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1 Feedback. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith2 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.1 General structure of the.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Feedback. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith2 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.1 General structure of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Feedback

2 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith2 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.1 General structure of the feedback amplifier. This is a signal-flow diagram, and the quantities x represent either voltage or current signals.

3 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith3 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure E8.1

4 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith4 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.2 Illustrating the application of negative feedback to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in amplifiers.

5 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith5 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.3 Illustrating the application of negative feedback to reduce the nonlinear distortion in amplifiers. Curve (a) shows the amplifier transfer characteristic without feedback. Curve (b) shows the characteristic with negative feedback ( 0.01) applied.

6 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith6 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.4 The four basic feedback topologies: (a) voltage-mixing voltage-sampling (series–shunt) topology; (b) current-mixing current-sampling (shunt–series) topology; (c) voltage-mixing current-sampling (series–series) topology; (d) current-mixing voltage-sampling (shunt–shunt) topology.

7 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith7 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.5 A transistor amplifier with shunt–series feedback. (Biasing not shown.)

8 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith8 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.6 An example of the series–series feedback topology. (Biasing not shown.)

9 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith9 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.7 (a) The inverting op-amp configuration redrawn as (b) an example of shunt–shunt feedback.

10 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith10 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.8 The series–shunt feedback amplifier: (a) ideal structure and (b) equivalent circuit.

11 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith11 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.9 Measuring the output resistance of the feedback amplifier of Fig. 8.8(a): R of : V t /I.

12 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith12 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.10 Derivation of the A circuit and circuit for the series–shunt feedback amplifier. (a) Block diagram of a practical series–shunt feedback amplifier. (b) The circuit in (a) with the feedback network represented by its h parameters.

13 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith13 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.10 (Continued) (c) The circuit in (b) with h 21 neglected.

14 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith14 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.11 Summary of the rules for finding the A circuit and for the voltage-mixing voltage-sampling case of Fig. 8.10(a).

15 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith15 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.12 Circuits for Example 8.1.

16 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith16 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.12 (Continued)

17 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith17 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure E8.5

18 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith18 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.13 The series–series feedback amplifier: (a) ideal structure and (b) equivalent circuit.

19 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith19 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.14 Measuring the output resistance R of of the series–series feedback amplifier.

20 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith20 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.15 Derivation of the A circuit and the circuit for series–series feedback amplifiers. (a) A series–series feedback amplifier. (b) The circuit of (a) with the feedback network represented by its z parameters.

21 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith21 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.15 (Continued) (c) A redrawing of the circuit in (b) with z 21 neglected.

22 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith22 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.16 Finding the A circuit and for the voltage-mixing current-sampling (series–series) case.

23 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith23 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.17 Circuits for Example 8.2.

24 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith24 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.17 (Continued)

25 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith25 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.17 (Continued).

26 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith26 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.18 Ideal structure for the shunt–shunt feedback amplifier.

27 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith27 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.19 Block diagram for a practical shunt–shunt feedback amplifier.

28 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith28 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.20 Finding the A circuit and for the current-mixing voltage-sampling (shunt–shunt) feedback amplifier in Fig

29 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith29 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.21 Circuits for Example 8.3.

30 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith30 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.21 (Continued)

31 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith31 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.22 Ideal structure for the shunt–series feedback amplifier.

32 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith32 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.23 Block diagram for a practical shunt–series feedback amplifier.

33 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith33 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.24 Finding the A circuit and for the current-mixing current-sampling (shunt–series) feedback amplifier of Fig

34 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith34 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.25 Circuits for Example 8.4.

35 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith35 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.25 (Continued)

36 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith36 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.25 (Continued)

37 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith37 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure E8.7

38 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith38 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.26 A conceptual feedback loop is broken at XX and a test voltage V t is applied. The impedance Z t is equal to that previously seen looking to the left of XX. The loop gain A = –V r /V t, where V r is the returned voltage. As an alternative, A can be determined by finding the open-circuit transfer function T oc, as in (c), and the short-circuit transfer function T sc, as in (d), and combining them as indicated.

39 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith39 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.27 The loop gain of the feedback loop in (a) is determined in (b) and (c).

40 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith40 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.28 The Nyquist plot of an unstable amplifier.

41 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith41 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.29 Relationship between pole location and transient response.

42 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith42 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.30 Effect of feedback on (a) the pole location and (b) the frequency response of an amplifier having a single-pole open-loop response.

43 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith43 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.31 Root-locus diagram for a feedback amplifier whose open-loop transfer function has two real poles.

44 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith44 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.32 Definition of 0 and Q of a pair of complex-conjugate poles.

45 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith45 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.33 Normalized gain of a two-pole feedback amplifier for various values of Q. Note that Q is determined by the loop gain according to Eq. (8.65).

46 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith46 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.34 Circuits and plot for Example 8.5.

47 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith47 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.35 Root-locus diagram for an amplifier with three poles. The arrows indicate the pole movement as A 0 is increased.

48 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith48 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure E8.13

49 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith49 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.36 Bode plot for the loop gain A illustrating the definitions of the gain and phase margins.

50 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith50 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.37 Stability analysis using Bode plot of |A|.

51 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith51 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.38 Frequency compensation for = The response labeled A is obtained by introducing an additional pole at f D. The A response is obtained by moving the original low-frequency pole to f D.

52 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith52 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.39 (a) Two cascaded gain stages of a multistage amplifier. (b) Equivalent circuit for the interface between the two stages in (a). (c) Same circuit as in (b) but with a compensating capacitor C C added. Note that the analysis here applies equally well to MOS amplifiers.

53 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith53 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.40 (a) A gain stage in a multistage amplifier with a compensating capacitor connected in the feedback path and (b) an equivalent circuit. Note that although a BJT is shown, the analysis applies equally well to the MOSFET case.

54 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith54 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.41 Circuit of the shunt–series feedback amplifier in Example 8.4.

55 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith55 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.42 Circuits for simulating (a) the open-circuit voltage transfer function T oc and (b) the short-circuit current transfer function T sc of the feedback amplifier in Fig for the purpose of computing its loop gain.

56 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith56 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.43 Circuit for simulating the loop gain of the feedback amplifier circuit in Fig using the replica-circuit method.

57 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith57 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure 8.44 (a) Magnitude and (b) phase of the loop gain A of the feedback amplifier circuit in Fig

58 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith58 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.4

59 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith59 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.19

60 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith60 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.26

61 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith61 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.30

62 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith62 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.32

63 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith63 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.33

64 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith64 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.34

65 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith65 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.35

66 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith66 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.38

67 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith67 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.39

68 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith68 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.40

69 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith69 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.42

70 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith70 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.44

71 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith71 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.46

72 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith72 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.48

73 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith73 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.51

74 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith74 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.52

75 Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith75 Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Figure P8.81


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