2 ObjectivesYou should understand the differences between batch processing, online processing and real-time processing, including:Billing systemsBooking systemsPayment systemsReal-time systems
3 Types of processing There are three basic types of processing: Batch processingOnline processingThis is sometimes known as transaction processingReal time process control
4 Batch processingWith Batch Processing, a number of jobs are collected together over a period of timeThey are loaded onto a computer system (in a job queue)And then processed all at once (in a batch)
5 Once the batch processing starts, there is no need for any human intervention at all It can only be done where there are no timing constraints (ie no response is needed from the computer right away)
6 Batch Processing Examples of batch processing are: the processing of bank chequespayrollnon-automatic stock control systemsutility billing
7 Batch Processing : Advantages Can be performed at night when the computer system is not so busyPeople do not need to be involved
8 Batch Processing : Disadvantages Data is only up to date only when the batch processing has finishedCannot produceadhoc reports
9 Online processingData is entered by the user, and the computer processes the data straight away.Processing done as quickly as possible; booking of airline ticket or cinema ticket (these need to be marked as “sold” or “unavailable” immediately the booking is confirmed).Sometimes called interactive processingFile is updated as each transaction is processed eg ATM, flight booking etc
10 Online Processing : advantages and disadvantages Type of processingAdvantagesDisadvantagesOnline/ Interactive ProcessingImmediate processing, up to date dataFiles held online, can do ad hoc reportsAudit trails hard to performVery little paperwork, so harder to check for errors, etc
11 Examples of Online processing Flight bookingsCinema bookingsTheatre bookingsATM withdrawals
12 How an online booking system works Online booking systems rely on the ability to update files immediately, in order to prevent double-booking of seats etcThere are a number of steps involved: the order of these is important
13 Online booking: stepsCustomer logs on to theatre website and clicks on required performanceEnter date & time + number of seatsSeating display: choose seatsIf seats are available, seat numbers and price are displayedCustomer clicks ‘confirm’Seats are now set temporarily in the theatre database as ‘unavailable’
14 Online booking: stepsCustomer enters personal details (eg username & passwordSelect payment method & make paymentEFTPOS system contacts customer’s bank and enquires if funds are availablePayment is confirmedReference number onscreen/Database updated with the transaction
15 Real time Process Control The computer responds instantly to events occurring. E.g. Flight simulatorUsually involves sensors and feedback loopsReal time mode is used in computers that have to react very quickly to inputs requiring immediate outputs (e.g. aircraft ‘fly-by-wire’ controls).
16 Real time Process Control (advantages and disadvantages) Type of processingAdvantagesDisadvantagesReal Time ProcessingReaction to inputInput can be from sensors – automatic feedback loop possibleCan be done by an embedded microchip in small home appliancesExpensive to developVery fast processor required
17 Real Time ProcessingExamples of real-time processing are any control system which uses sensors requiring immediate response e.g.Rockets fired onto spaceRobotsComputer controlled air conditioning /Central heating / burglar alarmComputer controlled greenhouses etc.
18 Examples of processing types Energy / Electric companyTheatreAir lineBatch ProcessingPrinting electric billsSetting up seating plan for new playSetting flight schedulesOnline ProcessingBill enquiry systemSeat enquiry systemFlight enquiry systemReal time Process ControlPower plant temperature managementAir conditioningAutopilot
19 Criteria for choosing processing methods Things to consider when choosing a processing method:Whether information needs to be up to date at all timesScale of the operation: Batch systems suited to processing of huge amounts of dataCost: Real time system more expensive; more complex backup and recovery procedures requiredComputer usage: Adv of batch, can process overnight on mainframe computers
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