Presentation on theme: "MIS COMPUTERS: THE MACHINES BEHIND COMPUTING 1 laptop per child"— Presentation transcript:
1MIS COMPUTERS: THE MACHINES BEHIND COMPUTING 1 laptop per child CHAPTER 2Hossein BIDGOLI1 laptop per childGet me the Geeks
2Chapter 2 Computers: The Machines Behind Computing l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e sLO1 Define a computer system and describe its components.LO2 Discuss the history of computer hardware and software.LO3 Explain the factors distinguishing computing power of computers.LO4 Describe the major operations of computersLO5 Summarize the binary system and data representation.
3l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s (cont’d.) Chapter 2 Computers: The Machines Behind Computingl e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s (cont’d.)LO6 Discuss the types of input, output, and memory devices.LO7 Explain how computers are classified.LO8 Describe the two major types of software.LO9 List the generations of computer languages.
4six major roles and goals of IT 1. Increase employee productivity by reducing time, errors and costs using2. Enhance decision making3. Improve team collaboration4. Create business partnerships and alliances5. Enable global reach all over the world taking into consideration the culture of each nation or society.6. Facilitate organizational transformation as the organization evolves and responds to the ever-changing marketplace.
5Computer Hardware Output Device Monitor Input Device Keyboard Processing DeviceThe System Unit
6The Building Blocks of a Computer Exhibit 2.1The Building Blocks of a ComputerComponents of a Computer SystemHardware componentsPhysical devices, such as keyboards, monitors, and processing unitsSoftwarePrograms written in computer languagesCentral processing unit (CPU)Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)Control unitSingle or multiprocessor
7Processing – Mother Board Central Processing Unit (CPU)RAM and _________Secondary Storage Devices (e.g. hard drive)Slots - connecting specialty processors___________ - connecting input/output devices
8Processing – Central Processing Unit Central Processing Unit (CPU)Called the “_________________________”, its role is to perform the operations of the computer using two components:Control Unit – this device interprets instructions and transmits direction to the computer’s componentsArithmetic Logic Unit – this device performs math as well as logical operations by interpreting and executing instructions
9Processing – Central Processing Unit Moore’s Law (1970s)Dr. Gordon Moore from Intel hypothesized that processing performance would double every 18 monthsCPU ProcessingIntel Pentium IV CPU packs 55 million transistorsFeature size is the size of the lines thru which signals pass
10The History of Computer Hardware Table 2.1Hardware GeneratorsThe History of Computer Hardware
11The Power of Computers Factors that exceed human capacities: Speed AccuracyStorage and retrieval
12Input Devices Input devices Types Optical character reader Send data and information to computerTypesKeyboardMouseTouch screenLight pen____________Data tabletBarcode readerOptical character readerMagnetic ink character recognition systemOptical mark recognition system
13Output Devices Output devices Soft copy Hard copy For mainframes and personal computersSoft copyMonitorCathode ray tube (CPT), plasma, liquid crystal display (LCD)Hard copyPrinterInkjet, laserVoice
14Memory Devices Main memory Secondary memory Stores data and informationVolatileSecondary memory______________________Holds data when the computer is off or during course of a program's operationServes as archival storage
15Random Access Memory (RAM) Read-Only Memory (ROM) Primary StorageThis storage is used for temporary storage to support computer processing and comes in RAM and ROM typesRandom Access Memory (RAM)Read-Only Memory (ROM)Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM or also called Flash Memory)Random Access Memory (RAM)This is the computer’s main processing storage and consists of several chips containing thousands of electronic circuits etched in silicon mounted on a small circuit board call a single inline memory module (SIMM). RAM has the following characteristics:Provides temporary storage for computer operationStores data programs and data currently in useCPU can randomly access the data stored in RAMInstructions are considered volatile and will be lost when the computer is turned offRead-Only Memory (ROM)This memory exists on a chip on the motherboard and contains information that can be read by the computer but not written to. ROM stores the instructions required to run the computer before the system software takes overElectrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM or also called Flash Memory)This is a variation of ROM that can be read and repeatedly written to and erased like RAM, but is different in that the information is retained after the power is turned off
16Secondary Memory Devices Magnetic disksMade of mylar or metalUsed for random-access processingMagnetic tapeMade of a plastic materialStores data sequentially____________ discsUse laser beams to access and store dataCD-ROM, WORM, DVD
17Secondary Memory Devices (cont'd.) Other secondary memoryHard diskUSB flash driveMemory cardRedundant array of independent disks (RAID) systemCollection of disk drives used for fault tolerance and improved performanceIf one disk in the array fails, data isn’t lost
19Classes of Computers Classify based on: Cost, amount of memory, speed, sophistication
20Types of ComputersSupercomputersMainframeComputersWorkstations
21Types of Computers – Personal Notebook Computers Network Computers Handheld ComputerTablet PC
22Digital Divide1 laptop per childThe ______________ _____________ refers to the gap between people with effective access to digital and information technology and those with very limited or no access at all.
25Server Platforms: An Overview Computer and all the software for managing network resources and offering services to a networkTypes of serversApplicationDatabaseDiskFaxFileMailPrintRemote access (RAS)WebA server is a computer and all the software for managing network resources and offering services to a network. Many different server platforms are available for performing specifi c tasks, including the following:
26What is Software? All the programs that run a computer system Classified broadly as:System softwareApplication software
27Operating System Software Operating system (OS)Set of programs for controlling and managing computer hardware and softwareProvides an interface between a computer and the userIncreases computer _________________ by helping users share computer resources and performing repetitive tasks for users
28Operating System Software (cont'd.) Operating system control programsJob management_______________ allocationData managementCommunicationKernelSupervisor programResponsible for controlling all other programs in the OS
29Application Software Application software Software types Commercial software or software developed in- houseSoftware typesWord processingSpreadsheetDatabasePresentationGraphicsDesktop publishing
30Google Docs: Applications and Challenges Free Web-based application for creatingWord processor documents, spreadsheets, presentations, and formsCreate and edit documentCollaboration in real timeSave in various formats_______ computing (Dropbox)Security risks
31The History of Computer Software Table 2.2Computer Language TrendsThe History of Computer Software
32Computer Languages Machine language Assembly language 0s and 1s Code written for one type of computer does not work on anotherAssembly languageHigher level than machine but still machine dependent
33Computer Languages (cont'd.) High-level languagesC++, Java, VB.NetUsed for Web development and the InternetFourth generation languagesEasiest to useSQL
34Computer Languages (cont'd.) Fifth-generation languages (5GLs)____________ -based systemsNatural language processing (NLP)Visual programmingGraphical approach to using programming
35Summary Components and distinguishing factors of computers Get me the GeeksSummaryComponents and distinguishing factors of computersBrief history of computer hardware and softwareInput, output, and memory devicesClassifications for computersDifferent types of softwareGenerations of computer languages