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Commercial Data Processing Using Computers In Business Unit 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Commercial Data Processing Using Computers In Business Unit 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Commercial Data Processing Using Computers In Business Unit 1

2 What is Commercial Data Processing Commercial data processing looks at how large organisations and companies handle large amounts of information. Commercial data processing looks at how large organisations and companies handle large amounts of information. The manual methods of the past have been replaced by computer systems. The manual methods of the past have been replaced by computer systems. In large organisations the large scale data processing is often carried out on mainframe computers. In large organisations the large scale data processing is often carried out on mainframe computers. Unit 1

3 Who Uses Commercial Data Processing? Examples of organisations that use CDP Gas and Electricity Companies Supermarket Chains Airline Companies Health Boards Local Councils (Perth & Kinross) Banks & Building Societies Mail Order Companies Unit 1

4 Why have companies invested in CDP? Cut down on the volume of paper produced Manual methods cannot cope with volume of paper work produced Mail order companies DVLC Banks Unit 1

5 Why have companies invested in CDP? 2. Speed of Processing Stock Control Airline Reservations Unit 1

6 Why have companies invested in CDP? 3. Speed of Access BT Directory Enquiries Banks Unit 1

7 Why have companies invested in CDP? 4. Repetitive Tasks Wage Processing Gas Bills Unit 1

8 Commercial Data Processing Unit 2 The Data Processing Cycle Unit 2

9 The Data Processing Cycle Step 1: Collecting the data Step 1: Collecting the data Step 2:Entering the data into the system Step 2:Entering the data into the system Step 3:Processing and storage of the data Step 3:Processing and storage of the data Step 4Output of the processed data Step 4Output of the processed data Unit 2

10 Data Collection Preparation Input Output Process Storage Unit 2 The Data Processing Cycle

11 Collection Time sheets Preparation Keyed on to disc Input Prepared data input to program Output Print wage slips Process Calculate employee wages Storage Update employee data Unit 2 Wage Processing Example

12 Commercial Data Processing Unit 3 Data Collection, Preparation & Input Unit 3

13 Data Entry : Paper Based time sheettime sheet meter reading cardmeter reading card Unit 3

14 Magnetic Stripe Cards Optical Character Recognition Magnetic Ink Characters Unit 3 Bar Codes Data Entry : Machine Readable

15 Mark Sense Documents Smart Cards Unit 3

16 Auto teller machines Auto teller machines Point of sale terminal Point of sale terminal Travel agents Travel agents Unit 3 Direct Data Entry

17 Garbage In Garbage Out As data is entered it must be checked to ensure that it is free from errors and of the correct type Range checks Range checksTo ensure that any number not in the correct range will be rejected Length checks Length checksTo ensure that the correct number of digits or characters are entered Presence checks Presence checks To ensure that an important item of data has not been completely missed out. Unit 3 Validation

18 Check Digits A check digit is an extra digit that is calculated from the other digits in the number and then added to the end of the code number. A check digit is an extra digit that is calculated from the other digits in the number and then added to the end of the code number. The computer recalculates the check digit when the number is entered and compares the result of this calculation to the check digit at the end of the number. The computer recalculates the check digit when the number is entered and compares the result of this calculation to the check digit at the end of the number. This makes sure that the number has been entered correctly. This makes sure that the number has been entered correctly.

19 Unit 3 Check Digits Check digits are used in Bank account numbers Product codes (bar codes) Mail order code numbers Employee payroll number Book codes (ISBN)

20 Unit 3 The number is now: x 10 =0 0 x 10 =0 2 x 9 = 18 2 x 9 = 18 5 x 8 =40 5 x 8 =40 1 x 7 = 7 1 x 7 = 7 3 x 6 =18 3 x 6 =18 2 x 5 =10 2 x 5 =10 4 x 4 =16 4 x 4 =16 5 x 3 =15 5 x 3 =15 1 x 2 = 2 1 x 2 = / 11 = 11 remainder / 11 = 11 remainder 5 11 – 5 = 6 11 – 5 = 6 Check digit is 6 Check digit is 6 Calculating a Check Digit ISBN-10

21 Commercial Data Processing Unit 4 Processing And Storage Unit 4

22 Mainframes The largest of all computer systems. Usually installed in large purpose-built rooms. The mainframe will consist of Several Processors Several Processors Many Hard Disc units Many Hard Disc units Magnetic Tape units Magnetic Tape units Several Printers Several Printers Many Terminals Many Terminals

23 Unit 4 Mainframes Mainframes have many terminals connected to them. Terminals do not do any processing. The data is sent to the mainframe for processing. Mainframes can have many terminals at the same time. Users can work on many different types of software. Terminals can connect from many miles away. Remote terminals connect using the telephone system.

24 Superstore Computer Network Head office responsible for: Ordering goods from supplier Distributing goods to stores Calculating sales figures Unit 4

25 Superstore Wide Area Network Head Office has a mainframe computer The mainframe computer is connected to each stores mini computer by W.A.N. Unit 4

26 Each store has a mini computer to run the L.A.N. The Local Area Network is connected to each P.O.S. terminal Unit 4 Stores have a Local Area Network

27 Data Files Record 5 Item: Beans Size: 250gms Manufacturer: Heinz Stock: 250 Min stock level: 100 Price: 0.43 Record 4 Item: Beans Size: 250gms Manufacturer: Heinz Stock: 250 Min stock level: 100 Price: 0.43 Record 3 Item: Beans Size: 250gms Manufacturer: Heinz Stock: 250 Min stock level: 100 Price: 0.43 Record 2 Item: Beans Size: 250gms Manufacturer: Heinz Stock: 250 Min stock level: 100 Price: 0.43 Record 1 Item: Can of Coke Size: 250gms Manufacturer: Coca Cola Stock level: 238 Min stock level: 100 Price: 0.37 Unit 4 Contain a Record for each stock item

28 Record 5 Item: Beans Size: 250gms Manufacturer: Heinz Stock: 250 Min stock level: 100 Price: 0.43 Unit 4 Keeping data files up to date Create new records Update records Delete old records

29 Unit 4 Keeping data files safe Always make backup copies files Store the files safely in a place which is: – –Fire proof – –Bomb proof – –Water proof – –Radiation proof

30 Unit 4 Each transaction is processed Immediately – as it is entered The file is always up to date Examples Booking of a holiday at a travel agent Mail ordering of goods by phone Interactive Processing

31 Unit 4 Storing data on backing storage can use two methods. Direct access This is the form of access that we are familiar, when the computer goes straight (direct) to the data required. This form of access is very fast and is used on disc based system (floppy, hard disc, CD Rom etc.) Sequential access This is a slower form of access that is usually associated with a tape based system. In sequential access the all the data is read until the required data is found. Clearly this form of access is not suitable for most types of processing Sequential and Direct Access

32 Unit 4 Multi User Database A multi user database is one in which many people can access the database at the same time Auto teller machines allow many customers, throughout the country, to access their accounts to withdraw money etc. Booking systems holiday companies allow travel agents, throughout the country, to access information from the database of holidays can also be used for theatres, football matches etc

33 Commercial Data Processing Unit 5 Output

34 Output There are many forms of OUTPUT created in a large CDP situation Output can be sent to Monitor Screens Printers Backing storage to be stored on file

35 Commercial Data Processing Unit 6 How are people affected? Unit 6

36 Advantages of CDP for Businesses Computers can do the following better than a person. They can process much more data search and access data faster process data more accurately process the data faster work continuously without a break

37 Unit 6 Disadvantages of CDP for Staff The number of jobs may be reduced – –Shop assistants no longer need to price items – –Bank cash dispensers mean fewer bank tellers Fewer skilled jobs will be available – –Computers do jobs done by skilled staff Training will be required – –Staff need training to use computer systems – –Most staff will use computers at some stage Work patterns may have to change – –Computers work continuously – –staff needed to service them – –People may now need to work shifts

38 Unit 6 Advantages of CDP for Staff New jobs have been created – –Computer engineers needed – –data preparation staff needed Training means new skills which may result in higher pay – –Higher skilled staff should be paid more – –typists replaced by office admin staff Customers will get a better service – –Customers get a faster service – –Customers get a more accurate service – –Customers get a service with more facilities – –Customers get 24 hour banking

39 New Data Processing Jobs Data processing manager Chief Programmer Programmers Chief System Analyst System Analysts Network Manager Chief Engineer Engineers Unit 6

40 Commercial Data Processing Unit 7 Electronic Fund Transfer Unit 7

41 By cash By cheque By credit card By electronic fund transfer (EFT) Unit 7 Ways to Pay for Goods

42 Shopper hands over EFT card to assistant at POS Assistant places EFT card into the card reader POS terminal contacts shoppers bank computer Computer checks to see if shopper has enough money Message is sent back to say sale can proceed Customer enters PIN number into card reader Money is transmitted to shops bank account Shops account is credited with amount of the sale Customers account is debited by amount of the sale Unit 7 Steps involved in EFT

43 Unit 7 Advantages of using EFT Expensive cheque processing not needed Customer does not need to carry cash Shop and Bank do not need to count cash Shop gets money straight away

44 Unit 7 Disadvantages of using EFT Customers must believe in the reliability and security of the system Customers must have bank accounts If card is stolen – fraud can take place Sales are completely reliant on the computer system working

45 Unit 7 Electronic Banking Many bank customers now do all their bank transactions electronically. This is done using the Internet. Once logged on to their account the banks customer can pay bills transfer money etc. all from the comfort of their home. Clearly security is a big issue with this form of banking, and passwords are used at various stages in the system.

46 How an ATM Works


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