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**How to Emulate: Recipes without Patronising**

The MUCM Toolkit Dan Cornford, Aston University

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**Overview What and why is the toolkit? How is it delivered**

Current toolkit contents A (slightly contrived) tour through parts of the toolkit What is the future of the toolkit? What would you like to see in the toolkit?

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**What is the toolkit? A series of linked (web) pages:**

Threads follow the derivation of major idea as a series of linked pages Core threads cover main areas, variants cover specialisations Procedures describe an operation or algorithm provide sufficient information to allow the implementation of the operation Discussions cover issues that may arise during the implementation of a method, or other optional details Alternatives present available options when building a specific part of an emulator (e.g. choosing a covariance function) and provide some guidance for making the selection Examples present how to use the techniques in practice Definitions of a term or a concept Meta any page that does not fall in one of the above categories usually pages about the Toolkit itself

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**What are the main threads?**

ThreadCoreGP - the core model, dealt with by fully Bayesian, Gaussian Process, emulation ThreadCoreBL - the core model, dealt with by Bayes Linear emulation And to come … ThreadVariantMultipleOutputs - variant of the core model in which we emulate more than one output of a simulator ThreadGenericMultipleEmulators – dealing with multiple outputs from more than one emulator ThreadVariantMultipleSimulators - variant of the core model: emulating outputs from more than one related simulator ThreadVariantDynamic - a special case of multiple outputs as timeseries ThreadVariantStochastic - variant of the core model in which the simulator output is random ThreadVariantDerivatives - variant of the core model in which we also model derivatives of outputs

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Example

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**Do I have to read it linearly?**

Pages can be accessed individually or as part of a thread. We will add cross-cutting threads, e.g. on design for computer models

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**How are we creating it? The toolkit is built using a wiki**

All the MUCM team contributes Tony O’Hagan is the editor in chief, Yiannis Andrianakis is managing the overall technology We release sections of the toolkit as they become mature to a web site This allows us control over the quality of the content We plan further enhancement to the presentation More graphical presentation of the structure Ability for users to add comments to pages

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**How to use the toolkit I’ll use a scenario to motivate this.**

A chemical engineer is working on an azoisopropane chemical process simulation. The process involves two key chemicals, which react to produce 39 main chemicals, with 42 reactions possible. Thus the simulator has 39+2*42 = 123 inputs. For now the chemist is mainly interested in a single output, the main target azoisopropane concentration, 1 output! I want to show how the toolkit can help here!

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**What does the chemist want to know?**

There are many chemical reactions, but which are the most important for determining the output variation? This is in essence a sensitivity analysis. Not all the reaction rates and activation energies are perfectly known – many are not directly observable Initial concentrations can be controlled ThreadCoreGP is relevant here.

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**Exploratory analysis, prior judgements**

The chemist expects only a few reactions to be important, and wants to know which these are At present they use local estimates based on simulator Jacobians The model is not too complex – typical evaluation takes a few tens of seconds, depending on target time It is likely that reaction rate parameters within the model could lie in the range 0.5x to 2.0x where x is the specified value

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**ThreadCoreGP: how to emulate**

ThreadCoreGP discusses all the issues that need to be tackled when undertaking emulation in the situation: We are only concerned with one simulator The simulator only produces one output The output is deterministic We do not have observations of the real world We don’t make statements about the real world process We cannot directly observe derivatives of the simulator We’ll explore how we can use ThreadCoreGP

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**What is in ThreadCoreGP?**

Definition of what a Gaussian process is Discussion of the implications of using a Gaussian process Alternatives to the ‘full Bayesian’ approach – Bayes Linear methods Provides technical information and discusses alternatives for: determining active inputs mean functions and covariance functions choice of prior distributions experimental design of simulator runs fitting the emulator using the emulator prediction, uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis

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**DiscGaussianAssumption – what is in there?**

This discusses issues to do with representing beliefs about the simulator in terms of a Gaussian process Why we use a Gaussian process computation and simplicity; other approaches could be entertained When a Gaussian process might be inappropriate outputs constrained in a range (but not practically important if we have a good emulator) What to do if Gaussian process is not appropriate main solution is use transformations e.g. log Also mentions Bayes Linear methods

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**AltMeanFunction – what is in there?**

Discussion of the alternatives for the mean function: mean function should be chosen to represent ‘the general shape of how the analyst expects the simulator output to respond to changes in the inputs’ Typically a linear in parameters regression, with a prior over the parameters – AltGPPriors Other forms possible but there is a price

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**AltCorrelationFunction – what is in there?**

Discussion of the alternatives for choosing the covariance function Gaussian (squared exponential), generalised Gaussian, Matern Role of nuggets Implications of choices Other possible choices

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**OK time for you to take over**

Rather than presenting this I now want to get you to do some work I like volunteers to try and use the toolkit – let’s talk about your simulation problems as see if the toolkit has the answers What problems made you sign up for today I’ll try and find the answers in the toolkit or the experts

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**Toolkit development – the future**

The toolkit is continually developing By the end of MUCM there will be a complete description of most aspects of building and using emulators MUCM2 will add more content, particularly accessible introductions and more examples Have we missed something? Please tell us! Future releases should allow easy commenting

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Summary The toolkit will distil the combined knowledge of the MUCM team (and beyond) We intend it to become the ‘emulation Wikipedia’: An accessible, free community resource which will outlive the project We are releasing it in parts, and will continue to improve it within MUCM2

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