4 10 Research-Based Principles of Instruction 1.Begin a lesson with a short review of previous learning 2.Present new material in small steps with student practice after each step 3.Ask a large number of questions and check the responses of all students 4.Provide models 5.Guide student practice 6.Check for student understanding 7.Obtain a high success rate 8.Provide scaffolds for difficult tasks 9.Require and monitor independent practice 10.Engage students in weekly and monthly review Feedback ebbs and flows throughout all 10 of the principles of instruction!
5 Four Levels of Feedback TaskIs the activity/task performed correct or incorrect? How well was it performed? ProcessWhat are the strategies necessary to perform the task? Are there other strategies that can be used? Self- Regulation What is the knowledge and level of understanding necessary for the student to know what they are doing (self monitoring, self directing, monitoring the process and activity) SelfPersonal evaluation and affect about the learner
6 When to Use the Different Levels of Feedback Task –Presenting new material to students (novice learner) Process –Some level of proficiency for the activity/task Self Regulation –High level of proficiency for the activity/task
7 Venues for Providing Feedback Whole class Small group Student pairs Individual students –Many teachers wrongfully believe providing feedback takes a lot of time and is to be done while interacting with individual students
8 Frequency of Feedback Study (cont.) Findings: Level18 HS Classes 32 MS Teachers235 peers Task59%51%70% Process25%42%25% Regulation2% 1% Self14%5%4% Table 7.1 of Visible Learning for Teachers (Hattie, 2012) Interesting note about peer to peer feedback: 80% of feedback comes from peers and most of it is wrong!
9 Frequency of Feedback Study (cont.) Important notes about the findings: –The distribution of feedback would have been appropriate if the students were mostly novice learners –Teachers were shown the distribution of feedback and asked if the students were novice learners therefore needing mostly task level feedback –Teachers provided a definitive no to this question and indicated the students were involved in processing and self- regulating
10 Perceptions of Feedback StudentsTeachers Forward-looking (to address where they need to go next) Comments Related to the success criteria of the lesson Criticism Feedback does the following: Clarifies doubts Provides information about the quality of the work Assists in elaborating on ideas Sounds like constructive criticism Sounds like very specific comments Corrections
11 Using Prompts to Determine the Type of Feedback Who uses the prompts?: teacher or students can be taught to use them to provide peer to peer feedback Are all prompts necessary to think through BEFORE providing verbal feedback?: No
12 Prompts for Providing Task Level Feedback Feedback Level Example Prompts TaskDoes his/her answer meet the success criteria? Is his/her answer correct or incorrect? How can he/she elaborate on the answer? What did he/she do well? What is the correct answer? What other information is needed to meet the criteria Table 7.2 of Visible Learning for Teachers (Hattie, 2012)
13 Activity Access the example task-level (corrective) feedback application activities from the book, Explicit Instruction.Access the example task-level (corrective) feedback application activities from the book, Explicit Instruction. Which prompts could have been used by the teacher to shape his/her whole group, task-level feedback?Which prompts could have been used by the teacher to shape his/her whole group, task-level feedback? Use the checklist in the right hand column to assess whether the feedback met the success criteria.Use the checklist in the right hand column to assess whether the feedback met the success criteria.
14 Recall: Important Note About Task Level Feedback It is important to know when to add feedback around the processes the student uses Conditions necessary: –Student has sufficient knowledge of the task to begin to use strategies –Keep the process level feedback simple until the students knowledge increases and their confidence increases
15 Prompts for Providing Process Level Feedback Feedback Level Example Prompts ProcessWhat is wrong and why? What strategies did he/she use? What is the explanation for the correct answer? What other questions can he/she ask about the task? What are the relationships with other parts of the task? What other information is provided in the handout? What is his/her understanding of the concepts/knowledge related to the task? Table 7.2 of Visible Learning for Teachers (Hattie, 2012)
17 Activity As you watch the video clip, analyze the type of feedback provided to students.As you watch the video clip, analyze the type of feedback provided to students. –What was the learning intention for the lesson? –What was the success criteria –What level of feedback was provided? (task, process, self- regulation, self/praise) –How did the feedback tell the teacher how well she was going?
18 Video Example 2:10-2:30 Clear learning intentions Success criteria 3:21-7:21 Teacher and peer to peer process level feedback
Prompts for Providing Self-Regulation Level Feedback Feedback Level Example Prompts Self- regulation How can he/she monitor his/her work? How can he/she carry out self-checking? How can he/she evaluate the information provided? How can he/she reflect on his/her own learning? What did you do to…? What happened when you…? How do you account for…? What justification can be given for…? What further doubts do you have regarding this task? How does this compare to…? What does all this information have in common? What learning goals have you achieved? How have your ideas changed? What can you now teach? Can you now teach another student how to…? Table 7.2 of Visible Learning for Teachers (Hattie, 2012)
21 Recall: Defining Instructional Leadership Examples of this include principals who: Create a learning environment free of disruptions Establish high expectations for teachers and students Develop a system of clear learning objectives Effect sizes:.57 (mean effect)
22 Further Defining Instructional Leadership Five leadership dimensions: 1.Goal setting 2.Ensuring quality teaching 3.Leading teacher learning 4.Strategic resourcing 5.Ensuring a safe and orderly environment Average Effect size:.57 (Hattie, 2009) Robinson, Lloyd and Rowe, 2012
23 Recall: Defining Transformational Leadership Emphasis on culture and climate Works to inspire teachers Attempts to increase teachers sense of commitment and moral purpose Focuses on collaboration for overcoming challenges to reach ambitious goals Average effect size:.09
24 Further Defining Transformational Leadership Thought was energy, common vision and commitment results in the buildings attainment of ambitious goals Key distinction between instructional and transformation is in the focus: –Transformational leaders can over emphasize the relational aspects and under emphasize the focus on evaluating impact of practices, strategies and programs on student outcomes –Leaders feel uncomfortable rocking the boat –They place being liked by their staff ahead of eliminating the status quo
25 Digging deeper into instructional leadership…
26 Unpacking Instructional Leadership for Secondary Leaders At the secondary level, there are two primary forms of instructional leadership: 1.Direct Instructional Leadership 1.Indirect Instructional Leadership The emphasis on academic press or the unrelenting press for the achievement of all students…is the defining factor that can make behaviors instructional leadership (p.4) Bendikson, Robinson and Hattie, 2012
27 Direct Instructional Leadership Encompasses three of the five leadership dimensions: –Goal setting –Ensuring quality teaching –Leading teacher learning Bendikson, Robinson and Hattie, 2012
28 Indirect Instructional Leadership Encompasses the remaining two of the five leadership dimensions: –Strategic resourcing –Ensuring a safe and orderly environment These two leadership dimensions were not as strong in their effect sizes, there are nonetheless very important to establish a host environment where teaching and learning can happen Bendikson, Robinson and Hattie, 2012
Indirect Instructional Leadership: What Counts? Counts Managing resources to support the implementation of practices that have demonstrated impact on student learning Ensures policies and routines and resources support high quality teaching and learning Doesnt Count Managing acts of unsatisfactory status quo like: –Lengthy meetings focused on administrative matters Leadership decisions about resource allocation, teacher appraisal, classroom observations, homework or use of computers in the absence of their impact on quality teaching and learning Bendikson, Robinson and Hattie, 2012
30 Connecting the Talk to the Walk Framing feedback around clear learning intentions and success criteria is critical Observation and feedback tools will increase the likelihood the critical components are observed and the feedback provided will align
31 10 Research-Based Principles of Instruction 1.Begin a lesson with a short review of previous learning 2.Present new material in small steps with student practice after each step 3.Ask a large number of questions and check the responses of all students 4.Provide models 5.Guide student practice 6.Check for student understanding 7.Obtain a high success rate 8.Provide scaffolds for difficult tasks 9.Require and monitor independent practice 10.Engage students in weekly and monthly review
32 Activity Review the packet entitled, Observing Instruction.Review the packet entitled, Observing Instruction. –How are you observing the implementation of high quality instruction? –Would any of the example walk- through forms be useful within your district? –How are you Connecting the walk with the talk?
33 Next Session Digging deeper into walk through observation forms
34 Thank You! Kim St. Martin email@example.com