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**Control and Feedback Introduction Open-loop and Closed-loop Systems**

Chapter 7 Control and Feedback Introduction Open-loop and Closed-loop Systems Automatic Control Systems Feedback Systems Negative Feedback The Effects of Negative Feedback Negative Feedback – A Summary

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7.1 Introduction Earlier we identified control as one of the basic functions performed by many systems often involves regulation or command Invariably, the goal is to determine the value or state of some physical quantity and often to maintain it at that value, despite variations in the system or the environment

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**Open-loop and Closed-loop Systems**

7.2 Open-loop and Closed-loop Systems Simple control is often open-loop user has a goal and selects an input to a system to try to achieve this

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**More sophisticated arrangements are closed-loop**

user inputs the goal to the system

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**Automatic Control Systems**

7.3 Automatic Control Systems Examples of automatic control systems: temperature control using a room heater

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**Examples of automatic control systems:**

Cruise control in a car

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**Examples of automatic control systems:**

Position control in a human limb

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**Examples of automatic control systems:**

Level control in a dam

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7.4 Feedback Systems A generalised feedback system

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**By inspection of diagram we can add values**

or rearranging

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**This the transfer function of the arrangement Terminology:**

Thus This the transfer function of the arrangement Terminology: A is also known as the open-loop gain G is the overall or closed-loop gain

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**Effects of the product AB**

If AB is negative If AB is negative and less than 1, (1 + AB) < 1 In this situation G > A and we have positive feedback If AB is positive If AB is positive then (1 + AB) > 1 In this situation G < A and we have negative feedback If AB is positive and AB >>1 - gain is independent of the gain of the forward path A

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**Negative Feedback Negative feedback can be applied in many ways**

7.5 Negative Feedback Negative feedback can be applied in many ways Xi and Xo could be temperatures, pressures, etc. here we are mainly interested in voltages and currents Particularly important in overcoming variability all active devices suffer from variability their gain and other characteristics vary with temperature and between devices we noted above that using negative feedback we can produce an arrangement where the gain is independent of the gain of the forward path this gives us a way of overcoming problems of variability

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**Consider the following example (Example 7.1 in text)**

We will base our design on our standard feedback arrangement Example: Design an arrangement with a stable voltage gain of 100 using a high-gain active amplifier. Determine the effect on the overall gain of the circuit if the voltage gain of the active amplifier varies from 100,000 to 200,000.

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**We will use our active amplifier for A and a stable feedback arrangement for B**

Since we require an overall gain of 100 so we will use B = 1/100 or 0.01

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**Now consider the gain of the circuit when the gain of the active amplifier A is 100,000**

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**Now consider the gain of the circuit when the gain of the active amplifier A is 200,000**

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**However, it does require that B is stable**

Note that a change in the gain of the active amplifier of 100% causes a change in the overall gain of just 0.05 % Thus the use of negative feedback makes the gain largely independent of the gain of the active amplifier However, it does require that B is stable fortunately, B can be based on stable passive components

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**Implementing the passive feedback path**

to get an overall gain of greater than 1 requires a feedback gain B of less than 1 in the previous example the value of B is 0.01 this can be achieved using a simple potential divider

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Thus we can implement our feedback arrangement using an active amplifier and a passive feedback network to produce a stable amplifier The arrangement on the right has a gain of 100 … … but how do we implement the subtractor?

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A differential amplifier is effectively an active amplifier combined with a subtractor. A common form is the operational amplifier or op-amp The arrangement on the right has a gain of 100.

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In this circuit the gain is determined by the passive components and we do not need to know the gain of the op-amp however, earlier we assumed that AB >> 1 that is, that A >> 1/B that is, open-loop gain >> closed-loop gain therefore, the gain of the circuit must be much less than the gain of the op-amp see Example 7.2 in the course text

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**The Effects of Negative Feedback**

7.6 The Effects of Negative Feedback Effects on Gain negative feedback produces a gain given by there, feedback reduces the gain by a factor of 1 + AB this is the price we pay for the beneficial effects of negative feedback

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**Effects on frequency response**

from earlier lectures we know that all amplifiers have a limited frequency response and bandwidth with feedback we make the overall gain largely independent of the gain of the active amplifier this has the effect of increasing the bandwidth, since the gain of the feedback amplifier remains constant as the gain of the active amplifier falls however, when the open-loop gain is no longer much greater than the closed-loop gain the overall gain falls

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**therefore the bandwidth increases as the gain is reduced with feedback**

in some cases the gain x bandwidth = constant

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**Effects on input and output resistance**

negative feedback can either increase or decrease the input or output resistance depending on how it is used. if the output voltage is fed back this tends to make the output voltage more stable by decreasing the output resistance if the output current is fed back this tends to make the output current more stable by increasing the output resistance if a voltage related to the output is subtracted from the input voltage this increases the input resistance if a current related to the output is subtracted from the input current this decreases the input resistance the factor by which the resistance changes is (1 + AB) we will apply this to op-amps in a later lecture

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**Effects on distortion and noise**

many forms of distortion are caused by a non-linear amplitude response that is, the gain varies with the amplitude of the signal since feedback tends to stabilise the gain it also tends to reduce distortion - often by a factor of (1 + AB) noise produced within an amplifier is also reduced by negative feedback – again by a factor of (1 + AB) note that noise already corrupting the input signal is not reduced in this way – this is amplified along with the signal

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**Negative Feedback – A Summary**

7.7 Negative Feedback – A Summary All negative feedback systems share some properties They tend to maintain their output independent of variations in the forward path or in the environment They require a forward path gain that is greater than that which would be necessary to achieve the required output in the absence of feedback The overall behaviour of the system is determined by the nature of the feedback path Unfortunately, negative feedback does have implications for the stability of circuits – this is discussed in later lectures

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**Key Points Feedback is used in almost all automatic control systems**

Feedback can be either negative or positive If the gain of the forward path is A, the gain of the feedback path is B and the feedback is subtracted from the input then If AB is positive and much greater than 1, then G 1/B Negative feedback can be used to overcome problems of variability within active amplifiers Negative feedback can be used to increase bandwidth, and to improve other circuit characteristics.

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