Presentation on theme: "S TRUCTURING THE S CHOOL E NVIRONMENT FOR S UCCESS Halifax County August 3, 2010 Heather Reynolds, DPI PBIS Consultant Correy Watkins, Region 3 PBIS Coordinator."— Presentation transcript:
Reduce congestion in high-traffic areas Ensure everyone can see and be seen Devote some display space to student work Make teaching materials and student supplies easily accessible
P HYSICAL E NVIRONMENT C ONSIDERATIONS What type of activities will students typically be doing? What type of student interaction is desired? What arrangements will foster these activities and interactions? Is the arrangement hindering the desired activities and interactions in any way? What changes to the physical environment might improve functionality?
E FFECTIVE I NSTRUCTION Effective instruction increases the likelihood of correct student responses Correct responding is correlated with positive teacher interactions Leading to increased academic achievement of students and positive behavioral exchanges between students and teachers Gunter, Hummel, & Venn, 1998
E STIMATE A CADEMIC D EMANDS Evidence-based instructional practices are utilized Instructors are enthusiastic Directions are clear Instruction is well-paced Curriculum is taught to mastery
W HAT IS THE SINGLE BEST PRACTICE TO REDUCE PROBLEM BEHAVIOR IN THE CLASSROOM ? AN EFFECTIVE ENGAGING EFFECTIVE AND ENGAGING LESSON PLAN!
Students learn appropriate behavior in the same way a child who doesnt know how to read learns to readthrough instruction, practice, feedback, and encouragement.
E STABLISH B EHAVIOR N ORMS Determine & post desired behaviors Teach explicitly to Fluency Provide consistent feedback Create and teach routines based on desired behaviors
D ETERMINE & P OST D ESIRED B EHAVIORS Annoying vs. Deal-Breakers Stop vs. Replace Work Backwards Observable Positively Stated
T EACH E XPLICITLY TO F LUENCY Tell Show Practice Assess Repeat as needed
T WO T YPES OF S OCIAL S KILL D EFICITS Skill deficits (cannot do) Test by providing strong incentive Direct teaching approach Coaching, modeling, behavior rehearsal Performance deficits (will not do) Test for motivation or discrimination deficit Motivation deficit if student performs skill following introduction of motivational strategy. Discrimination deficit if student sometimes performs but is oblivious to social cues or social demands of situation Incentive-based management approach Prompting, cuing, reinforcement Prompted social initiations Home and school rewards Individual and group contingencies
T EACHING B EHAVIOR S KILLS E XAMPLE : F OLLOWING D IRECTIONS /I NSTRUCTIONS Discuss rationale for the critical rule What would happen if you do or do not follow directions? If you follow directions, your parents may see you as more responsible and cooperative which could lead to more privileges. Your teacher will view you as a learner because you follow through. If you dont follow directions, an adult might think you are deliberately misbehaving or ignoring them. Elicit responses from students: when, where & with whom they would use this skill.
T EACHING B EHAVIOR S KILLS E XAMPLE : F OLLOWING D IRECTIONS /I NSTRUCTIONS Teach/describe the skill and skill steps. Look at the person. Acknowledge (verbal or nonverbal). Decide if you need to ask any clarifying questions. Do the task immediately. Check back if appropriate.
T EACHING B EHAVIOR S KILLS E XAMPLE : F OLLOWING D IRECTIONS /I NSTRUCTIONS Model examples and non-examples. Provide an example from your life when you followed directions. Provide more examples than non-examples.
T EACHING B EHAVIOR S KILLS E XAMPLE : F OLLOWING D IRECTIONS /I NSTRUCTIONS Role play / practice with feedback Students role play scenarios elicited from the group Students and teachers observing can provide specific feedback Review and test: Identify a time when you did not follow directions Identify a time when you did follow directions
C RITICAL C OMPONENTS OF B EHAVIOR I NSTRUCTION Teach the skill. Demonstrate the skill. Provide multiple opportunities for practice with feedback. Reinforce and encourage when students demonstrate the skill. TellShow Practice Assess
K EY P OINTS Teach the behavior you want to see Its not what they know, its what they do Behavior can be taught Students need multiple opportunities to practice behavioral skill deficits Teachers need to reinforce students when they demonstrate targeted skills
E STABLISH P ROCEDURES B ASED ON E XPECTATIONS Teach an Attention Signal Develop a Schedule Teach Routines for Repetitive Tasks
T EACH A TTENTION S IGNAL Always use a simple, portable cue Avoid starting instruction until all students are attending Reinforce students who attend immediately Provide specific verbal praise to peers to redirect students Consistency, consistency, consistency!
T HINK, P AIR, S HARE What are some effective attention signals you have used in the past? How could you share with your colleagues? Do you have a school-wide attention signal?
D EVELOP C LASSROOM S CHEDULE Establish predictable schedules illustrate with icons, time, etc. Schedule non-instruction time administration time personal time Evaluate the variety and time for each activity.
D EVELOP A S CHEDULE... D OWN T IME C AUSES P ROBLEMS Time unscheduled in a classroom is an open invitation to disruptive behavior. Scheduled time is one of the basic proactive variables that is under teacher control. 70% of the school day should be scheduled for academic activity.
S AMPLE S CHEDULE 10 MinTeacher directed review of previous concepts 5 MinHomework review 20 MinTeacher directed new concepts 15 MinTeacher directed guided practice 30 MinIndependent work 10 MinTeacher directed guided practice and review
E FFECTIVE R OUTINES : W HY T HEY H ELP M ANAGE B EHAVIOR Support for transition times and basic activities that happen on a regular basis Establish predictability Clear Expectations for Student Behavior Clear Expectations for Adult Behavior Plan, post, and teach the routines you value
E FFECTIVE R OUTINES - R ATIONALE The number one problem in the classroom is not discipline; it is the lack of procedures and routines. A vast majority of the behavior problems in the classroom are caused by the failure of students to follow procedures and routines. -Harry Wong
T EACH R OUTINES Think through and establish procedures for transition times and basic regularly scheduled activities Break down each step necessary in sequence Define what students and teachers do at each step Teach as you would any other behavior Practice, Practice, Practice Reflect: Are procedures working? Why or why not?
E FFECTIVE R OUTINES Use Think-Pair-Share to brainstorm a list of procedures teachers need to teach You have 2 minutes Share your list!
Increase Desired Behaviors Specific Verbal Feedback Positive Interactions Reinforcement Strategies Precorrects Visual Cues Decrease Problem Behavior Active supervision Techniques to Improve Compliance Correct Behavior Errors Consequences
I NCREASE D ESIRED B EHAVIORS : S PECIFIC V ERBAL F EEDBACK Providing praise for correct academic responses and appropriate social behavior lead to: Increases in student correct responses Increases in on task behavior Decreases in disruptive behaviors (Sutherland, 2000)
I NCREASE D ESIRED B EHAVIORS : S PECIFIC V ERBAL F EEDBACK Timely and Accurate Specific and Descriptive Contingent Age-appropriate Given in a Manner that Fits Your Style
I NCREASE D ESIRED B EHAVIORS : P OSITIVE I NTERACTIONS Strive to keep an 4:1 ratio of positive-to-negative statements Each time you have a negative interaction with a student, tell yourself you owe that student positive interactions Identify specific times during the day you will give positive feedback Schedule individual conference time Scan the room searching for appropriate behaviors Engage in frequent positive interactions with all students
T HINK, P AIR AND S HARE Think about what you need to do to increase your positive interactions with students Pair up with another person One person shares Listen for signal The second person shares
I NCREASE D ESIRED B EHAVIORS : R EINFORCEMENT S TRATEGIES Behavior(s) are determined and taught Reinforcement is contingent upon appropriate behavior Be generous with reinforcers at the beginning Group contingencies or individual systems Yes/no bag Compliance matrix Lottery tickets
I NCREASE D ESIRED B EHAVIORS : P RECORRECTS /V ISUAL C UES Function as reminders Opportunities to practice Prompt for expected behavior Especially helpful before teacher anticipates behavior learning errors Visual cues offer opportunity to precorrect nonverbally Visual cues especially helpful for non-readers
I NCREASE D ESIRED B EHAVIORS : P RECORRECT E XAMPLES Remember, before you leave class, collect all your materials, put your papers in the bin, and quietly walk out of the room. Sam, show us how to be respectful and line up quietly for gym.
W HAT SHOULD BE YOUR FIRST STRATEGY TO ADDRESS REPETITIVE STUDENT BEHAVIOR ERRORS ?
D ECREASE P ROBLEM B EHAVIORS : A CTIVE S UPERVISION & P ROXIMITY More than adult presence in vicinity More adults not automatically more effective Adults interacting with students Students less likely to misbehave in close proximity to adults Provides opportunity to nonverbally prevent and/or correct behavior
D ECREASE P ROBLEM B EHAVIORS : T ECHNIQUES TO I MPROVE C OMPLIANCE Avoid a question format Use a quiet voice Make eye contact Give them time Tell them only twice Give one direction at a time Tell students what you want them to do (rather than what you dont) Verbally reinforce compliance
D ECREASE P ROBLEM B EHAVIORS : C ORRECT S TUDENT B EHAVIOR E RRORS Emotion Free response More effective if students have been taught expected behaviors Minimize attention other than to signal an error has occurred Praise for appropriate behavior
D ECREASE P ROBLEM B EHAVIORS : C ORRECT S TUDENT B EHAVIOR E RRORS Signal that an error has occurred What are you doing? Check for understanding of the rules What should you be doing?" Provide an opportunity to practice the skill Show me what that looks like. Provide feedback "That's much better, thank you for showing respect toward others by walking quietly down the hall.
D ECREASE P ROBLEM B EHAVIORS : C ONSEQUENCES Meant to teach Different from punishment Most effective if natural fit with problem behavior Avoid producing desired effect of misbehavior Need to be evaluated for effectiveness; if consequence doesnt change behavior try something else
E VALUATE & A DJUST What data will be collected about behavior? How can you use this to evaluate the system you have implemented? How frequently should you assess? How much time should you give a new intervention?
E FFECTIVE T EACHING P LANS … Are for all teachers Support struggling teachers Boost teachers in a rut Become fluid, living, breathing documents Support reflective, thoughtful, well-planned teaching & use of effective strategies (academic and social) Provide direction for needed PBIS system supports
C OMPONENTS OF A N E FFECTIVE T EACHING P LAN Define classroom rules based on school-wide expectations Outline routines (attention signal, etc) Establish schedule for teaching routines and procedures Decide strategies for encouraging appropriate behavior and discouraging problem behavior Plan a variety of instructional strategies Establish effective classroom environment
P LANNING FOR I MPLEMENTATION Using the Classroom Management Checklist and the Effective Teaching Plan in your handouts, think about how you typically manage your classroom/area and how you plan to implement the structures discussed today.
I have come to the conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom. It is my personal approach that creates the climate. Its my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a childs life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all situations it is my response that influences whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated and a child humanized or de-humanized. Haim Ginott