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1 INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPUTER by Melinda A. Simica, 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "1 INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPUTER by Melinda A. Simica, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPUTER by Melinda A. Simica, 2005

2 2 This presentation will introduce you to computer computer terminology and fundamentals.

3 3 This presentation comes with a terminology study guide. Your instructor will give you a copy of the study guide. Please work through this presentation and study guide at your own pace.

4 4 Notice the study guide is missing specific terms. You will find the answers to the missing terms as you read through this presentation. Fill in the blanks in your study guide.

5 5 A computer is an information tool

6 6 You put information into the computer called INPUT

7 7 Items that help you INPUT information into the computer... (1) mouse (2) keyboard (3) microphone (4) scanner (5) joystick (6) modem or cable modem

8 8 When you use a computer you will input DATA and COMMANDS

9 9 DATA is information in the form of text, numbers or images you use for: LETTERS or REPORTS or PHOTOS

10 10 COMMANDS tell the computer what to do with data, such as to print print or save

11 11 The information you get get from a computer is called OUTPUT

12 12 Output comes in many forms... 1.displaying information on a monitor 2.printing data on a printer 3.sound coming out of the computer speakers 4.storing information on a disk to be used later

13 13 WHAT IS A COMPUTER SYSTEM?

14 14 The computer is a collection of separate items working together.

15 15 A computer system consists of two main components... HARDWARE and SOFTWARE

16 16 WHAT IS HARDWARE? Hardware is the physical side of computing

17 17 1. Central processing unit 2. Disk drives 3. Disk & other storage devices 4. Other Peripherals Hardware includes the...

18 18 The word PERIPHERAL comes from the Greek language and means around the center.

19 19 A peripheral is any COMPONENT COMPONENT that is connected to your computer's central processing unit, such as...

20 20 a. a keyboard... b. a monitor...

21 21 c. a mouse... d. and printer...

22 22 Lets look at some details about Hardware... What is the Central Processing Unit or CPU?

23 23 The CPU CPU is the real brainbrain of the computer and contains electronic components and integrated circuits mounted on the MOTHERBOARD

24 24 ISA expansion slots PCI expansion slots AGP video slot Microprocessor slot RAM modules plug in here Hard drive connections Floppy Drive connections MOTHERBOARD EXAMPLE:

25 25 THE MICROPROCESSOR CHIP or the brain Hardware - The CPU contains the inner workings of the computer including...

26 26 The microprocessor chips PERFORMANCE (or speed) is gauged by MEGAHERTZ MEGAHERTZ (MHz), or clock speed, which is millions of cycles per second.

27 27 The faster the microprocessor chips pulse, the faster the computer PROCESSES information

28 28 The first computer ever built was named ENIAC or Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator. It was built at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia in 1944. ENIAC had over 18,000 vacuum tubes and could only perform math calculations.

29 29 1974… The 8080 microprocessor chip became the brains of the first personal computer 1982... The 286 microprocessor chip was the first to be compatible with all software microprocessor chip history... 1971... The 4004 was the first microprocessor chip made, and was used in a clock 1978... The 8086 and the 8088 - the brains of IBM's Personal Computer

30 30 1985... The 386 microprocessor chip had over 100 times as many transistors as the 4004. It was "multitasking. 1989… 486 Microprocessor chip was the first to have a built- in math coprocessor, which speeds up computing. 1993… The Pentium microprocessor chip allowed computers to more easily incorporate speech, sound, handwriting and photographic images. microprocessor chip history...

31 31 1997… Pentium II microprocessor chip contains 7.5 million- transistors and was designed to process video, audio and graphics data efficiently. 1995… The Pentium Pro microprocessor chip was faster, enabling the use of programs for computer-aided design, mechanical engineering and scientific computation. microprocessor chip history...

32 32 Think about how computers affect our lives… Go through a day and notice all the things you see that work because of a computer or microprocessor chip installed in them. Remember... anything that provides a digital display, such as a digital clock, has a microprocessor chip in it!

33 33 RAM or RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Hardware - The CPU contains the inner workings of the computer including...

34 34 RAM is TEMPORARY MEMORY the computer uses to store information the microprocessor chip needs to operate

35 35 is a number of MEMORY CHIPS mounted on the motherboard RAM

36 36 RAM... is the main memory of a computer system stores three things... the Operating System, Software Applications and Data a. b.

37 37 RAM… is a holding place for programs & data which must be in RAM before they will work is memory measured by the basic unit called a byte c. d.

38 38 RAM... is measured in megabytes such as 128 Mb or 256 Mb, or gigabytes such as 1 Gb is a computer system's PRIMARY workspace e. f.

39 39 determines the size and number of programs that can be open at the same time RAM... forms the critical LINK between software and hardware g. h.

40 40 An example of RAM... Pour too much coffee into this cup and what happens? It spills out - you lose coffee all over the table! You did not pay attention to the capacity of the cup. Compare the RAM in a computer to a cup of coffee:

41 41 Open too many items on your computer and what happens? It spills out - well, worse - the computer freezes up and you could lose your work! You did not pay attention to the capacity of your RAM... Compare the RAM in a computer to a cup of coffee:

42 42 …well, you could lose your work! But if you routinely SAVED the material you created during this session you would NOT lose that! Compare the RAM in a computer to a cup of coffee:

43 43 Volatile means that it can hold information only when ELECTRONICALLY powered RAM is a VOLATILE form of memory

44 44 If you turn off the power to the computer, all the information stored in the RAM chips is erased or LOST

45 45 Memory installation is a pretty easy upgrade to perform. Most of the work, if you could call it that, comes before you actually do the upgrade - in being sure you get the right kind of memory for your system. INSTALLING COMPUTER MEMORY

46 46 ROM or READ-ONLY MEMORY Hardware - The CPU contains the inner workings of the computer including...

47 47 ROM is similar to RAM RAM with one important difference... the information stored on ROM is NOT VOLATILE

48 48 Information is PERMANENTLY recorded on the circuits of the ROM chips during manufacturing and cannot be erased

49 49 When you turn the power off on the computer... the information stored in the ROM chips is NOT LOST like it is in RAM

50 50 When you turn the computer back on, the information stored in ROM is once again available to the CPU and to the OPERATING SYSTEM

51 51 The computer uses ROM to store PROGRAMMING and INSTRUCTIONS

52 52 THE HARD DISK DRIVE [C:] Hardware - Hardware - The CPU contains the inner workings of the computer including...

53 53 The Hard Disk Drive [C:] contains the hard disk and is the computer's main PERMANENT STORAGE DEVICE

54 54 The hard disk drive [C:] holds large amounts of DATA and PROGRAMS

55 55 DATA and PROGRAMS are stored in DIGITAL form made up of bits or bytes BITS AND BYTES

56 56 The computer processes and stores information in BINARY form (Bi=Latin for Two) which means it uses two digits… 0 and 1 BITS AND BYTES

57 57 Each 1 or 0 in the computer is called a BIT BITS AND BYTES 0 represents (off) and 1 represents (on) A BIT is one particle on a disk BIT is short for binary digit A BIT is the smallest unit of information a computer can understand

58 58 Basic Input Output System (BIOS) is the part of the operating system that handles communication between the computer and all of its peripheral devices (keyboard, printer, mouse, etc.) BITS AND BYTES

59 59 A set of 8 bits (such as 0100 0001 = A) makes a BYTE. BITS AND BYTES Each alphabetic character, such as A, B, C... is represented by ONE BYTE.

60 60 One standard page of typewritten text is approximately 2,000 characters or 2k bytes BITS AND BYTES

61 61 Information on your hard disk is NOT NOT AFFECTED AFFECTED when you turn off the computer... and remains on the hard disk unless you TELL THE COMPUTER to delete it.

62 62 THE FLOPPY DISK DRIVE [A:] Hardware - The CPU contains the inner workings of the computer including...

63 63 3 1 / 2 Floppy Disk Drive [A:] CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT is found at the front of the...

64 64 Each floppy disk drive consists of a... to accept a floppy disk that spins the disk that moves across the disk in order to READ (look for) or WRITE (save) data SLOT MOTOR recording & readingdevice

65 65 This is where the floppy disk is INSERTED This light turns green to indicate the disk drive is READING or WRITING the inserted floppy disk Push this button to EJECT the floppy disk Parts of the 3 1 / 2 Floppy Disk Drive [A:]

66 66 THE 3 1 / 2 3 1 / 2 FLOPPY DISK Hardware - The CPU contains the inner workings of the computer including...

67 67 The 31/2 31/2 31/2 31/2 floppy disk is a STORAGE DEVICE for computer data to use in Drive [A:]

68 68 Floppy disks are REMOVABLE making this storage device a good way to store your data... to give the data to another person... or to BACK-UP your data (make an extra copy for safe keeping)

69 69 Inside the protective case of the 31/2 31/2 31/2 31/2 floppy disk is a thin plate of flexible plastic coated with a layer of magnetic material.

70 70 Lets look at the inside of a 31/2 31/2 disk... When a 31/2 31/2 disk is broken open, the two halves of the cover break apart to expose the inside...

71 71 PAPER RINGS TheThe magnetic disk is positioned between two white paper rings two rings are glued down to the plastic housing and stay still while the disk spins paper rings keep the magnetic disk clean from dust Magnetic Disk Plastic Housing Paper Ring Paper Ring

72 72 Made of a round, floppy piece of plastic coated with iron oxide. MAGNETIC DISK Iron oxide can be magnetized. When you save data on a disk, a recording head creates a magnetic pattern on the iron oxide. The pattern stores the data in a way that helps the computer read it, the next time you use the disk.

73 73 It's hidden under one of the paper rings. PLASTIC FLAP The small end is glued down, and the plastic is bent, just a little. It pushes the paper ring tight against the surface of the magnetic disk.

74 74 The metal center of the magnetic floppy disk. The holes in the hub are like the hole in the middle of a vinyl record - they fit over spindles inside the computer and hold the disk in place while it spins. THE HUB

75 75 The shutter is a piece of metal at the bottom edge of the disk. The shutter protects a rectangular area which exposes part of the delicate magnetic disk. This is the part of the disk that goes in first when you insert it in the computer. Inside the computer, the shutter slides over, and the information on the disk can be read through the rectangular slot. THE SHUTTER

76 76 When the floppy disk is ejected from the computer, the spring snaps the shutter closed This stops dust or fingerprints from getting onto the magnetic disk THE SPRING

77 77 This little plastic rectangle is in the upper right corner of a floppy disk. It slides up to reveal a square hole in the housing... or slides down, to cover the hole. When the hole is open, the disk is locked. Your computer won't allow you to add anything to the disk or erase anything from it, while this is locked. WRITE-PROTECT TAB

78 78 You can tell that this example is a DS/HD by noticing that two corners of the disk will have boxes like these The 31/2 31/2 DS/HD disk ALWAYS holds 1.44 MB of data A double sided/high sided/high density disk is abbreviated DS/HD

79 79 When you insert a floppy disk into a disk drive on your computer, a motor within the system unit spins the disk to READ READ or WRITE data.

80 80 A floppy disk spins SLOWER SLOWER than the hard disk. A floppy disk does not hold enough information to accommodate larger programs and data files.

81 81 DISK MAINTENANCE Take care of your disks and they will last a loooong time!

82 82 (A) Never place diskettes near magnetic devices; can erase information from the disk. (B) Keep diskettes away from your telephone. (B) Keep diskettes away from your telephone. (C) Never touch your floppy disk media. (D) Never smoke near floppy disks. (E) Store your diskettes in a safe location. (F) Always make backup copies of your floppy disks. (G) Do not expose the disk to extreme heat or cold temperatures. (H) Never bend floppy disks. (I) Never remove the disk from the disk drive when the drive light is on. (J) Do not use paper clips or rubber bands on a disk.

83 83 THE CD-ROM DRIVE [D:] Hardware - The CPU contains the inner workings of the computer including...

84 84 CD-ROM stands for: COMPACT DISK READ-ONLY MEMORY

85 85 Information is permanently recorded on the compact disk during manufacturing and cannot be erased...

86 86 c. change the contents d. save data on the CD Read-only means that you can… a. read the contents b. copy the contents you cannot…

87 87 This disk drive accepts a disk that looks like a music CD, but instead of having only music recorded on the platter, this type of disk also has graphics, text, and sound stored on it.

88 88 Computers these days, are multimedia computers and come with... A CD-ROM Drive A sound adapter which is a card mounted on the motherboard Speakers A Microphone

89 89 CD-R or CD-RW DRIVE Hardware - The CPU contains the inner workings of the computer including...

90 90 CD-R CD-R stands for COMPACT DISK WRITABLE CD-RW CD-RW stands for COMPACT DISK REWRITABLE

91 91 This kind of disk drive accepts a CD that you can store data on. Some of the possibilities are... (1) Save 700 megabytes of data on each CD the equivalent of 450 floppy disks. (2) Save files on a CD as easily as you would using a floppy disk. (3) Create your own CDs. Save files, photos, music and video.

92 92 (4) Write and rewrite large filesSave several times on one CD-RW disk! (6) Share files with anyone, anywhere. Use CD-Rs to distribute files, photos, presentations, music, and more on portable, durable CDs. (5) Create, store, and share your own photo, music, video, and multimedia projects.

93 93 An INTERNAL CD-Writer can be added to your desktop computer if you have an empty port... A blank panel on the front of your CPU indicates another drive can be added, such as a CD-R drive

94 94 a. connect this portable drive to your laptop... b. to another computer in your office c. take the drive home with your office work d. you can take an external drive with you anywhere An EXTERNAL CD-Writer can be plugged into the back of almost any computer...

95 95 THE ZIP DRIVE Hardware - The CPU contains the inner workings of the computer including...

96 96 An INTERNAL Zip Drive can be added to your desktop computer if you have an empty port... A blank panel on the front of your CPU indicates another drive can be added, such as a Zip drive

97 97 An EXTERNAL Zip Drive can be plugged into the back of any computer.

98 98 FLASH MEMORY STICK Hardware - Another type of storage device available that are removable, easy to use and hold more data…

99 99 FLASH MEMORY STICK Electronic memory comes in a variety of forms to serve a variety of purposes. Flash memory is used for easy and fast information storage. Flash memory is considered a solid state storage device. Solid state means that there are no moving parts -- everything is electronic instead of mechanical.

100 100 THE MODEM Hardware - The CPU contains the inner workings of the computer including...

101 101 A MODEM helps computers CONNECT with each other through telephone lines

102 102 Most computers come with an INTERNAL modem which is installed inside the CPU EXTERNAL If a computer does not have a modem you can connect an EXTERNAL modem which plugs into the computer from the outside

103 103 Using a modem you can send or receive electronic mail or EMAIL

104 104 When you send a message using your computer, the modem converts the computer signal from DIGITAL (0s and 1s) to ANALOG so that the telephone line understands it...

105 105 On the receiving end, the recipients modem converts the message from analog back to digital.

106 106 Modem is an abbreviation for modulator-demodulator

107 107 A modem lets you UPLOAD UPLOAD and DOWNLOAD files Upload means to send a file to another computer via the modem Download means to receive a file from another computer, via modem

108 108 THE MONITOR Hardware - The CPU controls peripherals connected to the computer including...

109 109 The monitor displays text and graphics.

110 110 THE KEYBOARD Hardware - The CPU controls peripherals connected to the computer including...

111 111 The keyboard is the main means of giving INSTRUCTIONS to the computer

112 112 An enhanced computer keyboard has four groups of keys:

113 113 (1) keys with letters, numbers and symbols

114 114 (2) FUNCTION keys labeled F1 to F12 Their functions depend on the program in use

115 115 (3) cursor (or arrow) keys which let you move around the screen

116 116 (4) the numeric keypad

117 117 THE MOUSE Hardware - The CPU controls peripherals connected to the computer including...

118 118 A mouse is a hand-held POINTING device that is used to direct things on your monitor screen

119 119 You control your computer quickly by pointing to, and moving OBJECTS on the screen

120 120 This is easier than remembering and TYPING TYPING commands

121 121 You guide the mouse over a flat surface and a ball on the underside rolls in the direction of your movement

122 122 There are many different mouse designs to choose from including optical (cordless)

123 123 THE PRINTER Hardware - The CPU controls peripherals connected to the computer including...

124 124 LASER LASER printers produce the highest quality output at the highest speed

125 125 INK-JET printers use a stream of tiny ink dots to create images on paper

126 126 DOT-MATRIX DOT-MATRIX printers use tiny pins against a ribbon and are slower

127 127 A WIDE WIDE FORMAT FORMAT PRINTER PRINTER will print signs, banners and posters using bubble-jet, solid-ink and thermal transfer technologies

128 128 To reproduce what you see on your computer monitor, the PRINTER PRINTER will create a HARD COPY of letters, reports, or graphics

129 129 The Scanner Hardware Hardware - The CPU controls peripherals connected to the computer including...

130 130 There are 3 types of scanners: HANDHELD...

131 131 FLATBED and SHEET-FED

132 132 A scanner picks up patterns of light and dark or color and converts the patterns into digital form. You can scan photographs, drawings, and documents to utilize as digital information.

133 133 The Joystick Hardware Hardware - The CPU controls peripherals connected to the computer including...

134 134 Joystick A joystick is the easiest way to control movement on a monitor. This is typically used to play certain games such as a flight simulator. The joystick has also been found useful for people who have difficulty using a mouse for everyday use.

135 135 The Microphone Hardware Hardware - The CPU controls peripherals connected to the computer including...

136 136 MicrophoneMicrophone If you want to record sound to use on your computer you need a microphone. Any sound that goes into the microphone such as voice or music will be recorded digitally by the computer.

137 137 Speakers Hardware Hardware - The CPU controls peripherals connected to the computer including...

138 138 Speakers To hear sound from your computer you must attach speakers. You can play music CDs in the CD-ROM drive and hear the music through your computer speakers!

139 139 Inside the CPU… Microprocessor Chip RAM ROM Hard Disk Drive Floppy Disk Drive Modem Sound Card Lets review… the two components of computing are Hardware and Software Hardware we have discussed...

140 140 Peripherals … Monitor Keyboard Mouse Printer Scanner Joystick Microphone Speakers Lets review… the two components of computing are Hardware and Software Hardware we have discussed...

141 141 Removable Storage Devices… Disks that fit in their appropriate disk drives such as the: 3 1/2 Floppy Disk CD-ROM Recordable CD Zip Disk Flash Memory Stick Lets review… the two components of computing are Hardware and Software Hardware we have discussed...

142 142 WHAT IS SOFTWARE? Software is a set of instructions telling the hardware what to do...

143 143 This set of instructions, written by a computer programmer is also called a program Software is a set of instructions...

144 144 To write a letter, perform calculations, draw, or play games you need the specific programs that can do these things on your computer. Software is a set of instructions...

145 145 (1) To write a letter youd need a word processor such as the WordPad program (2) To perform calculations you could use the Calculator program (3) To play a game youd open the Solitaire program (4) To draw you would use the program called Paint

146 146 WHAT TYPES OF SOFTWARE ARE THERE?

147 147 Systems Softwares are basic programs that enable the running of other programs Systems Software is a set of instructions...

148 148 Windows XP is an operating system that controls and manages the computer and the programs you run on it. Systems Software is a set of instructions...

149 149 Windows XP is a combination of the operating system and the windows interface. Systems Software is a set of instructions...

150 150 A special feature of Windows XP is MULTITASKING... the capability to do several things at the same time, which the previous operating systems could not do.

151 151 let us do very specific, useful things with our computers Applications Software is a set of instructions that...

152 152 come in various forms such as Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access, Dreamweaver, Adobe Photoshop, and many others Applications Software is a set of instructions that...

153 153 COMPUTER VIRUSES are destructive programs... that attempt to interfere with the normal operation of the computer by rewriting or deleting information from hard drives, or causing damage to the hardware.

154 154 Viruses can spread from computer to computer through MODEMS and by sharing FLOPPY DISKS

155 155 There are software programs available which will detect and remove viruses on systems. such as… Macafee, Norton Antivirus and more.

156 156 Lets review… computing consists of two components: Hardware and Software Software we have discussed... Systems Software Windows XP Applications Microsoft Office XP Corel WordPerfect Viruses Antivirus Programs

157 157 COMPUTER CONNECTIVITY which combines hardware and software... Connectivity means methods of connecting computers together.

158 158 Connectivity can result between computers through modems and local area networks. COMPUTER CONNECTIVITY which combines hardware and software...

159 159 A Local Area Network (LAN) links a group of computers together within a local area, such as a single floor of a building. This allows many computer users to share files, programs and resources. COMPUTER CONNECTIVITY which combines hardware and software...

160 160 The Internet utilizes hardware and software...

161 161 The Internet is a collection of computer networks that span the globe... connecting... EDUCATIONAL GOVERNMENT MILITARY COMMERCIAL and private citizens to a wide range of computer services, resources and information.

162 162 Commercial on-line services such as America Online, or Cox cable are available for anyone to utilize. The Internet utilizes hardware and software...

163 163 THE END !


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