4sedr42021_0802a.jpgFigure 8.2 Illustrating the application of negative feedback to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in amplifiers.
5sedr42021_0803.jpgFigure 8.3 Illustrating the application of negative feedback to reduce the nonlinear distortion in amplifiers. Curve (a) shows the amplifier transfer characteristic without feedback. Curve (b) shows the characteristic with negative feedback (b = 0.01) applied.
7sedr42021_0805.jpgFigure 8.5 A transistor amplifier with shunt–series feedback. (Biasing not shown.)
8sedr42021_0806.jpgFigure 8.6 An example of the series–series feedback topology. (Biasing not shown.)
9sedr42021_0807a.jpgFigure 8.7 (a) The inverting op-amp configuration redrawn as (b) an example of shunt–shunt feedback.
10sedr42021_0808a.jpgFigure 8.8 The series–shunt feedback amplifier: (a) ideal structure and (b) equivalent circuit.
11sedr42021_0809.jpgFigure 8.9 Measuring the output resistance of the feedback amplifier of Fig. 8.8(a): Rof : Vt/I.
12sedr42021_0810a.jpgFigure Derivation of the A circuit and b circuit for the series–shunt feedback amplifier. (a) Block diagram of a practical series–shunt feedback amplifier. (b) The circuit in (a) with the feedback network represented by its h parameters.
13sedr42021_0810c.jpgFigure (Continued) (c) The circuit in (b) with h21 neglected.
14sedr42021_0811ab.jpgFigure Summary of the rules for finding the A circuit and b for the voltage-mixing voltage-sampling case of Fig. 8.10(a).
15sedr42021_0812a.jpgFigure Circuits for Example 8.1.
18sedr42021_0813a.jpgFigure The series–series feedback amplifier: (a) ideal structure and (b) equivalent circuit.
19sedr42021_0814.jpgFigure Measuring the output resistance Rof of the series–series feedback amplifier.
20sedr42021_0815a.jpgFigure Derivation of the A circuit and the b circuit for series–series feedback amplifiers. (a) A series–series feedback amplifier. (b) The circuit of (a) with the feedback network represented by its z parameters.
21sedr42021_0815c.jpgFigure (Continued) (c) A redrawing of the circuit in (b) with z21 neglected.
22sedr42021_0816ab.jpgFigure Finding the A circuit and b for the voltage-mixing current-sampling (series–series) case.
23sedr42021_0817a.jpgFigure Circuits for Example 8.2.
38sedr42021_0826a.jpgFigure A conceptual feedback loop is broken at XX¢ and a test voltage Vt is applied. The impedance Zt is equal to that previously seen looking to the left of XX¢. The loop gain Ab = –Vr/Vt, where Vr is the returned voltage. As an alternative, Ab can be determined by finding the open-circuit transfer function Toc, as in (c), and the short-circuit transfer function Tsc, as in (d), and combining them as indicated.
39sedr42021_0827a.jpgFigure The loop gain of the feedback loop in (a) is determined in (b) and (c).
40sedr42021_0828.jpgFigure The Nyquist plot of an unstable amplifier.
41sedr42021_0829a.jpgFigure Relationship between pole location and transient response.
42sedr42021_0830a.jpgFigure Effect of feedback on (a) the pole location and (b) the frequency response of an amplifier having a single-pole open-loop response.
43sedr42021_0831.jpgFigure Root-locus diagram for a feedback amplifier whose open-loop transfer function has two real poles.
44sedr42021_0832.jpgFigure Definition of w0 and Q of a pair of complex-conjugate poles.
45sedr42021_0833.jpgFigure Normalized gain of a two-pole feedback amplifier for various values of Q. Note that Q is determined by the loop gain according to Eq. (8.65).
46sedr42021_0834a.jpgFigure Circuits and plot for Example 8.5.
47sedr42021_0835.jpgFigure Root-locus diagram for an amplifier with three poles. The arrows indicate the pole movement as A0b is increased.
49sedr42021_0836.jpgFigure Bode plot for the loop gain Ab illustrating the definitions of the gain and phase margins.
50sedr42021_0837.jpgFigure Stability analysis using Bode plot of |A|.
51sedr42021_0838.jpgFigure Frequency compensation for b = The response labeled A¢ is obtained by introducing an additional pole at fD. The A² response is obtained by moving the original low-frequency pole to f ¢D.
52sedr42021_0839a.jpgFigure (a) Two cascaded gain stages of a multistage amplifier. (b) Equivalent circuit for the interface between the two stages in (a). (c) Same circuit as in (b) but with a compensating capacitor CC added. Note that the analysis here applies equally well to MOS amplifiers.
53sedr42021_0840a.jpgFigure (a) A gain stage in a multistage amplifier with a compensating capacitor connected in the feedback path and (b) an equivalent circuit. Note that although a BJT is shown, the analysis applies equally well to the MOSFET case.
54sedr42021_0841.jpgFigure Circuit of the shunt–series feedback amplifier in Example 8.4.
55sedr42021_0842a.jpgFigure Circuits for simulating (a) the open-circuit voltage transfer function Toc and (b) the short-circuit current transfer function Tsc of the feedback amplifier in Fig for the purpose of computing its loop gain.
56Figure Circuit for simulating the loop gain of the feedback amplifier circuit in Fig using the replica-circuit method.
57sedr42021_0844.jpgFigure (a) Magnitude and (b) phase of the loop gain Ab of the feedback amplifier circuit in Fig