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COMPUTERS: THE MACHINES BEHIND COMPUTING CHAPTER 2 Hossein BIDGOLI MIS 1 laptop per child Get me the Geeks.

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Presentation on theme: "COMPUTERS: THE MACHINES BEHIND COMPUTING CHAPTER 2 Hossein BIDGOLI MIS 1 laptop per child Get me the Geeks."— Presentation transcript:

1 COMPUTERS: THE MACHINES BEHIND COMPUTING CHAPTER 2 Hossein BIDGOLI MIS 1 laptop per child Get me the Geeks

2 LO1 Define a computer system and describe its components. LO2 Discuss the history of computer hardware and software. LO3 Explain the factors distinguishing computing power of computers. LO4 Describe the major operations of computers LO5 Summarize the binary system and data representation. l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s Chapter 2 Computers: The Machines Behind Computing

3 LO6 Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices. LO7 Explain how computers are classified. LO8 Describe the two major types of software. LO9 List the generations of computer languages. l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s (contd.) Chapter 2 Computers: The Machines Behind Computing

4 1.Increase employee productivity by reducing time, errors and costs using 2.Enhance decision making 3.Improve team collaboration 4.Create business partnerships and alliances 5.Enable global reach all over the world taking into consideration the culture of each nation or society. 6.Facilitate organizational transformation as the organization evolves and responds to the ever-changing marketplace. 4

5 A- 5 Output Device Monitor Input Device Keyboard Processing Device The System Unit

6 Exhibit 2.1 The Building Blocks of a Computer

7 A-7 Motherboard Central Processing Unit (CPU) RAM and _________ Secondary Storage Devices (e.g. hard drive) Slots - connecting specialty processors ___________ - connecting input/output devices

8 A-8 Central Processing Unit (CPU) Called the _________________________, its role is to perform the operations of the computer using two components: Control Unit – this device interprets instructions and transmits direction to the computers components Arithmetic Logic Unit – this device performs math as well as logical operations by interpreting and executing instructions Central Processing Unit (CPU) Called the _________________________, its role is to perform the operations of the computer using two components: Control Unit – this device interprets instructions and transmits direction to the computers components Arithmetic Logic Unit – this device performs math as well as logical operations by interpreting and executing instructions

9 A-9 Moores Law (1970s) Dr. Gordon Moore from Intel hypothesized that processing performance would double every 18 months Moores Law (1970s) Dr. Gordon Moore from Intel hypothesized that processing performance would double every 18 months CPU Processing Intel Pentium IV CPU packs 55 million transistors CPU Processing Intel Pentium IV CPU packs 55 million transistors

10 Table 2.1 Hardware Generators The History of Computer Hardware

11 Factors that exceed human capacities: Speed Accuracy Storage and retrieval

12 Input devices Send data and information to computer Types Keyboard Mouse Touch screen Light pen ____________ Data tablet Barcode reader –Optical character reader –Magnetic ink character recognition system –Optical mark recognition system

13 Output devices For mainframes and personal computers Soft copy Monitor Cathode ray tube (CPT), plasma, liquid crystal display (LCD) Hard copy Printer Inkjet, laser Voice

14 Main memory Stores data and information Volatile Secondary memory ______________________ Holds data when the computer is off or during course of a program's operation Serves as archival storage

15 A-15 Primary Storage This storage is used for temporary storage to support computer processing and comes in RAM and ROM types Primary Storage This storage is used for temporary storage to support computer processing and comes in RAM and ROM types Random Access Memory (RAM) Read-Only Memory (ROM) Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM or also called Flash Memory) Random Access Memory (RAM) Read-Only Memory (ROM) Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM or also called Flash Memory)

16 Magnetic disks Made of mylar or metal Used for random-access processing Magnetic tape Made of a plastic material Stores data sequentially ____________ discs Use laser beams to access and store data CD-ROM, WORM, DVD

17 Other secondary memory Hard disk USB flash drive Memory card Redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system Collection of disk drives used for fault tolerance and improved performance If one disk in the array fails, data isnt lost

18 Table 2.4 Capacity of Secondary Memory Devices

19 Classify based on: Cost, amount of memory, speed, sophistication

20 A-20 Supercomputers Mainframe Computers Workstations

21 A-21 Personal Computers Network Computers Notebook Tablet PC Handheld Computer

22 The ______________ _____________ refers to the gap between people with effective access to digital and information technology and those with very limited or no access at all. 1 laptop per child

23

24 Also called: Pervasive computing Third wave computing Wearable computers Cell phones Medical devices

25 Server Computer and all the software for managing network resources and offering services to a network Types of servers Application Database Disk Fax File Mail – Print – Remote access (RAS) – Web

26 All the programs that run a computer system Classified broadly as: System software Application software

27 Operating system (OS) Set of programs for controlling and managing computer hardware and software Provides an interface between a computer and the user Increases computer _________________ by helping users share computer resources and performing repetitive tasks for users

28 Operating system control programs Job management _______________ allocation Data management Communication Kernel Supervisor program Responsible for controlling all other programs in the OS

29 Application software Commercial software or software developed in- house Software types Word processing Spreadsheet Database Presentation Graphics Desktop publishing

30 Free Web-based application for creating Word processor documents, spreadsheets, presentations, and forms Create and edit document Collaboration in real time Save in various formats _______ computing (Dropbox) Security risks

31 Table 2.2 Computer Language Trends The History of Computer Software

32 Machine language 0s and 1s Code written for one type of computer does not work on another Assembly language Higher level than machine but still machine dependent

33 High-level languages C++, Java, VB.Net Used for Web development and the Internet Fourth generation languages Easiest to use SQL

34 Fifth-generation languages (5GLs) ____________ -based systems Natural language processing (NLP) Visual programming Graphical approach to using programming

35 Components and distinguishing factors of computers Brief history of computer hardware and software Input, output, and memory devices Classifications for computers Different types of software Generations of computer languages Get me the Geeks


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