Presentation on theme: "Commercial Data Processing"— Presentation transcript:
1Commercial Data Processing Unit 1Commercial Data ProcessingUsing Computers In Business
2What is Commercial Data Processing Unit 1What is Commercial Data ProcessingCommercial data processing looks at how large organisations and companies handle large amounts of information.The manual methods of the past have been replaced by computer systems.In large organisations the large scale data processing is often carried out on mainframe computers.
3Who Uses Commercial Data Processing? Unit 1Who Uses Commercial Data Processing?Examples of organisations that use CDPGas and Electricity CompaniesSupermarket ChainsAirline CompaniesHealth BoardsLocal Councils (Perth & Kinross)Banks & Building SocietiesMail Order Companies
4Why have companies invested in CDP? Unit 1Why have companies invested in CDP?Cut down on the volume of paper producedManual methods cannot cope with volume of paper work producedMail order companiesDVLCBanks
5Why have companies invested in CDP? Unit 1Why have companies invested in CDP?Speed of ProcessingStock ControlAirline Reservations
6Why have companies invested in CDP? Unit 1Why have companies invested in CDP?Speed of AccessBT Directory EnquiriesBanks
7Why have companies invested in CDP? Unit 1Why have companies invested in CDP?Repetitive TasksWage ProcessingGas Bills
8The Data Processing Cycle Unit 2Commercial Data ProcessingUnit 2The Data Processing Cycle
9The Data Processing Cycle Unit 2The Data Processing CycleStep 1: Collecting the dataStep 2: Entering the data into the systemStep 3: Processing and storage of the dataStep 4 Output of the processed data
10The Data Processing Cycle Unit 2The Data Processing CycleData CollectionPreparationInputOutputProcessStorage
11Wage Processing Example Unit 2Wage Processing ExampleCollectionTime sheetsPreparationKeyed on to discInputPrepared data input to programOutputPrint wage slipsProcessCalculate employee wagesStorageUpdate employee data
12Commercial Data Processing Unit 3Commercial Data ProcessingUnit 3Data Collection, Preparation & Input
13Data Entry : Paper Based Unit 3Data Entry : Paper Basedtime sheetmeter reading card
14Data Entry : Machine Readable Unit 3Data Entry : Machine ReadableMagnetic Stripe CardsBar CodesMagnetic Ink CharactersOptical Character Recognition
15Data Entry : Machine Readable Unit 3Data Entry : Machine ReadableMark Sense DocumentsSmart Cards
16Direct Data Entry Auto teller machines Point of sale terminal Unit 3Direct Data EntryAuto teller machinesPoint of sale terminalTravel agents
17Validation Garbage In Garbage Out Unit 3ValidationGarbage In Garbage OutAs data is entered it must be checked to ensure that it is free from errors and of the correct typeRange checks To ensure that any number not in the correct range will be rejectedLength checks To ensure that the correct number of digits or characters are enteredPresence checks To ensure that an important item of data has not been completely missed out.
18Unit 3Check DigitsA check digit is an extra digit that is calculated from the other digits in the number and then added to the end of the code number.The computer recalculates the check digit when the number is entered and compares the result of this calculation to the check digit at the end of the number.This makes sure that the number has been entered correctly.
19Check Digits Check digits are used in Bank account numbers Unit 3Check DigitsCheck digits are used inBank account numbersProduct codes (bar codes)Mail order code numbersEmployee payroll numberBook codes (ISBN)
20Calculating a Check Digit ISBN-10 Unit 3Calculating a Check Digit ISBN-100‑25‑132451‑□0 x 10 = 02 x 9 = 185 x 8 = 401 x 7 = 73 x 6 = 182 x 5 = 104 x 4 = 165 x 3 = 151 x 2 = 2126126 / 11 = 11 remainder 511 – 5 = 6Check digit is 6The number is now:0‑25‑
21Commercial Data Processing Unit 4Commercial Data ProcessingUnit 4Processing And Storage
22Mainframes The largest of all computer systems. Unit 4MainframesThe largest of all computer systems.Usually installed in large purpose-built rooms.The mainframe will consist ofSeveral ProcessorsMany Hard Disc unitsMagnetic Tape unitsSeveral PrintersMany Terminals
23Mainframes Mainframes have many terminals connected to them. Unit 4MainframesMainframes have many terminals connected to them.Terminals do not do any processing.The data is sent to the mainframe for processing.Mainframes can have many terminals at the same time.Users can work on many different types of software.Terminals can connect from many miles away.Remote terminals connect using the telephone system.
24Superstore Computer Network Unit 4Superstore Computer NetworkHead office responsible for:Ordering goods from supplierDistributing goods to storesCalculating sales figures
25Superstore Wide Area Network Unit 4Superstore Wide Area NetworkHead Office has a mainframe computerThe mainframe computer is connected to each stores mini computer by W.A.N.
26Stores have a Local Area Network Unit 4Stores have a Local Area NetworkEach store has a mini computer to run the L.A.N.The Local Area Network is connected to each P.O.S. terminal
27Data Files Record 5 Record 4 Record 3 Record 2 Record 1 Unit 4Data FilesRecord 5Item: BeansSize: 250gmsManufacturer: HeinzStock: 250Min stock level: 100Price: 0.43Record 4Record 3Record 2Record 1Item: Can of CokeManufacturer: Coca ColaStock level: 238Price: 0.37Contain a Record for each stock item
28Keeping data files up to date Unit 4Keeping data files up to dateCreate new recordsUpdate recordsDelete old recordsRecord 5Item: BeansSize: 250gmsManufacturer: HeinzStock: 250Min stock level: 100Price: 0.43
29Keeping data files safe Unit 4Keeping data files safeAlways make backup copies filesStore the files safely in a place which is:Fire proofBomb proofWater proofRadiation proof
30Interactive Processing Unit 4Interactive ProcessingEach transaction is processed Immediately – as it is enteredThe file is always up to dateExamplesBooking of a holiday at a travel agentMail ordering of goods by phone
31Sequential and Direct Access Unit 4Sequential and Direct AccessStoring data on backing storage can use two methods.Direct accessThis is the form of access that we are familiar, when the computer goes straight (direct) to the data required. This form of access is very fast and is used on disc based system (floppy, hard disc, CD Rom etc.)Sequential accessThis is a slower form of access that is usually associated with a tape based system. In sequential access the all the data is read until the required data is found. Clearly this form of access is not suitable for most types of processing
32Unit 4Multi User DatabaseA multi user database is one in which many people can access the database at the same timeAuto teller machinesallow many customers, throughout the country, to access their accounts to withdraw money etc.Booking systemsholiday companies allow travel agents, throughout the country, to access information from the database of holidayscan also be used for theatres, football matches etc
33Commercial Data Processing Unit 5Commercial Data ProcessingUnit 5Output
34Output There are many forms of OUTPUT created in a large CDP situation Unit 5OutputThere are many forms of OUTPUT created in a large CDP situationOutput can be sent toMonitor ScreensPrintersBacking storage to be stored on file
35Commercial Data Processing Unit 6Commercial Data ProcessingUnit 6How are people affected?
36Advantages of CDP for Businesses Unit 6Advantages of CDP for BusinessesComputers can do the following better than a person. They canprocess much more datasearch and access data fasterprocess data more accuratelyprocess the data fasterwork continuously without a break
37Disadvantages of CDP for Staff Unit 6Disadvantages of CDP for StaffThe number of jobs may be reducedShop assistants no longer need to price itemsBank cash dispensers mean fewer bank tellersFewer skilled jobs will be availableComputers do jobs done by skilled staffTraining will be requiredStaff need training to use computer systemsMost staff will use computers at some stageWork patterns may have to changeComputers work continuouslystaff needed to service themPeople may now need to work shifts
38Advantages of CDP for Staff Unit 6Advantages of CDP for StaffNew jobs have been createdComputer engineers neededdata preparation staff neededTraining means new skills which may result in higher payHigher skilled staff should be paid moretypists replaced by office admin staffCustomers will get a better serviceCustomers get a faster serviceCustomers get a more accurate serviceCustomers get a service with more facilitiesCustomers get 24 hour banking
39New Data Processing Jobs Unit 6New Data Processing Jobs
40Commercial Data Processing Unit 7Commercial Data ProcessingUnit 7Electronic Fund Transfer
41Ways to Pay for Goods By cash By cheque By credit card Unit 7Ways to Pay for GoodsBy cashBy chequeBy credit cardBy electronic fund transfer (EFT)
42Steps involved in EFT Shopper hands over EFT card to assistant at POS Unit 7Steps involved in EFTShopper hands over EFT card to assistant at POSAssistant places EFT card into the card readerPOS terminal contacts shopper’s bank computerComputer checks to see if shopper has enough moneyMessage is sent back to say sale can proceedCustomer enters PIN number into card readerMoney is transmitted to shops bank accountShops account is credited with amount of the saleCustomer’s account is debited by amount of the sale
43Advantages of using EFT Unit 7Advantages of using EFTExpensive cheque processing not neededCustomer does not need to carry cashShop and Bank do not need to count cashShop gets money straight away
44Disadvantages of using EFT Unit 7Disadvantages of using EFTCustomers must believe in the reliability and security of the systemCustomers must have bank accountsIf card is stolen – fraud can take placeSales are completely reliant on the computer system working
45Unit 7Electronic BankingMany bank customers now do all their bank transactions electronically. This is done using the Internet.Once logged on to their account the bank’s customer can pay bills transfer money etc. all from the comfort of their home.Clearly security is a big issue with this form of banking, and passwords are used at various stages in the system.