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Lessons Learnt from Past Disaster David Evans Chief Technical Advisor

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1 Lessons Learnt from Past Disaster David Evans Chief Technical Advisor
UN-HABITAT Lessons Learnt from Past Disaster David Evans Chief Technical Advisor Sri Lanka

2 Asian Tsunami: Indonesia; Sri Lanka; Thailand; India; etc USA: Katrina
The last ten disasters up to Haiti (not comprehensive list)…… India: Gujarat Iran: Bam Asian Tsunami: Indonesia; Sri Lanka; Thailand; India; etc USA: Katrina Pakistan: 30,000 sq km of destruction/inhospitable terrain Indonesia: Jogyakarta Myanmar (Burma): Nargis China: Sichuan Italy: L’Aquilar Haiti (Chili) How quickly we start to forget….. First photos

3 Pakistan


5 Pakistan

6 Contractor built houses that nobody wants (roof?)

7 Integrate housing + drainage/WASH

8 New urban apartments Sri Lanka

9 Home Owner Driven houses Sri Lanka: UN-HABITAT/IFRC

10 International Response Sri Lanka US$10,000 per Family

11 International Response Myanmar US$23 per family (thatch repair)

12 Myanmar One Year after! 26th March 2009

13 Tin sheets (‘Flying razor blades’) waiting to be missiles in the first storm

14 HOW TO GET INTO TROUBLE Not listening to the affected people
Not knowing the right things to do Lacking experience Underestimating technical difficulty Confusion over who has Authority/Responsibility Not getting or developing clear statements of requirements (How many, where?) Too many changes in personnel in Governmnet ‘Project Managementteam and Ad Hoc institutions

15 Things to know Consultation with families. Bottom up
Strong committed engagement from government essential to coordination mechanism, particularly around data collection and enforcement of standards. Shelter Cluster should be chaired by government and supported by co-chairs made up of a UN-Agency and a NGO (continuity ensured between UN and NGO). Strong coordination at hub or township level required. The ‘Centre’ must be responsive to the issues raised from the hubs. Danger that the centre just ‘takes’ and does not ‘give’.

16 Unambiguous shelter standards are required
Unambiguous shelter standards are required. There should be no confusion between emergency standards and ER Shelter standards Compliance with standards, agreed by the Shelter Cluster Technical Working Group, is essential. Donors have influence over their implementing partners. Shelter Coordinator should brief donors to ensure that donors insist on compliance. Donors should be aware that shelter coordination requires funding for approximately two years after a major disaster to ensure best practices are followed and value for money is achieved.

17 Shelter provision is one of the most effective direct and indirect livelihood generators and shelter provision should feature in donor livelihoods strategies. There is no ‘one-fit’ shelter solution. Cash grants, materials provision, full construction are all valid initiatives. However, using large contractors has globally and locally resulted in less consultation, less engagement of affected families and more expensive construction. Focus on funding must be maintained through the transition from Humanitarian response to Early Recovery. The transition is a ‘danger period’ for loss of focus and momentum and once lost, it may not be possible to regain.

18 There is a clear need for Public Information campaigns to explain eligibility. This is essential to avoid frustration, jealousy and negative rumours spreading which can result in equity related social conflict. Grievance/Dispute mechanism required Policy uncertainty = Loss of momentum NGOs and Donors driven by large budgets. Not good programmatic sense. Beware, the relationship can quickly deteriorate! Absence of integrated planning and land allocation led to almost 20% non-occupation of contractor built Promote low-cost insurance

19 Training artisans essential: invest in training
Last slide Reconstruction takes time. Not just about money more about ‘absorbative’ capacity Disaster as Opportunity: Design-out Vulnerability and Design-in Sustainability Local Solutions and Foreign Architects -Not ‘listening’= Inappropriate design Training artisans essential: invest in training National policy issues need to be developed quickly and consultatively Provide what people need, not what your agency has to offer! Get people out of camps ASAP . Reduce dependency increase self –help/sustainability HLP/ Land Titles: mechanism to resolve disputes/blockages Owner Driven Versus Contractor driven: Speed; Cost; Quality; Satisfaction levels Learn from past: TEC and Clinton NGO Initiative - READ(at least the exec summaries)!!! End

20 Thank You David Evans UN-HABITAT Tel: June 4th 2010

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