2Chapter 13 Getting Started in the Kitchen Part 2The Management of FoodNote: This chapter covers recipe abbreviations, cooking terms, measuring techniques, yield adjustments, time-work schedules, and simple recipes. This presentation displays the text objective related to each of these topics, followed by information to help students achieve the objective.
3ObjectiveDiscuss: What problems could occur if you did not understand the abbreviations and cooking terms used in a recipe you were preparing?Identify abbreviations and define cooking terms used in recipes.
4AbbreviationsThese abbreviations are often used in recipes to indicate the amounts of ingredients required.AbbreviationMeaningtsp. or t.teaspoonTbsp. or T.tablespoonc. or C.cuppt.pintqt.quartoz.ouncelb. or #poundWhat abbreviations might appear in recipes to indicate cooking times and temperatures?Discuss: What abbreviations are used in recipes that have ingredients measured in metric units?
5Cooking Terms combine peel roll section Discuss: What are three specific terms that describe each of the following: ways ingredients might be combined? ways ingredients might be cut? ways foods might be cooked?rollsection
6ObjectiveDiscuss: Why is it important to measure ingredients accurately when preparing food products?Measure liquid and dry ingredients and fats for use in recipes.
7Measuring Dry Ingredients Spoon ingredient into measuring cup until it is overfilled. (When measuring brown sugar, pack it into the measuring cup with the back of the spoon.)Use a straight-edged spatula to level off any excess.Discuss: What are some examples of ingredients that would be measured by this method? What type of measuring tools should be used to measure dry ingredients? Why? How can you avoid wasting excess ingredients that you level off with the spatula?How would you measure less than 1/4 cup of a dry ingredient?
8Measuring Liquid Ingredients Set a liquid measuring cup on a flat surface.Bend down so the desired measurement marking is at eye level.Slowly pour the ingredient into the measuring cup until it reaches the mark for the desired amount.Discuss: What are some examples of ingredients that would be measured by this method? Why is it important to measure liquid ingredients at eye level?
9Measuring FatsUse a rubber spatula to press fats into a dry measuring cup, making sure to eliminate any air pockets.Overfill the measuring cup.Level it with a straight-edged spatula.Discuss: What are some examples of ingredients that would be measured by this method? What is another method for measuring fats?
10Objective Change the yield of a recipe. Discuss: Why might you want to change the yield of a recipe?Change the yield of a recipe.
11Changing YieldMeasureEquivalent3 teaspoons1 tablespoon2 tablespoons1/8 cup4 tablespoons1/4 cup5 1/3 tablespoons1/3 cup8 tablespoons1/2 cup10 2/3 tablespoons2/3 cup12 tablespoons3/4 cup16 tablespoons1 cup2 cups1 pint4 cups1 quartWhen changing the yield of a recipe, use these measuring equivalents to figure the adjusted amounts of each ingredient before you begin cooking. Write the adjusted amounts on your recipe so you will remember them as you work.Discuss: What are the approximate metric equivalents of the measures listed here? Why is changing the yield of a metric recipe easier than changing the yield of a conventional recipe?
12Apply It!A salsa recipe calls for 3 cups chopped tomatoes, 1 1/2 cups chopped green pepper, 2/3 cup chopped onion, 1 1/2 teaspoons salt, 1/2 teaspoon minced garlic, 1/3 cup vinegar, and 1 teaspoon hot sauce.Discuss: How much of each ingredient would you need if you were halving this recipe to prepare a trial batch?How much of each ingredient would you need if you were doubling this recipe for a party?
13Objective Plan time-work schedules. Discuss: What is the value of having a schedule for completing meal preparation tasks?Plan time-work schedules.
14Preliminary Planning Menu Item Prep. Time Cooking Time Serving Time Total TimeRankChicken casserole20 min.45 min.1 min.66 min.1Green beans10 min.2 min.22 min.21. Set up a food preparation time chart and list menu items in the first column.2. List estimates for the time required to prepare, cook, and serve each food.3. Calculate and list total time required for each item.4. Rank menu items in order of the total time required to prepare them.Discuss: What supplies should you gather to help you write a time-work schedule? What should be listed in the first column of the chart besides menu items? How can you identify preparation tasks for which you need to estimate time in step 2?
15Making a Schedule Time Tasks 4:15Start boiling water. Cut up chicken and broccoli.4:25Start cooking pasta. Mix ingredients for sauce.4:35Assemble casserole and put it in the oven.1. Set up a chart and write the time you plan to begin eating at the bottom of the time column.2. Work backward from your eating time to determine when you need to begin serving.3. Identify the time at which you need to begin cooking each item.4. Group preparation tasks in 5- to 10-minute blocks.Discuss: What does it mean to dovetail tasks? Why is it important to keep your schedule flexible?
16Objective Follow a recipe to prepare a sandwich, snack, or beverage. Discuss: What types of simple recipes have you prepared?Follow a recipe to prepare a sandwich, snack, or beverage.
17Preparing Sandwiches Use a variety of breads and fillings. Use butter, margarine, or mayonnaise to keep filling from soaking into bread.Garnish sandwiches attractively.Keep sandwiches refrigerated until serving time.Serve hot sandwiches hot.Discuss: What are some popular breads and fillings for sandwiches? What types of garnishes might be added to sandwiches? When sandwiches will not be eaten until later, how should they be packed to keep them safe and appealing?photo courtesy of Fleischmann’s Yeast
18Snack Ideas Healthful snack foods to keep on hand include yogurt whole grain crackerscheese slicescut up fresh vegetablesready-to-eat cerealDiscuss: In which of the five main food groups do each of the snack foods listed here belong?How can you use each of these foods to prepare a simple snack recipe?Wheat Foods Council
19Beverage TipsUse fruit juices to make ice cubes and rings to keep cold drinks cold.When brewing coffee, start with fresh, cold water and a clean pot.Remove tea leaves before serving tea to keep it from becoming bitter.When making hot cocoa, combine cocoa with sugar to prevent lumping when the hot water is added.Discuss: When serving punch for a party, how can you keep it from getting “flat”? Why is it important for coffee to be prepared in a clean pot? How is iced tea prepared? What is the difference between hot chocolate and cocoa?photo courtesy of Fleischmann’s Yeast
20Key QuestionNote: Encourage students to use this question to help them review chapter information and apply it to their lives.How can recipe information and basic cooking and planning techniques help you prepare foods for your family?
21Other Questions to Consider Discuss: What other questions did this chapter raise that you would like to explore?Are there any tips for using microwave recipes?How do recipes need to be adjusted when cooking at high altitudes?How can I make a substitution if I do not have a needed ingredient?