone lines
102Most computers come with an INTERNAL modem which is installed inside the CPU If a computer does not have a modem you can connect an EXTERNAL modem which plugs into the computer from the outside
103Using a modem you can send or receive electronic mail or EMAIL
104When you send a message using your computer, the modem converts the computer signal from DIGITAL (0’s and 1’s) to ANALOG so that the telephone line understands it...
105On the receiving end, the recipient’s modem converts the message from analog back to digital.
106Modem is an abbreviation for modulator-demodulator
107A modem lets you UPLOAD and DOWNLOAD files Upload means to send a file to another computer via the modemDownload means to receive a file from another computer, via modem
108THE MONITOR Hardware - The CPU controls peripherals connected to the computer including...THE MONITOR
132A scanner picks up patterns of light and dark or color and converts the patterns into digital form. You can scan photographs, drawings, and documents to utilize as digital information.
133The Joystick Hardware - The CPU controls peripherals connected to the computer including...The Joystick
134JoystickA joystick is the easiest way to control movement on a monitor. This is typically used to play certain games such as a flight simulator.The joystick has also been found useful for people who have difficulty using a mouse for everyday use.
135The Microphone Hardware - The CPU controls peripherals connected to the computer including...The Microphone
136If you want to record sound to use on your computer you need a microphone. Any sound that goes into the microphone such as voice or music will be recorded digitally by the computer.
137Speakers Hardware - The CPU controls peripherals connected to the computer including...Speakers
138Speakers To hear sound from your computer you must attach speakers. You can play music CDs in the CD-ROM drive and hear the music through your computer speakers!
139Let’s review… the two components of computing are Hardware and Software Hardware we have discussed...Inside the CPU… Microprocessor Chip RAM ROM Hard Disk Drive Floppy Disk Drive Modem Sound Card
140Peripherals … Monitor Keyboard Mouse Printer Scanner Joystick Microphone Speakers Let’s review… the two components of computing are Hardware and SoftwareHardware we have discussed...
141Let’s review… the two components of computing are Hardware and Software Hardware we have discussed...Removable Storage Devices… Disks that fit in their appropriate disk drives such as the: 3 1/2” Floppy Disk CD-ROM Recordable CD Zip Disk Flash Memory Stick
142WHAT IS SOFTWARE?Software is a set of instructions telling the hardware what to do...
143Software is a set of instructions... This set of instructions, written by a computer programmer is also called a program
144Software is a set of instructions... To write a letter, perform calculations, draw, or play games you need the specific programs that can do these things on your computer.
145(1) To write a letter you’d need a word processor such as the WordPad program (2) To perform calculations you could use the Calculator program(3) To play a game you‘d open the Solitaire program(4) To draw you would use the program called Paint
147Systems Software is a set of instructions... Systems Softwares are basic programs that enable the running of other programs
148Systems Software is a set of instructions... Windows XP is an operating system that controls and manages the computer and the programs you run on it.
149Systems Software is a set of instructions... Windows XP is a combination of the operating system and the windows interface.
150A special feature of Windows XP is MULTITASKING... the capability to do several things at the same time, which the previous operating systems could not do.
151let us do very specific, useful things with our computers ApplicationsSoftware is a set of instructions that...let us do very specific, useful things with our computers
152ApplicationsSoftware is a set of instructions that... come in various forms such as Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access, Dreamweaver, Adobe Photoshop, and many others
153COMPUTER VIRUSES are destructive programs... that attempt to interfere with the normal operation of the computer by rewriting or deleting information from hard drives, or causing damage to the hardware.
154Viruses can spread from computer to computer through MODEMS and by sharing FLOPPY DISKS
155There are software programs available which will detect and remove viruses on systems. such as…Macafee,Norton Antivirusand more.
156Let’s review… computing consists of two components: Hardware and Software Software we have discussed...Systems Software Windows XP Applications Microsoft Office XP Corel WordPerfect Viruses Antivirus Programs
157COMPUTER CONNECTIVITY which combines hardware and software... Connectivity means methods of connecting computers together.
158COMPUTER CONNECTIVITY which combines hardware and software... Connectivity can result between computers through modems and local area networks.
159COMPUTER CONNECTIVITY which combines hardware and software... A Local Area Network (LAN) links a group of computers together within a local area, such as a single floor of a building. This allows many computer users to share files, programs and resources.
161The Internet is a collection of computer networks that span the globe... connecting... EDUCATIONAL GOVERNMENT MILITARY COMMERCIAL and private citizens to a wide range of computer services, resources and information.
162The Internet utilizes hardware and software... Commercial on-line services such as America Online, or Cox cable are available for anyone to utilize.